Document Type : Research articles


1 Department of Biology, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Izeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Izeh, Iran


Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of death in industrialized countries and a leading cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Elettaria cardamomum is a widely used nutraceuticalis, which is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on anxiety-like behavior properties.
Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effect of Elettaria cardamomum essential oil and its major constituent (i.e., 1,8-cineole) on the brain injury induced by cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.
Materials and Methods: Cerebral hypoperfusion was induced in Wistar rats by the occlusion of the bilateral carotid artery for 30 min. Subsequently, Elettaria cardamomum essential oil (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg i.p.) and its major constituent (1,8-cineole) (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg i.p.) was injected to rats for 14 consecutive days. After the final treatment, blood samples were taken, and the brain tissues were separated and used for biochemical analysis by RT-PCR to detect the levels of proinflammatory cytokines.
Results: Administration of Elettaria cardamomum essential oil and 1,8-cineole significantly decreased the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the blood and brain cortex of the rat. Additionally, Elettaria cardamomum essential oil and 1,8-cineole significantly suppressed the expression level of Caspase 3, IL-1?, TNF-?, and iNOS in the cerebral cortex.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that Elettaria cardamomum essential oil has specific neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of cerebral hypoperfusion. The pharmacological mechanism of Elettaria cardamomum partly involves the modulation of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress.