Background: Airway control problems are among the most prevalent causes of anesthesia-related mortality and morbidity. Some devices provide patients with adequate oxygen supply and ventilation during surgery by creating a safe airway in anesthetized patients. One of these devices is the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). The compression and painful stimuli following the LMA cuff inflation can lead to hemodynamic changes. Diltiazem gel is used in the control and treatment of hypertension (HTN) and heart arrhythmia and is absorbed through the tracheal mucosa.
Objectives: By assuming that diltiazem gel is superior to other drugs used to prevent arrhythmias and hemodynamic changes during surgery, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of LMA impregnation with diltiazem gel, compared to lubricant gel.
Methods: This study was conducted as a double-blind, randomized clinical trial on 80 participants with HTN who were candidates for phacoemulsification (phaco) surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. The participants were assigned to an intervention (LMA impregnated with diltiazem gel) and a control group (LMA impregnated with lubricant gel) through the block random method in the form of 40 blocks of 2 using a random-numbers table. Hemodynamic changes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) were measured before, immediately after, 5 min, and 15 min after intubation, during surgery every 15 min, upon entering the recovery unit, and 15 and 30 min after entering the recovery unit.
Results: The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the intervention group showed a significant decrease, compared to that in the control group. A significant difference was also observed in the mean heart rate difference between the two study groups, but only at the beginning of the study (P<0.05). Additionally, according to the results of repeated measures analysis of variance, the mean of the measured variables showed a significant difference at different measurement times in the intervention group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The findings supported the effectiveness of diltiazem gel in reducing blood pressure, especially in the final stages of surgery, decreasing the number of premature ventricular contractions, and controlling normal breathing. Therefore, specialists and surgeons can use diltiazem gel to control the hemodynamic status of patients.
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