Document Type : Research articles


1 Associate Professor, Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 MSc, Student Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: The increase in the workload of healthcare workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has added further responsibilities for their health.
Objectives: This study was conducted to measure the amount and economic value of COVID-19-related absenteeism and presenteeism and its affecting factors among physicians, nurses, and paramedics working frontline with COVID-19 patients.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a COVID-19 tertiary central hospital in Tehran, Iran. Totally, 250 hospital staff who were working frontline with COVID-19 patients between October to December 2020 were entered in the study. The samples included 100 physicians, 96 nurses, and 56 paramedics. The Valuation of Lost Productivity Questionnaire was used to measure job characteristics, absenteeism, and presenteeism. The human capital approach was employed for the valuation of absenteeism and presenteeism. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression with backward elimination and the removed value of 0.1 in Stata 14.
Results: Based on the results, the COVID-19 infection rate was 14.4% among healthcare workers, 8% among physicians, 18.6% among paramedics, and 18.7% among nursing staff. A significant association was found between the amount of absenteeism and working in intensive units (odds ratio [OR]: 3.511, P=0.000). A higher amount of absenteeism was related to first-time COVID-19 infection among all participants (OR: 4.918, P=0.000). Current smoker staff, in comparison to quitted smoking staff, was 2.995 times more likely to have a higher amount of presenteeism (OR: 2.995, P=0.030).
Conclusion: COVID-19 had a significant effect on both absenteeism and presenteeism of healthcare workers and its amount and value were unequal among physicians, nurses, and paramedics. Policymakers should do their best to minimize the productivity loss of healthcare workers.


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