Background: The correct use of face masks is one of the most effective ways to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 and other respiratory infections.
Objectives: The present study aimed to develop a valid and reliable measure to assess attitudes and behaviors related to face mask use in social settings.
Methods: This methodological study was conducted online between July 23, 2021, and September 24, 2021. The inclusion criteria entailed an age range of ≥18 years, literacy in Turkish, use of face masks, and willingness to participate in the study. The participants of the study included 489 cases who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected using a sociodemographic information form and the Mask Use Scale. The data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, dependent-samples t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, and Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficients.
Results: Based on the results, 36 items of the Mask Use Scale had positive and significant item-total correlation coefficients (P<0.001). Mean scores in the test and retest demonstrated no significant difference (P>0.05). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .76 for the mask use subscale, .77 for the hygiene subscale, .78 for the cloth mask subscale, .77 for the requirement subscale, .80 for the mask selection subscale, and .93 for the entire scale.
Conclusion: As evidenced by the obtained results, the Mask Use Scale is a valid and reliable tool and can be used to determine adults' attitudes and behavior related to the use of face masks in social settings.
Ong CWM, Migliori GB, Raviglione M, MacGregor-Skinner G, Sotgiu G, Alffenaar JW, et al. Epidemic and pandemic viral infections: Impact on tuberculosis and the lung. Eur Respir J. 2020;56:1-26. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01727-2020. [PubMed: 32586885].
Zhou L, Ayeh SK, Chidambaram V, Karakousis PC. Modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and evidence for preventive behavioral interventions. BMC Infect Dis. 2021;21(1):2-9. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06222-4.
Shi Y, Wang G, Cai WP, Deng JW, Zheng L, Zhu HH, et al. An overview of COVID-19. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B. 2020;21(5):343-60. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B2000083. [PubMed: 32425000].
Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, et al. Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403-16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. [PubMed: 33378609].
Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lancet. 2020;395(10242):1973–87. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9. [PubMed: 32497510].
Lam SC, Chong ACY, Chung JYS, Lam MY, Chan LM, Shum CY, et al. Methodological study on the evaluation of face mask use scale among Public Adult: Cross-Language and Psychometric. Korean J Adult Nurs. 2020;32(1):45-56. doi: 10.7475/kjan.2020.32.1.46.
Ewing ET. Flu masks failed in 1918, but we need them
now. Health Affairs Forefront. Available at: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/forefront.20200508.769108/full/.
Matuschek C, Moll F, Fangerau H, Fischer JC, Zanker K, van Griensven M, et al. The history and value of face masks. Eur J Med Res. 2020;25(1):2-6. doi: 10.1186/s40001-020-00423-4. [PubMed: 32576263].
Global Times. The evolution of face masks. 2020 February. Available from: https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1179358.shtml.
Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tüfekçi Z, Zdimal V, van der Westhuizen HM, et al. An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2021;118(4):e2014564118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2014564118. [PubMed: 33431650].
Cheng VCC, Wong SC, Chuang VWM, So SYC, Chen JHK, Sridhar S, et al. The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control ofcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. J Infect. 2020;81(1):107-114. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.024. [PubMed: 32335167].
WHO. Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks. 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/when-and-how-to-use-masks.
AL Naam YA, Elsafi SH, Alkharraz ZS, Alfahad OA, Al-Jubran KM, Al Zahrani EM. Community practice of using face masks forthe prevention of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. PLoS One. 2021;16(2):1-12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247313.
Meo SA, Alqahtani SA, Aljedaie GM, Binmeather FS, AlRasheed RA, Albarrak RM. Face masks use and its role in restraining the spread of COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia: Knowledge, attitude, and practices based cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2022;9:1-8. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.818520. [PubMed: 35141197].
Yimenu DK, Jejaw A, Haylu E, Kassahun S, Kifle ZD. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards face-mask use amid the Coronavirus 2019 Pandemic among public transport drivers in Gondar Town, a cross-sectional study. Inquiry. 2022;59:1–19. doi: 10.1177/00469580221096285.
