Background: Professional self-concept (PSC) is an important issue concerning the nursing profession and is reflected as the key concept in nursing professionalism. Although previous studies investigated this concept and its related factors among nursing students, their results showed no consensus.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess PSCs among senior nursing students and examine their relationship with gender and Grade Point Average (GPA).
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 157 nursing students selected by a convenience sampling among senior nursing students in the seventh semester in January 2020 at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. The data were collected using Cowin's 36-item Nursing Professional Self-Concept questionnaire, which measures nursing self-concept in six dimensions.
Results: Undergraduate nursing students were 22-24 years old (22.58±98). Moreover, two-thirds of the students were female (66%) and married (71%). The nursing students reported a total mean score of PSC to be 161.1±3.27. The highest mean score of the PSC dimensions belonged to communication (27.7±1.17), and the lowest mean score was observed for self-esteem (25.52±1.06). In addition, there was no significant difference among gender, total PSC, and its dimensions, and there was no relationship with GPA, except for the staff relations (r=-0.198, P<0.05) and leadership (r=-0.210, P<0.05), which showed a negative and significant correlation; however, the correlation coefficients were not strong (P<0.3).
Conclusion: Due to a moderate level of total PSC and the lowest dimensions in self-esteem among nursing students, it is recommended that nursing students' PSC and its dimensions, specifically in self-esteem, be taken into account, which can boost their nursing professionalism.
- Badiyepeymaie Jahromi Z, Kargar M, Ramezanli S. Study of the relationship between nurse self-concept and clinical performance among nursing students. Jentashapir J Health Res. 2015;6(5):54-8. doi: :10.17795/jjhr-28108.
- Boardman G, Lawrence K, Polacsek M. Preceptors’ perspectives of an integrated clinical learning model in a mental health environment. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2018;27(5):1420-9.
- Cowin LS, Johnson M, Craven RG, Marsh HW. Causal modeling of self-concept, job satisfaction, and retention of nurses. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2008;45(10):1449-59. doi: 10.1111/inm.12441 . [PubMed: 29441663].
- Badiyepeyma Z, Sharif F, Ghodsbin F, Keshavarzi S. The impact of teaching professional self-concept on clinical performance perception in nursing students. Life Sci j. 2012;9(4):653-659.
- Badiyepeyma Z, Hojjat M, Parandavar N, Ramezanli S, Mosalanejad L, Jahrom I, et al. The relationship between professional self-concept and nursing students’ decision for job retention. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2014;4(2):156-61.
- Montazeralfaraj R, Ahmadi E, Tafti AD, Barati O, Bahrami MA. Measuring the nurses’ professional self-concept and its correlation with working stress in Iranian educational Hospitals. Bali Med J.2018;7(2):521-5. doi: 10.15562/bmj.v7i2.938.
- Karimi A, heravi-karimooi M, rrejeh N, javanmard S. Effects of Pilates Exercises on Professional Self-concept in Nurses Working in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Departments. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2020;25(2):175-80. doi: 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_231_18 . [PubMed: 32195165].
- Lee HK, Yang HJ. Influence of professional self-concept and professional autonomy on nursing performance of clinic nurses. J BioSci Biotechnol. 2015;7(5):297-310. doi: 10.14257/ijbsbt.2015.7.5.27.
- Farčić N, Barać I, Lovrić R, Pačarić S, Gvozdanović Z, Ilakovac V, et al. The Influence of Self-Concept on Clinical Decision-Making in Nurses and Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):1-13. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17093059 . [PubMed: 32354029].
- Zamanzadeh V, Valizadeh L, Negarandeh R, Monadi M, Azadi AJN, studies M, et al. Factors influencing men entering the nursing profession, and understanding the challenges faced by them: Iranian and developed countries’ perspectives. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2013;2(4):49–56. doi: 10.5812/nms.12583 . [PubMed: 25414879].
