Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Human Prostate Cancer


S Koochekpour 1 , *

1 Department of Urology and Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, [email protected], USA

How to Cite: Koochekpour S. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Human Prostate Cancer, Iran Red Crescent Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 13(2):80-98.


Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: 13 (2); 80-98
Article Type: Review Article
Received: December 10, 2010
Accepted: January 10, 2011




Acquired or inherited genetic alterations either alone or in combination with epigenetic alterations are associated with prostate carcinogenesis and its progression toward advance metastatic or castration-resistant disease. A major objective of translational cancer research in post-genome era is to discover the repertoire of genetic and epigenetic variations associated with prostate cancer. Genome-wide association studies have been at least partially successful in identifying potential germline polymorphisms and allelic imbalances such as microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA hyper- or hypomethylation and histone modifications are reversible genetic alterations which allow stable inheritance of cellular phenotypes without any changes in the DNA sequence or quantity. Epigenetic modifications can potentially be used for the molecular classification, detection, and risk assessment in prostate cancer. Chemical inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been used in different clinical trials and hold promise as novel chemotherapeutics to be effective alone or in combination with other therapeutic interventions in prostate cancer.


Genetics Epigenetics Genome Somatic Germline Prostate Cancer

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