Document Type : Research articles


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2 Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Medicine, Nutrition Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

4 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran


Background: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) have a wide application throughout the world and exert adverse effects on human health. Moreover, these chemical compounds are responsible for thousands of deaths per year worldwide. Kinetic and mathematical models could be used to optimize the application of pesticides on fruits and vegetables and monitor their residues.  
Objectives: The present study aimed to model the dissipation of diazinon and chlorpyrifos in different conditions, such as household conditions (e.g., storage at room and refrigerator temperatures, as well as cooking) and field condition for greenhouse tomatoes.
Methods: A multi-residue analysis of diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and their oxon derivatives was established by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, precision, linearity, and the limit of detection (LOD) were evaluated to ensure that the method was able to effectively determine the studied pesticides in the tomato samples. The linear and nonlinear kinetic models were presented for chlorpyrifos and diazinon residues in tomato using zero-order, first-order, and second-order equations.
Results: Based on the best fitting models for diazinon in the case of laboratory treatment at the refrigerator, room, and boiling temperatures, the half-lives were calculated as 18.79 days, 11.41 days, and 45.39 min, respectively. The half-life of diazinon was lower than that of chlorpyrifos in both field and laboratory treatments.
Conclusion: Modeling the removal of the pesticides indicated that the nonlinear first- and second-order models were the best fitted models for the dissipation of both pesticides in field and post-harvest conditions


  1. Dehghani MH, Kamalian S, Shayeghi M, Yousefi M, Heidarinejad Z, Agarwal S, et al. High-performance removal of diazinon pesticide from water using multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Microchem J. 2019;145:486-91. doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2018.10.053.
  2. Eyer F, Roberts DM, Buckley NA, Eddleston M, Thiermann H, Worek F, et al. Extreme variability in the formation of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in patients poisoned by chlorpyrifos (CPF). Biochem pharmacol. 2009;78(5):531-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.05.004. [PubMed: 19433070].
  3. Adlnasab L, Ezoddin M, Shabanian M, Mahjoob B. Development of ferrofluid mediated CLDH@ Fe3O4@ Tanic acid-based supramolecular solvent: Application in air-assisted dispersive micro solid phase extraction for preconcentration of diazinon and metalaxyl from various fruit juice samples. Microchem J. 2019;146:1. doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2018.12.020.
  4. Chahkandi M, Amiri A, Arami SR. Extraction and preconcentration of organophosphorus pesticides from water samples and fruit juices utilizing hydroxyapatite/Fe3O4 nanocomposite. Microchem J. 2019;144:261-9. doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2018.09.018.
  5. He Y, Meng M, Yohannes WK, Khan M, Wang M, Abd EI-Aty A, et al. Dissipation pattern and residual levels of boscalid in cucumber and soil using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Environ Sci Health B. 2019;55(4):388-95. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2019.1706374. [PubMed: 31868560].
  6. Wang P, Rashid M, Liu J, Hu M, Zhong G. Identification of multi-insecticide residues using GC-NPD and the degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos in sweet corn and soils. Food chem. 2016;212:420-6. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.008. [PubMed: 27374551].
  7. Sparling DW, Fellers G. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii. Environ Pollut. 2007;147(3):535-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.036. [PubMed: 17218044].
  8. Juraske R, Mutel CL, Stoessel F, Hellweg S. Life cycle human toxicity assessment of pesticides: comparing fruit and vegetable diets in Switzerland and the United States. Chemosphere. 2009;77(7):939-45. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.08.006. [PubMed: 19729188].
  9. Hlihor RM, Pogăcean MO, Rosca M, Cozma P, Gavrilescu M. Modelling the behavior of pesticide residues in tomatoes and their associated long-term exposure risks. J Environ Manage. 2019;233:523-529. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.045. [PubMed: 30594117].
  10. Rodrigues AA, De Queiroz MEL, De Oliveira AF, Neves AA, Heleno FF, Zambolim L, et al. Pesticide residue removal in classic domestic processing of tomato and its effects on product quality. J Environ Sci Health B. 2017;52(12):850-7. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2017.1359049. [PubMed: 28956709].
  11. Farajzadeh MA, Safi R, Yadeghari A. Combination of QuEChERS extraction with magnetic solid phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction as an efficient procedure for the extraction of pesticides from vegetable, fruit, and nectar samples having high content of solids. Microchem J. 2019;147:571-81. doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2019.03.074.
  12. Aria M, Sorribes-Soriano A, Jafari M, Nourbakhsh F, Esteve-Turrillas F, Armenta S, et al. Uptake and translocation monitoring of imidacloprid to chili and tomato plants by molecularly imprinting extraction-ion mobility spectrometry. Microchem J. 2019;144:195-202. doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2018.09.007.
  13. Vaikosen EN, Olu-Owolabi BI, Gibson LT, Adebowale KO, Davidson CM, Asogwa U. Kinetic field dissipation and fate of endosulfan after application on Theobroma cacao farm in tropical Southwestern Nigeria. Environ Monit Assess. 2019;191(3):196. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7293-7. [PubMed: 30815729].
  14. Ferreira SL, Junior MM, Felix CS, da Silva DL, Santos AS, Neto JH, et al. Multivariate optimization techniques in food analysis–A review. Food Chem. 2019;273:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.114. [PubMed: 30292370].
  15. Andrade GC, Monteiro SH, Francisco JG, Figueiredo LA, Botelho RG, Tornisielo VL. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for determining multiple pesticide residues in tomato. Food Chem. 2015;175:57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.105. [PubMed: 25577051].
  16. Sousa ES, Schneider MP, Pinto L, de Araujo MC, de Araújo Gomes A. Chromatographic quantification of seven pesticide residues in vegetable: Univariate and multiway calibration comparison. Microchem J. 2020;152:104301. doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2019.104301.
  17. Polat B, Tiryaki O. Determination of some pesticide residues in conventional-grown and IPM-grown tomato by using QuEChERS method. J EnvironSci Health B. 2019;54(2):112-7. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2018.1531663. [PubMed: 30602326].
  18. Milhome MA, Vieira SK, Reges BM, Fernandes DR, Uchoa ML, Pinheiro AI, et al. Multiresidue analysis and evaluation of the matrix effect on 20 pesticides in Brazilian maize (Zea mays L.) flour. J Environ Sci Health B. 2019;54(11):892-7. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2019.1640586. [PubMed: 31305217].
  19. Ling B, Tang J, Kong F, Mitcham E, Wang S. Kinetics of food quality changes during thermal processing: a review. Food Bioproc Technol. 2015;8(2):343-58. doi:10.1007/s11947-014-1398-3.
  20. Lee WJ, Tan CP, Sulaiman R, Hee YY, Chong GH. Storage stability and degradation kinetics of bioactive compounds in red palm oil microcapsules produced with solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide: A comparison with the spray-drying method. Food chem. 2020;304:125427. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125427. [PubMed: 31494501].
  21. de Souza LP, Faroni LR, Heleno FF, Pinto FG, de Queiroz ME, Prates LH. Ozone treatment for pesticide removal from carrots: Optimization by response surface methodology. Food Chem. 2018;243:435-41. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.134. [PubMed: 29146362].
  22. Liang Y, Wang W, Shen Y, Liu Y, Liu XJ. Dynamics and residues of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos in cucumber grown in greenhouse. Food Cont. 2012;26(2):231-4. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.01.029.
  23. Omirou M, Vryzas Z, Papadopoulou-Mourkidou E, Economou A. Dissipation rates of iprodione and thiacloprid during tomato production in greenhouse. Food Chem. 2009;116(2):499-504. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.007.
  24. Lozowicka B, Jankowska M, Hrynko I, Kaczynski P. Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling. Environ Monit Assess. 2016; 188(1):51. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4850-6.  [PubMed: 26694708].
  25. Zhang Y, Hou Y, Chen F, Xiao Z, Zhang J, Hu X. The degradation of chlorpyrifos and diazinon in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: effect of parameters and degradation pathway. Chemosphere. 2011;82(8):1109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.11.081. [PubMed: 21176942].
  26. Budarz JF, Cooper EM, Gardner C, Hodzic E, Ferguson PL, Gunsch CK, et al. Chlorpyrifos degradation via photoreactive TiO2 nanoparticles: assessing the impact of a multi-component degradation scenario. J Hazard Mater. 2019;372:61-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.12.028. [PubMed: 29254886].
  27. Yigit N, Velioglu YS. Effects of processing and storage on pesticide residues in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60(21):3622-41. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1702501. [PubMed: 31858819].
  28. Jankowska M, Łozowicka B, Kaczyński P. Comprehensive toxicological study over 160 processing factors of pesticides in selected fruit and vegetables after water, mechanical and thermal processing treatments and their application to human health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ. 2019;652:1156-67. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.324. [PubMed: 30586803].
  29. Alam M, Khan T, Akhter F. Influence of Diazinon on iron avilability in Indian spinach with different doses of rice hull as a bioremediant. J Biodivers Conserv Bioresour Manag. 2017;3(2):57-62. doi: 10.3329/jbcbm.v3i2.36028.
  30. Zhao L, Liu F, Ge J, Ma L, Wu L, Xue X. Changes in eleven pesticide residues in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) during drying processing. Dry Technol. 2018;36(8):965-72. doi: 10.1080/07373937.2017.1367306.