- Sabanciogullari S, Dogan S. Professional self-concept in nurses and related factors: a sample from Turkey. Int J Caring Sci. 2017;10(3):1676-84.
- plü M, Tekinsoy Kartın P. Professional self-concept and professional values of senior students of the nursing department. Nurs Ethics. 2019;26(5):1387-97. doi: 10.1177/0969733018761171 . [PubMed: 29673290].
- Poorgholami F, Ramezanli S, Jahromi MK, Jahromi ZB. Nursing students' clinical performance and professional self-concept. Bangladesh J Medical Sci. 2016;15(1):57-61. doi: :10.3329/bjms.v15i1.22118.
- Barry A, Parvan K, Tabrizi FJ, Sarbakhsh P, Safa B. Is professional self-concept associated with stress among nursing students in clinical setting: A descriptive correlational research. Crescent J Med Biol Sci. 2019;6(2):191-5.
- Hensel D, Stoelting-Gettelfinger W. Changes in stress and nurse self-concept among baccalaureate nursing students. J Nurs Educ. 2011;50(5):290-3. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20110131-09 . [PubMed: 21323250].
- Mahmoodi Shan GR, Rahmani H, Rouhi G, Vakili MA, Hosseini SA. Psychomery of professional nurses'self-concept. Nurs Midwifery J. 2015;13(4):302-10.
- Heydari A, Shokouhi Targhi E. The Effect of an Educational-Orientation Program Upon Professional Self-Concept of Undergraduate Nursing Students. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;14(6):438-94.
- Moattari M, Ebrahimi M, Sharifi N, Rouzbeh J. The effect of empowerment on the self-efficacy, quality of life and clinical and laboratory indicators of patients treated with hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10(1):1-0. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-115 . [PubMed: 22992449].
- Dibaj Nia P. Comparison of self-concept in the first and fourth year students in Shahid Beheshti University Faculty of Rehabilitation. Med Res. 2005;29(3):231-4.
- Edraki M, Abdoli R. The Relationship between Nursing Students’ educational Satisfaction and their academic success. Iran j med edu. 2011;11(1):32-9.
- Cowin LS, Hengstberger-Sims C. New graduate nurse self-concept and retention: A longitudinal survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006;43(1):59-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.03.004. [PubMed: 15885692].
- Kim M-S. Moderating effects of self-esteem and self-efficacy in the relationship between professional self-concept and satisfaction in their major among nursing students. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ. 2011;17(2):159-67. doi: 10.5977/JKASNE.2011.17.2.159.
- Edwin V. Influence of personal characteristics on self-concept and job satisfaction of registered nurses working in cross-cultural settings in the United Arab Emirates.Hamdan med j. 2018;11(1):22-28. doi: 10.7707/hmj.718.
- Hoeve Yt, Jansen G, Roodbol P. The nursing profession: public image, self‐concept and professional identity. A discussion paper. J Adv Nurs. 2014;70(2):295-309. doi: 10.1111/jan.12177 . [PubMed: 23711235].
- Poorchangizi B, Borhani F, Abbaszadeh A, Mirzaee M, Farokhzadian JJBn. The importance of professional values from nursing students’ perspective. BMC Nurs. 2019;18(1):1-7. doi: 10.1186/s12912-019-0351-1 . [PubMed: 31312111].
- Jeong Y. Enhancing the Professional Self-Concept of Nursing Students: A Qualitative Content Analysis. Int J Learn Teach Educ Res. 2019;18(9):170-82.
- Wang M, Guan H, Li Y, Xing C, Rui B. Academic burnout and professional self-concept of nursing students: A cross-sectional study. Nurse education today. 2019;77:27-31. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2019.03.004 . [PubMed: 30939399].
- Nobahar M, Raeisdana N. The protective role of Professional Self-Concept and Job Embeddedness on Nurses’ Burnout: Structural Equation Modeling. BMC Nurs. 2021;20(1):1-15. doi: 10.1186/s12912-021-00727-8 . [PubMed: 34666759].