Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Testes in Lead Exposed Workers


Mohammad Reza Khazdair 1 , Mohammad Hossein Boskabady 1 , * , Reza Afshari 2 , Bita Dadpour 2 , Amir Behforouz 1 , Mohammad Javidi 1 , Abbasali Abbasnezhad 1 , Valiallah Moradi 3

1 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine and pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences., [email protected], Iran

2 Department of Toxicology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

3 Toxicology Laboratory, Imam Reza Hospital, Iran

How to Cite: Khazdair M R , Boskabady M H, Afshari R, Dadpour B, Behforouz A, et al. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Testes in Lead Exposed Workers, Iran Red Crescent Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 14(11):727-32. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.4134.


Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: 14 (11); 727-32
Published Online: November 15, 2012
Article Type: Research Article
Received: January 11, 2012
Accepted: March 25, 2012




Background: The exposure to noxious agwents such as lead my cause lung disorders.

Objectives: In the present study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory symptoms in lead exposure workers were compared with matched control subjects.

Materials and Methods: The frequency of respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 108 lead exposure workers and 100 control subjects with similar age using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in lead exposure workers and in controls.

Results: Most lead exposure workers (63%) reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Chest tightness (26%), cough (17%) and sputum (16%) were the most common symptoms and only 6% of lead exposure workers reported wheezing (P < 0.001 for all case except wheezing). Most PFT values were also significantly reduced among lead exposure workers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001 except MEF75, MEF50, MEF25, and MMEF. The lead concentration in urine and serum of lead exposure workers were significantly higher than control (P < 0.001 for both cases).

Conclusions: These results showed that c lead exposure workers have higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms higher serum and urine lead concentration but lower PFT values.


Lead Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory Respiratory Function Tests

© 2012, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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