Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

The Family of People with Multiple Sclerosis: The Process of Family Stress Adaptation

Nina Brkić-Jovanović 1 , Sanela Slavković 2 , * , Mila Beljanski 3 , Ivana Mihić 4 and Milica Lazić 4
Authors Information
1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
2 Department of Special Rehabilitation and Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
3 Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Education in Sombor, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
4 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: 21 (1); e83291
  • Published Online: January 22, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: August 13, 2018
  • Revised: November 29, 2018
  • Accepted: December 2, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.83291

To Cite: Brkić-Jovanović N, Slavković S, Beljanski M, Mihić I , Lazić M. The Family of People with Multiple Sclerosis: The Process of Family Stress Adaptation, Iran Red Crescent Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 21(1):e83291. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.83291.

Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Freitas S, Batista S, Afonso AC, Simoes MR, de Sousa L, Cunha L, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening test for cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2018;25(1):57-70. doi: 10.1080/23279095.2016.1243108. [PubMed: 27791389].
  • 2. McNicholas N, O'Connell K, Yap SM, Killeen RP, Hutchinson M, McGuigan C. Cognitive dysfunction in early multiple sclerosis: A review. QJM. 2018;111(6):359-64. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcx070. [PubMed: 28371862].
  • 3. Dutta R, Trapp BD. Pathogenesis of axonal and neuronal damage in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2007;68(22 Suppl 3):S22-31. discussion S43-54. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000275229.13012.32. [PubMed: 17548565].
  • 4. Kruger T, Behrens JR, Grobelny A, Otte K, Mansow-Model S, Kayser B, et al. Subjective and objective assessment of physical activity in multiple sclerosis and their relation to health-related quality of life. BMC Neurol. 2017;17(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s12883-016-0783-0. [PubMed: 28086828]. [PubMed Central: PMC5237144].
  • 5. Rommer PS, Suhnel A, Konig N, Zettl UK. Coping with multiple sclerosis-the role of social support. Acta Neurol Scand. 2017;136(1):11-6. doi: 10.1111/ane.12673. [PubMed: 27620927].
  • 6. Eliášová A, Majerníková Ľ, Hudáková A, Kaščáková M. Self-help group and the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis – Pilot study. Cent Eur J Nurs Midwifery. 2015;6(4):336-42. doi: 10.15452/cejnm.2015.06.0025.
  • 7. Zengin O, Erbay E, Yıldırım B, Altındağ Ö. Quality of life, coping, and social support in patients with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. Turk J Neurol. 2017;23(4):211-8. doi: 10.4274/tnd.37074.
  • 8. Edmonds P, Vivat B, Burman R, Silber E, Higginson IJ. Loss and change: Experiences of people severely affected by multiple sclerosis. Palliat Med. 2007;21(2):101-7. doi: 10.1177/0269216307076333. [PubMed: 17344258].
  • 9. Buchanan RJ, Radin D, Huang C, Zhu L. Caregiver perceptions associated with risk of nursing home admission for people with multiple sclerosis. Disabil Health J. 2010;3(2):117-24. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2009.08.003. [PubMed: 21122777].
  • 10. Buchanan RJ, Radin D, Chakravorty BJ, Tyry T. Informal care giving to more disabled people with multiple sclerosis. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31(15):1244-56. [PubMed: 19802928].
  • 11. Razaz N, Joseph KS, Boyce WT, Guhn M, Forer B, Carruthers R, et al. Children of chronically ill parents: Relationship between parental multiple sclerosis and childhood developmental health. Mult Scler. 2016;22(11):1452-62. doi: 10.1177/1352458515621624. [PubMed: 26683589]. [PubMed Central: PMC5051600].
  • 12. Bartnik P, Wielgos A, Kacperczyk-Bartnik J, Szymusik I, Podlecka-Pietowska A, Zakrzewska-Pniewska B, et al. Evaluation of reproductive health in female patients with multiple sclerosis in Polish population. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;53:117-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2018.04.012. [PubMed: 29685406].
  • 13. Bogosian A, Moss-Morris R, Bishop FL, Hadwin J. How do adolescents adjust to their parent's multiple sclerosis? An interview study. Br J Health Psychol. 2011;16(Pt 2):430-44. doi: 10.1348/135910710X521492. [PubMed: 21489068].
