Background: Cancer is a leading cause of death in the 21st century. Sinonasal malignancies comprise less than 0.5% of all cancers. There are limited epidemiologic studies on them.
Objectives: The current study aimed to estimate the patient demographics, as well as the incidence rates of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (NC-PNS) cancers, using a population based registry.
Methods: The current study was a descriptive cohort using the Iranian national population based cancer registry (INPCR) data in 2016. The incidence rate of NC-PNS cancer and its distribution considering age, gender, geographical location and histopathology were determined.
Results: A total of 258 cases (62.4 % males) were included in the study. Age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of NC-PNS cancer was 0.36 per 100,000 population. ASIR had the highest value in the 7th, 8th, and 6th decades of life, in descending order. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common histopathologic subtype (23.64%). The most frequent non-epithelial cancer were hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies (12.40%). The most prevalent site of involvement was the nasal cavity (43.02%), followed by the maxillary sinus (24.81%). The geographical distribution of NC-PNS cancer did not follow any particular pattern. The highest crude incidences were detected in Chahar-Mahal-Bakhtiari, Kerman, and West Azarbaijan in decreasing order.
Conclusion: As evidenced by the obtained results, NC-PNS cancers are rare malignancies. Men in their fifties and older are at a higher risk of involvement. Epithelial cancers are more prevalent, among which SCC is the most common histopathologic subtype.
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