Document Type : Research articles


1 DDS, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University , Turkey

2 MD, Prof., Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Turkey

3 MD, Assist. Prof., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Turkey

4 MD, Assoc. Prof., Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Turkey


Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most frequent chronic diseases among infants and preschool-aged children.
Objectives: Our objective was to determine an association between umbilical cord blood 25(OH)D level and early childhood caries.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at Near East University (NEU) Medical hospital in Cyprus during 2013-2016. All pregnant women followed by NEU gynecology and obstetrics clinic were invited to participate in the study. Cord blood serum samples were collected after birth and analyzed for 25(OH)D levels. Infants underwent dental examinations, and questionnaire information was gathered from parents of infants between 1 and 2 years of age.
Results: Among 120 deliveries, 90 mothers accepted to participate and supply cord blood. 40 of them were excluded; therefore,
50 toddlers were recruited to participate (mean age 20.2 ± 3.1 months, male/female: 23/27) and all of them attended the dental and questionnaire evaluations related to participants aged 1 - 2 years. Cord blood 25(OH)D level (mean: 25.6 ± 11.6 ng/mL) was found to be seriously low in 12%, low in 20%, deficient in 28%, and optimal in 40%. 34% of the infants had ECC. Oral hygiene habits and low cord blood level of 25(OH)D were significantly associated with the development of ECC (P = 0.039 and P = 0.002, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower cord blood 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with ECC (P = 0.007).
Discussion: This study demonstrated the impact of low neonatal 25(OH)D level on the development of ECC. Based on these results, it can be suggested that measuring 25(OH)D levels of mothers during pregnancy can help maintain an optimal maternal and offspring vitamin D level, thereby protecting the infant’s dental health.