  • 14. Sieh DS, Meijer AM, Oort FJ, Visser-Meily JM, Van der Leij DA. Problem behavior in children of chronically ill parents: A meta-analysis. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2010;13(4):384-97. doi: 10.1007/s10567-010-0074-z. [PubMed: 20640510]. [PubMed Central: PMC2975921].
  • 15. de Ceuninck van Capelle A, Visser LH, Vosman F. Multiple sclerosis (MS) in the life cycle of the family: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the perspective of persons with recently diagnosed MS. Fam Syst Health. 2016;34(4):435-40. doi: 10.1037/fsh0000216. [PubMed: 27732003].
  • 16. Yamout B, Issa Z, Herlopian A, El Bejjani M, Khalifa A, Ghadieh AS, et al. Predictors of quality of life among multiple sclerosis patients: A comprehensive analysis. Eur J Neurol. 2013;20(5):756-64. doi: 10.1111/ene.12046. [PubMed: 23294397].
  • 17. Lee EJ, DeDois S, Simonetti C, Lee GK. Family adaptation model for spousal caregivers of people with multiple sclerosis: Testing the stress-processing theory. J Vocat Rehabil. 2013;(39):91-100. doi: 10.3233/jvr-130647.
  • 18. Tamayo GJ, Broxson A, Munsell M, Cohen MZ. Caring for the caregiver. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2010;37(1):E50-7. doi: 10.1188/10.ONF.E50-E57. [PubMed: 20044332].
  • 19. Johnson J. On receiving the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: Managing the transition. Mult Scler. 2003;9(1):82-8. doi: 10.1191/1352458503ms856oa. [PubMed: 12617273].
  • 20. Bogosian A, Moss-Morris R, Yardley L, Dennison L. Experiences of partners of people in the early stages of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2009;15(7):876-84. doi: 10.1177/1352458508100048. [PubMed: 19168601].
  • 21. Kavaliunas A, Wiberg M, Tinghog P, Glaser A, Gyllensten H, Alexanderson K, et al. Earnings and financial compensation from social security systems correlate strongly with disability for multiple sclerosis patients. PLoS One. 2015;10(12). e0145435. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145435. [PubMed: 26695832]. [PubMed Central: PMC4691204].
  • 22. Jelinek GA, De Livera AM, Marck CH, Brown CR, Neate SL, Taylor KL, et al. Associations of lifestyle, medication, and socio-demographic factors with disability in people with multiple sclerosis: An international cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2016;11(8). e0161701. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161701. [PubMed: 27560626]. [PubMed Central: PMC4999178].
  • 23. Preissner K, Arbesman M, Lieberman D. Occupational therapy interventions for adults with multiple sclerosis. Am J Occup Ther. 2016;70(3):7003395010p1-4. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2016.703001. [PubMed: 27089301].
  • 24. McCubbin HI, Thompson AI, McCubbin MA. Family measures: Stress, coping and resiliency: Inventories for research and practice. Honolulu, Hawaii: Kamehameha Schools; 2001.
  • 25. Patterson JM. Integrating family resilience and family stress theory. J Marriage Fam. 2002;64(2):349-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00349.x.
  • 26. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Edan G, Filippi M, Hartung HP, Kappos L, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the "McDonald Criteria". Ann Neurol. 2005;58(6):840-6. doi: 10.1002/ana.20703. [PubMed: 16283615].
  • 27. Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: An expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology. 1983;33(11):1444-52. [PubMed: 6685237].
  • 28. Soper DS. Effect size calculator for hierarchical multiple regression. [software]. 2018. Available from:
  • 29. Soper DS. Post-hoc statistical power calculator for hierarchical multiple regression. [software]. 2018. Available from:
  • 30. McCubbin HI, Thompson AI, McCubbin M. Family measures stress, coping, and resiliency: Inventories for research and practice. Honolulu, Hawaii: Kamehameha Schools; 2012.
  • 31. Guillemin F, Bombardier C, Beaton D. Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46(12):1417-32. [PubMed: 8263569].
  • 32. Antonovsky A, Sourani T. Family sense of coherence and family adaptation. J Marriage Fam. 1988;50(1):79. doi: 10.2307/352429.
