Background: Dyslipidemia, a genetic and multifactorial disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, is defined by elevations in levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C), triglyceride, or some combination thereof, as well as lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents in the Yazd Greater Area, Yazd, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the national project implemented in Yazd Greater Area, Yazd, Iran. The sampling was performed using a multi-stage cluster sampling method on three age groups of girls and boys (6-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years old). Out of the total 1,035 children and adolescents who participated in this study, only 784 participants remained in the study until the end. Data collection was performed using lifestyle questionnaires including Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version.
Results: The prevalence of high triglyceride was estimated at 1.4% and 4.2% in 6-9 and 10-18 years old children and adolescents, respectively. The prevalence of high cholesterol, LDL, and HDL was 3.2%, 3.2%, and 25.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in the total population of children and adolescents in terms of demographic variables was 64.6% and 57.3% in boys and girls, respectively (P=0.038). Gender and increase in body mass index were significantly associated with dyslipidemia with OR=1.35; 95% CI: 1.01-1.81 and OR=13.781; 95% CI: 3.78- 46.43, respectively. However, after adjustment for other factors, only an increase in BMI was significantly associated with dyslipidemia (OR=16.08; 95% CI: 4.49-57.59).
Conclusions: Overweight and obese adolescents had a higher concentration of serum blood triglycerides, compared to other adolescents. Weight control, lifestyle modification, and diet are three ways to reduce lipid disorders in adolescents.
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