Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal <p>The Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal (IR<span style="color: #ff0000;">C</span>MJ) is an international, open access, peer-reviewed, monthly, and ISI- Journal, affiliated to&nbsp;<strong>Iranian Hospital- Dubai</strong>, publishes original scientific studies in English that have direct clinical significance on&nbsp;<span style="color: #0033ff;">Basic Science, Clinical Medicine, Humanitarian Assistance, Trauma, and Disaster Management</span>.&nbsp;The journal strives to strengthen connections between research and practice, so enhancing professional development and improving practice within the field of medicine. Original papers submitted to this journal which do not adhere to the Instructions for Authors will be returned for appropriate revision to be in line with the Instructions for Authors. They may then be re-submitted.</p> ZamenPub en-US Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2074-1804 Role of Social Media in Earthquake: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Social networks can perform a peculiar role in people's communication in the case of crisis and disaster. These media are interactive, digital, or mobile-based tools. Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess the role of social media in earthquakes.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this current systematic review, a query was conducted on such databases as Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane for articles in English language, based on the required criteria from 2000 to 2019 regarding the role of social media in disaster. As a result, 13,924 studies were retrieved, among which 3,963 were deleted due to duplication. Finally, among 244 selected articles, 19 full-text articles were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> In the present research, 19 studies were thoroughly reviewed. The findings were assigned to four main categories (identification, notification, requests, as well as storage and retrieval of information) with 12 sub-topics. Most of the main topics and subsets were as follows: medical and food needs, information about the accident, as well as medical and relief services, efforts to save lives, the amount of damage, problems and limitations, post-crisis measures, such as keeping calm, reducing anxiety, avoiding high-risk areas, asking for financial assistance, as well as using the information to provide relief and map the affected areas and evacuation centers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering the behavior of people in different geographical locations in the earthquake crisis, it seems that the case study of how to use social media in disaster management carries <strong>profound</strong> implications for modeling and localizing the cases in related disaster management institutions of many different countries, such as Iran.</p> Mohammadreza Amiresmaili Farzaneh Zolala Mahmood Nekoei-Moghadam Siavash Salavatian Mohammadreza Chashmyazdan Ahmad Soltani jaber savabi Copyright (c) 2021 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 23 5 Correlation between stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the prognosis of transient ischemic attack <p><strong>Background</strong>: Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) (1) is a neurological dysfunction of transient cerebrovascular ischemia, which is more common in clinical practice. The risk of further progression to ischemic stroke after a higher TIA can be used as&nbsp;a strong early warning signal of cerebral infarction.</p> <p>Objectives: To explore the correlation between stromal cell-derived factor 1&nbsp;(SDF-1) and the prognosis of TIA.&nbsp;</p> <p>Methods: A number of 65 patients with TIA were collected, the&nbsp;ABCD2&nbsp;clinical risk prediction&nbsp;score&nbsp;was implemented, relevant tests and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, and the&nbsp;SDF-1 was recorded in serum levels. End-point events were selected in patients after cerebral infarction in the short term. The statistical analysis method was used to evaluate TIA short-term development for the occurrence of cerebral infarction after risk, the severity of serum level of SDF-1, and infarction.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the results, the high-risk group, middle-risk group, and low-risk group had statistically significant differences in serum SDF-1 levels (F=3.820; P&lt;0.05).&nbsp; Correlation analysis demonstrated that ABCD2 score was positively correlated with serum SDF-1 (r=0.349; P&lt;0.05).&nbsp; End-point events were included in the occurrence group and not included in the non-occurrence group. The SDF-1 level of the occurrence group was significantly higher than that of the non-occurrence group.&nbsp; Based on the cranial MRI results as the gold standard, the areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) drawn based on the SDF-1, ABCD2 score, SDF-1 combined with the ABCD2 score, and the occurrence of end-point events were obtained at 0.717, 0.697, and 0.762, respectively.&nbsp; The sensitivity and specificity of SDF-1 were reported as 77.8% and 68.1%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ABCD2 score were 83.3% and 48.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of SDF-1 combined with the ABCD2 score were 72.2% and 76.6%, respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As evidenced by the obtained results, SDF-1 is associated with ABCD2 score risk classification. Patients with high levels of SDF-1 combined with the ABCD2 score have a higher risk of cerebral infarction.&nbsp; Elevated SDF-1 levels may indicate that TIA patients have a poor short-term prognosis and have a certain predictive value for the diagnosis of the risk of ischemic stroke in the short term.</p> Mingjie Liu Jing Xie Xinxin Zheng Mengmeng Wang Guanglong Chen Tao Wang Yi Lu Copyright (c) 2021 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 23 5 Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients <p><strong>Background</strong>: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe&nbsp;acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2&nbsp;(SARS-CoV-2) has a variety of symptoms and laboratory and radiologic features whose identification can help diagnose and manage patients with COVID-19 more effectively.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of patients with COVID-19, compare clinical features of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with those of non-ICU admitted patients, and define mortality risk factors for this disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 781 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Rasool Akram Medical Complex, Tehran, Iran, from February to May 2020. Patients’ epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory findings were collected. Routine blood tests included complete blood count, coagulation profile, and serum biochemical tests. Confirmed infection was defined as positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to SARS-CoV-2 in their nasopharyngeal specimens or typical clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of COVID-19 infection altogether. All data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 21).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In this study, the majority of patients were male (n=470, 60.2%) and the remainder were female. The median age of the patients was 64 years. Hypertension (31.8%) and tuberculosis (1.4%) were the most common and the least common &nbsp;underlying condition among the patients, respectively. Moreover, cough and seizure were the most common (75.7%) and the least common (2.4%) symptoms in patients. The history of diabetes mellitus, the presence of dyspnea, loss of taste, and the occurrence of seizure were associated with a higher risk of ICU admission. On the other hand, advanced age, positive PCR, presence of dyspnea, myalgia, loss of taste, and elevated liver enzymes, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were associated with a higher risk of mortality. Based on the results, smoking had a preventive effect on mortality (OR=0.292, P=0.048); however, it had no significant effect on ICU admission.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: According to the obtained results, positive PCR and initial symptoms of dyspnea and myalgia were associated with increased odds of mortality by two times. In addition, elevated alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a higher rate of mortality. ICU admission was the main variable to increase the odds of mortality. Eventually, smoking might play a protective role against COVID-19 mortality.</p> Taghi Riahi Sima Shokri Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz Karim Hemati Seyed Hamzeh Mousavie Amir Baghestani Ali Khazaeian Babak Hassanlouei Copyright (c) 2021 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 23 5 Effect of cow colostrum, mare milk, and human milk on the viability of lung healthy and cancer cell lines <p>This study investigated the effects of lyophilized mare milk, human milk, and cow colostrum on both human lung cancer cell lines, called A549, and healthy lung cell lines, called MRC5. Mare milk, human milk, and cow colostrum varieties were applied to 6 replicates in both cell lines with lyophilized milk concentrations ranging from 50-3,200 ppm. The cell viability was monitored by optic microscopy and determined by the MTT test. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze data. The results of this study indicated that the most effective milk type on reducing the A549 lung cancer cell line was human milk, followed by mare milk; however, cow colostrum showed little effect. It was observed that human milk and mare milk had anti-proliferative effects on lung cancer cell line at concentrations which were non-toxic to healthy lung cell line.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ertugrul Osman Bursalioglu Copyright (c) 2021 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 23 5