Hazard Assessment of Iran Provinces based on the Health Ministry Tool in 2019


Public training

How to Cite

Soltani, A., Alaedini, F., Shamspour, N., & Ahmadi Marzaleh, M. (2021). Hazard Assessment of Iran Provinces based on the Health Ministry Tool in 2019 . Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.32592/ircmj.2021.23.1.204


Background: Iran is a disaster-prone country, which is subjected to various hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, fire, and traffic accidents.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the priority and risk of various hazards threatening the public in different provinces of Iran in 2019.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from March to September 2019 using data related to 31 provinces of Iran. The assessment was conducted using hazard assessment tools presented by the Iranian Ministry of Health. A total of 70 natural, man-made, and complex hazards were analyzed in this study. The data were collected by holding sessions and conducting individual and group interviews with the officials of provincial Red Crescent Societies as well as reviewing the databases of the Red Crescent Society and the Disaster Management Organization. The participants consisted of operation analysis experts.

Results: In terms of the frequency of occurrence, earthquake (12: 38.7%), traffic accidents (7: 22.6%), and flood (6: 19.4%) obtained the highest priority in different provinces in descending order. Furthermore, regarding the total scores of hazards in all provinces, flood (78.6), earthquake (75.3), traffic accidents (71.9), drought (60.1), and building collapse (58.1) had the highest priority in descending order.

Conclusion: Given the extreme vulnerability of Iran to various disasters, authorities should develop strategic plans to reduce the risks associated with high-priority disasters. In addition, crisis and disaster management policymakers must develop separate detailed disaster response plans for each hazard in order to increase the preparedness at organizational and community levels. Public training can also raise awareness among the public and help people cope better with various hazards.




  1. Pan American Health Organization. Natural disasters: protecting the public's health. Washington, D.C: Pan American Health Organization; 2000.
  2. Guha-Sapir D, Vos F, Below R, Ponserre S. Annual disaster statistical review 2011: the numbers and trends. Brussels, Belgium: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED); 2012.
  3. Sanderson D, Sharma A. World disasters report 2016. Resilience: saving lives today, investing for tomorrow. Geneva, Switzerland: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; 2016.
  4. Ardalan A, Mowafi H, Homa Yousefi K. Impacts of natural hazards on primary health care facilities of Iran: a 10-year retrospective survey. PLoS Curr. 2013;5:ecurrents.dis.ccdbd870f5d1697e4edee5eda12c5ae6. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.ccdbd870f5d1697e4edee5eda12c5ae6. [PubMed: 23863871].
  5. Azami-Aghdash S, Gorji HA, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Shabaninejad H. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Iran: based on the data from Disaster Management Information System (DMIS) of the Iranian Red Crescent. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2017;19(1):e38743. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.38743.
  6. Dashtpagerdi MM, Kousari MR, Vagharfard H, Ghonchepour D, Hosseini ME, Ahani H. An investigation of drought magnitude trend during 1975–2005 in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Environ Earth Sci. 2015;73(3):1231-44. doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3477-1.
  7. Izadkhah Y, Amini Hosseini K. An evaluation of disaster preparedness in four major earthquakes in Iran. J Seismol Earthquake Eng. 2010;12(1-2):61-75.
  8. Jahanbakhsh M, Tavakoli N, Hadadpour A. Designing disaster victims'medical record; a step toward crisis management. Health Inform Manag. 2011;7(4):400-9.
  9. Ardalan A, Kandi M, Osooli M, Shamseddini A. Profile of natural hazards in IR Iran, 1970-2010. Tehran, Iran: National Institute of Health Research; 2012.
  10. Ager A, Baillie Smith M, Barbelet V, Carpenter S, Carter W, Cartwright A, et al. World disasters report: focus on local actors, the key to humanitarian effectiveness. Geneva, Switzerland: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; 2015.
  11. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015: building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Extract from the final report of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (A/CONF 206/6). Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction; 2005.
  12. Hospitals Safe From Disasters. 2009 world disaster reduction campaign. Reduce risk, protect health facilities, save lives. Californi: United Nations; 2009.
  13. Khankeh H. Collection of national tools for risk assessment and indicators of specialized health capability in accidents and disasters (Hazard Map). Tehran, Iran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2015.
  14. Hayes M, Svoboda M, Wall N, Widhalm M. The Lincoln declaration on drought indices: universal meteorological drought index recommended. Bull Am Meteoroll Soc. 2011;92(4):485-8. doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS3103.1.
  15. Cook BI, Smerdon JE, Seager R, Cook ER. Pan-continental droughts in North America over the last millennium. J Climate. 2014;27(1):383-97. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00100.1.
  16. Benfield A. Thailand floods event recap report. Chicago: Aon Benfield Analytics; 2011.
  17. Ardalan A, Keleh MK, Saberinia A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Miadfar J, et al. 2015 estimation of hospitals safety from disasters in IR Iran: the results from the assessment of 421 hospitals. PloS One. 2016;11(9):e0161542. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161542. [PubMed: 27602564].
  18. Salamati Nia S, Kulatunga U. The importance of disaster management and impact of natural disasters on hospitals. The 6th World Construction Symposium, Sri Lanka; 2017.
  19. Bosher L, Dainty A. Disaster risk reduction and ‘built‐in’resilience: towards overarching principles for construction practice. Disasters. 2011;35(1):1-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2010.01189.x. [PubMed: 20722695].