Socioeconomic Disparities and Smoking Habits in Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program


M Gharipour 1 , * , R Kelishadi 2 , N Toghianifar 2 , AA Tavassoli 2 , AR Khosravi 2 , F Sajadi 2 , N Sarrafzadegan 2

1 Isfahan Institute for Cardiovascular Research, (WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training in Cardiovascular Disease Control), Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, PO BOX 81465-1148, [email protected], Iran

2 Department of Pediatric Preventive Cardiology, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Iran

How to Cite: Gharipour M, Kelishadi R, Toghianifar N, Tavassoli A, Khosravi A, et al. Socioeconomic Disparities and Smoking Habits in Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran Red Crescent Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 13(8):537-543.


Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: 13 (8); 537-543
Article Type: Research Article
Received: October 14, 2010
Accepted: February 12, 2011




Background: The metabolic syndrome (Mets) consists of major clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study determines the association of socioeconomic determinants and smoking behavior in a population-based sample of Iranians with Mets.


Methods: This cross-sectional survey comprised 12600 randomly selected men and women aged ≥ 19 years living in three counties in central part of Iran. They participated in the baseline survey of a community-based program for CVD prevention entitled” Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” in 2000-2001. Subjects with Mets were selected based on NCEP- ATPIII criteria. Demographic data, medical history, lifestyle, smoking habits, physical examination, blood pressure, obesity indices and serum lipids were determined.


Results: The mean age of subjects with Mets was significantly higher. The mean age of smokers in both groups was higher than non-smokers but with lower WC and WHR. Marital status, age and residency were not significantly different in smokers with Mets and non-smokers with Mets. Smoking was more common in the middle educational group in the income category of Quartile 1-3. Mets was significantly related to age, sex and education.  Middle-aged and elderly smokers were at approximately 4-5 times higher risk among Mets subjects. Low education decreased the risk of Mets by 0.48; similarly in non-smokers, 6-12 years of education decreased the risk of Mets by 0.72.


Conclusion: More educated persons had a better awareness and behavior related to their health and role of smoking. In the lower social strata of the Iranian population, more efforts are needed against smoking habits.


Socioeconomic status Smoking Metabolic syndrome Iran

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