Ayed IIA, Khalil R, Adam I, Al-Wutayd O. Face mask practice and technique during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A nonrepresentative cross-sectional study in Sudan. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2022;16:1163–76. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S366099. [PubMed: 35535254].
Ireri AM, Mwangi CN, Arhin V, Oigo M, Mugo S, Munanu RN. Development and initial validation of the attitudes toward face mask use scale (ATFMUS). Heliyon. 2022;8(12):e12349. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12349. [PubMed: 36619417].
Taylor S, Asmundson GJG. Negative attitudes about face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic: The dual importance of perceived ineffectiveness and psychological reactance. PLoS One. 2021;16(2):1-15. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246317. [PubMed: 33596207].
Howard MC. Understanding face mask use to prevent coronavirus and other illnesses: Development of a multidimensional face mask perceptions scale. Br J Health Psychol. 2020;25(4):912-24. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12453. [PubMed: 32588949].
Akgül A, Çevik O. Statistical analysis techniques. Ankara: Emek Ofset; 2003.
Öner N. Psychological testing of samples used in Turkey: A reference source. 2nd ed. İstanbul: Bogaziçi University Printing House; 2006.
Hung YW. A study of barriers to the wearing of face masks by adults in the US to prevent the spread of influenza. [Master's thesis]. Arizona State University; 2018.
Ho HSW. Use of face masks in a primary care outpatient
setting in Hong Kong: Knowledge, attitudes and practices. Public Health. 2012;126(12):1001-6. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2012.09.010. [PubMed: 23153561].
Lee LY, Lam EP, Chan C, Chan S, Chiu M, Chong W, et al. Practice and technique of using face mask amongst adults in the community: a cross-sectional descriptive study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1-11. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09087-5. [PubMed: 32546228].
Özer A, Hacımustafaoğlu M. What should be the mask types, features and standards recommended for health institutions and for the general population during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Clinical Clues. 2020;14(3):150-54. doi: 10.5578/ced.202054.
Sikakulya FK, Ssebuufu R, Mambo SB, Plus T, Kabanyoro A, Kamahoro E, Mulumba Y, et al. Use of face masks to limit the spread of the COVID-19 among western Ugandans: Knowledge, attitude and practices. PLoS One. 2021;16(3):e0248706. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248706. [PubMed: 33760882].
Tadesse T, Tesfaye T, Alemu T, Haileselassie W. Healthcare worker's knowledge, attitude, and practice of proper face mask utilization, and associated factors in police health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2020;13:1203-13. doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S277133. [PubMed: 33116565].
Tam VCW, Tam SY, Khaw ML, Chan CPL, Lee SWY. Behavioural insights and attitudes on community masking during the initial spread of COVID-19 in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J. 2021;27(2):106-12. doi: 10.12809/hkmj209015. [PubMed: 33762440].
TMMDA. Guide for regulation of medical face mask. 2020. Available from: https://titck.gov.tr/storage/Archive/2021/ %20contentFile/20.%20T%C4%B1bbi%20y%C3%BCz%20maskeleri%20i%C3%A7in%20d%C3%BCzenleyici%20gerekliliklere%20dair%20rehber_tr_6b942b34-5155-4bfc-afd1-a012b8d86614.pdf.
Bahadır-Ünal Z, Gökçen Ö. Research of surgial masks and use of masks in children. TJFDM. 2021;3(1):11-24.
WHO. Mask use in the context of COVID-19. 2020. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/337199.
WHO. Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19. 2021. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/ handle/10665/332293/WHO-2019-nCov-IPC_Masks-2020.4-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
Esin MN. Data collection methods and tools, & reliability and validity of data collection tools.Research in nursing: process, practice and critique. İstanbul: Nobel Medical Bookstores; 2014.
Gözüm S, Aksayan S. Guideline for intercultural scale adaptation II: Psychometric characteristics and intercultural comparison. HEMAR-GE. 2002;4(2):9-20.
Buyukozturk S. Handbook of data analysis for social sciences. Ankara; Pegem Academy Pub; 2016.
Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press; 2016.
Erefe I. Nature of data collection tools. Research principles, processes and methods in nursing, nursing research and development association publications. Ankara: Odak Ofset; 2004.