  • 33. McCubbin HI, Patterson JM, Wilson LR. FILE: Family inventory of life events and changes. In: Olson DH, editor. Family inventories: Inventories used in a national survey of families across the family life cycle. 1985.
  • 34. McCubbin HI, Patterson J, Glynn T. Social support index (SSI). In: McCubbin HI, Thompson AI, McCubbin MA, editors. Family assessment: Resiliency coping and adaptation-inventories for research and practice. 1982. p. 357-89.
  • 35. McCubbin HI, Comeau JK, Harkins J. FIRM: Family inventory of resources for management. Family assessment inventories for research and practice. 1987. p. 145-60.
  • 36. Fischer J, Corcoran K. Measures for clinical practice and research: A sourcebook volume 1: Couples, families, and children. 1. Oxford University Press; 2007.
  • 37. McCubbin MA, McCubbin HI, Thompson A. Family problem-solving communication index. In: McCubbin H, Thompson A, McCubbin M, editors. Family assessment: Resiliency, coping and adaptation - inventories for research and practice. Madison: University of Wisconsin; 1987 (Original work published 1988).
  • 38. Calandri E, Graziano F, Borghi M, Bonino S. Young adults' adjustment to a recent diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: The role of identity satisfaction and self-efficacy. Disabil Health J. 2019;12(1):72-8. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2018.07.008. [PubMed: 30093321].
  • 39. Gulick EE. Symptom and activities of daily living trajectory in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year study. Nurs Res. 1998;47(3):137-46. [PubMed: 9610647].
  • 40. McKeown LP, Porter-Armstrong AP, Baxter GD. Caregivers of people with multiple sclerosis: Experiences of support. Mult Scler. 2004;10(2):219-30. doi: 10.1191/1352458504ms1008oa. [PubMed: 15124770].
  • 41. Meide HV, Gorp DV, van der Hiele K, Visser L. "Always looking for a new balance": Toward an understanding of what it takes to continue working while being diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Disabil Rehabil. 2018;40(21):2545-52. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1342278. [PubMed: 28639482].
  • 42. Goretti B, Portaccio E, Zipoli V, Hakiki B, Siracusa G, Sorbi S, et al. Coping strategies, psychological variables and their relationship with quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2009;30(1):15-20. doi: 10.1007/s10072-008-0009-3. [PubMed: 19153648].
  • 43. Pakenham KI, Cox S. Comparisons between youth of a parent with MS and a control group on adjustment, caregiving, attachment and family functioning. Psychol Health. 2013;29(1):1-15. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2013.813944. [PubMed: 23844888].
  • 44. Bowen C, MacLehose A, Beaumont JG. Advanced multiple sclerosis and the psychosocial impact on families. Psychol Health. 2011;26(1):113-27. doi: 10.1080/08870440903287934. [PubMed: 20204981].
  • 45. Bolas H, Wersch AV, Flynn D. The well-being of young people who care for a dependent relative: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Psychol Health. 2007;22(7):829-50. doi: 10.1080/14768320601020154.
  • 46. Razaz N, Nourian R, Marrie RA, Boyce WT, Tremlett H. Children and adolescents adjustment to parental multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. BMC Neurol. 2014;14:107. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-14-107. [PubMed: 24886162]. [PubMed Central: PMC4040480].
  • 47. Wirth AG, Bussing A. Utilized resources of hope, orientation, and inspiration in life of persons with multiple sclerosis and their association with life satisfaction, adaptive coping strategies, and spirituality. J Relig Health. 2016;55(4):1359-80. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0089-3. [PubMed: 26169606].
  • 48. Anaby D, Miller WC, Jarus T, Eng JJ, Noreau L. Participation and well-being among older adults living with chronic conditions. Soc Indic Res. 2011;100(1):171-83. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9611-x. [PubMed: 26120239]. [PubMed Central: PMC4478083].
  • 49. Costa DC, Sa MJ, Calheiros JM. Social support network and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2017;75(5):267-71. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20170036. [PubMed: 28591384].
  • 50. Lee EJ, Pieczynski J, DeDios-Stern S, Simonetti C, Lee GK. Gender differences in caregiver strain, needs for support, social support, and quality of life among spousal caregivers of persons with multiple sclerosis. Work. 2015;52(4):777-87. doi: 10.3233/WOR-152205. [PubMed: 26599674].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments