Document Type : Research articles


1 PhD student of Reproductive Health, Department of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Department of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

4 Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

5 Department of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Up to now, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected and killed millions of people across the globe. In these conditions, Iran was experiencing the fifth wave of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, accrued by the Delta variant, over the course of the present study.
Objectives: The present study aimed to reflect on preventive behaviors, psychological distress, and their associated factors in Iranians during the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant outbreak.
Methods: Utilizing a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional research design, this study was performed on 1,015 Iranian individuals referred to the comprehensive healthcare centers in Kashan, central Iran, selected via simple random sampling. Data collection tools included the sociodemographic information questionnaire, the Preventive Behaviors against COVID-19 Questionnaire (PBCQ), and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12).
Results: The study results revealed that the mean±standard deviation (SD) of PBCQ was 17.20±4.18 (12-36). In addition, involvement in preventive behaviors against COVID-19 was at higher levels in male (P=0.007), younger (P?0.001), and self-employed (P=0.016) participants with a fair family economic status (P=0.007), as compared to other cases. Those receiving no vaccines (P=0.023), together with the subjects recently contracting COVID-19, also adhered to only some preventive behaviors (P?0.001). The GHQ-12 mean±SD was equal to 2.15±2.41 (0-12). Moreover, the study results indicated that female (P=0.021) younger (P=0.017), married (P=0.024), self-employed (P=0.003) subjects with a fair or poor family economic status (P=0.001) and recent infection with COVID-19 (P=0.010) were more susceptible to psychological distress, as compared to others.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that engagement in preventive behaviors against COVID-19 significantly dwindled, and the incidence rate of psychological distress augmented in the course of the fifth wave of the pandemic in Iranians. These findings could provide healthcare planners and policymakers with valuable information.


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