Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

The Effect of Educational Intervention on Family Caregivers’ Perceived Threat of the Risk of Dependence Among Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Narjes Deyhoul 1 , Parvaneh Vasli 1 , * , Camelia Rohani 1 , Nezhat Shakeri 2 and Meimanat Hosseini 1
Authors Information
1 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: June 2018, 20 (6); e65467
  • Published Online: September 4, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 23, 2017
  • Revised: March 10, 2018
  • Accepted: April 27, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.65467

To Cite: Deyhoul N, Vasli P, Rohani C, Shakeri N, Hosseini M. The Effect of Educational Intervention on Family Caregivers’ Perceived Threat of the Risk of Dependence Among Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2018 ; 20(6):e65467. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.65467.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Objective
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Zorowitz R, Brainin M. Advances in brain recovery and rehabilitation. Stroke. 2011;42(2):294-7. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.110.605063.
  • 2. Thrift AG, Cadilhac DA, Thayabaranathan T, Howard G, Howard VJ, Rothwell PM, et al. Global stroke statistics. Int J Stroke. 2013;9(1):6-18. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12245.
  • 3. Roghani S, Delbari A, Tabatabae S. [Stroke rehabilitation: Principles, advances, early experiences, and realities in Iran]. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci. 2013;19:96-108. Persian.
  • 4. Philp I, Brainin M, Walker MF, Ward AB, Gillard P, Shields AL, et al. Development of a poststroke checklist to standardize follow-up care for stroke survivors. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;22(7):173-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2012.10.016.
  • 5. Rigby H, Gubitz G, Phillips S. A systematic review of caregiver burden following stroke. Int J Stroke. 2009;4(4):285-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00289.x.
  • 6. Mendis S. Stroke disability and rehabilitation of stroke: World Health Organization perspective. Int J Stroke. 2012;8(1):3-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00969.x.
  • 7. Collins LG, Swartz K. Caregiver care. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(11):1309-17. [PubMed: 21661713].
  • 8. Dehghan-Nayeri N, Mohamadi M, Pedram-Razi SH, Arazi TM, Kazem-Nezhad A. [The effect of family empowerment program on adherence to the treatment Regime of patients with stroke]. Evid Base Care J. 2014;5:57-66. Persian. doi: 10.22038/ebcj.2015.4072.
  • 9. Hsueh IP, Wang CH, Liou TH, Lin CH, Hsieh CL. Test-retest reliability and validity of the comprehensive activities of daily living measure in patients with stroke. J Rehabil Med. 2012;44(8):637-41. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1004.
  • 10. Hung JW, Huang YC, Chen JH, Liao LN, Lin CJ, Chuo CY, et al. Factors associated with strain in informal caregivers of stroke patients. Chang Gung Med J. 2012;35(5):392-401. [PubMed: 23127344].
  • 11. Miller EL, Murray L, Richards L, Zorowitz RD, Bakas T, Clark P, et al. Comprehensive overview of nursing and interdisciplinary rehabilitation care of the stroke patient: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2010;41(10):2402-48. doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3181e7512b.
  • 12. Baumann M, Lurbe-Puerto K, Alzahouri K, Aiach P. Increased residual disability among poststroke survivors and the repercussions for the lives of informal caregivers. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2011;18(2):162-71. doi: 10.1310/tsr1802-162.
  • 13. Moeini B, Barati M, Jaliliyan F. [Factors associated with physical activity of functional independence in the elderly]. Med J Hormozgan Univ. 2011;15:318-26. Persian.
  • 14. Nicholson SL, Donaghy M, Johnston M, Sniehotta FF, van Wijck F, Johnston D, et al. A qualitative theory guided analysis of stroke survivors’ perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36(22):1857-68. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2013.874506. [PubMed: 24377329].
  • 15. McLennon SM, Bakas T, Jessup NM, Habermann B, Weaver MT. Task difficulty and life changes among stroke family caregivers: Relationship to depressive symptoms. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(12):2484-90. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.04.028.
  • 16. Saffari M, Shojaeizadeh D, Ghofranipour F, Heydarnia A, Pakpour AH. [Health Education and Promotion Theories, Models and Methods]. 2nd ed. Tehran, Iran: Sobhan; 2012. p. 53-63. Persian.
  • 17. Glanz KA, Rimer BA, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education theory, research and practice. 4th ed. San Francisco, USA: Josey-Bass Publisher; 2008. p. 45-50. 8-30.
  • 18. DiClemente RJ, Salazar LF, Crosby RA. Health behavior theory for public health. 1st ed. Burlington, USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2013. p. 83-6.
  • 19. O'Toole MT. Mosby's medical dictionary. 9th ed. Missouri, USA: Elsevier Mosby; 2009. 53 p.
  • 20. Schmid K, Muldoon OT. Perceived threat, social identification, and psychological well-being: The effects of political conflict exposure. Polit Psychol. 2013;36(1):75-92. doi: 10.1111/pops.12073.
  • 21. Alhani F. [Evaluating of family-centered empowerment model on preventing iron deficiency anemia]. Tehran, Iran: Tarbiat Modares University; 2003. Persian.
  • 22. Hakim A, Palizban E, Ahmadi Angali K. [The effect of family-centered empowerment model on the Level of parents' knowledge of children with ostomy]. Iran J Pediatr Nurs. 2015;1(4):22-31. Persian.
  • 23. Vahedian-Azimi A, Alhani F, Goharimogaddam K, Madani SJ, Naderi A, Hajiesmaeili M. [Effect of family - centered empowerment model on the quality of life in patients with myocardial infarction: A clinical trial study]. J Nurs Edu. 2015;4(1):8-22. Persian.
  • 24. Teimouri F, Alhani F, Kazemnejad A. [The effect of the family-centered empowerment model on the quality of life in parents of children with asthma]. Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Facul. 2014;22(3):5-14. Persian.
  • 25. Sanaie N, Nejati S, Zolfaghari M, Alhani F, KazemNejad A. [The effect of family-centered empowerment in self efficacy and self esteem in patients undergoing coronary bypass graft surgery]. J Res Dev Nurs Midwifery. 2014;10(2):44-53. Persian.
  • 26. Masoudi R, Alhani F, Moghadassi J, Ghorbani M. The effect of family-centered empowerment model on skill, attitude, and knowledge of multiple sclerosis caregivers. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2011;17(2):87-97.
  • 27. Azimi R, Mohammadi F, Hosseini MA, Farzi M. [The effect of home-based stroke rehabilitation on quality of life of stroke survivors and their family caregiver's strain]. Evid Base Care J. 2013;3(1):77-85. Persian. doi: 10.22038/EBCJ.2013.729.
  • 28. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. 9th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins; 2012. p. 20-8.
  • 29. Bakas T, Farran CJ, Austin JK, Given BA, Johnson EA, Williams LS. Stroke caregiver outcomes from the telephone assessment and skill-building kit (TASK). Top Stroke Rehabil. 2009;16(2):105-21. doi: 10.1310/tsr1602-105. [PubMed: 19581197]. [PubMed Central: PMC3021456].
  • 30. Kamal AK, Shaikh Q, Pasha O, Azam I, Islam M, Memon AA, et al. A randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial to improve medication adherence in adult stroke patients with prescription tailored short messaging service (SMS)-SMS4Stroke study. BMC Neurol. 2015;15(1). doi: 10.1186/s12883-015-0471-5.
  • 31. Eames S, Hoffmann T, Worrall L, Read S, Wong A. Randomised controlled trial of an education and support package for stroke patients and their carers. BMJ Open. 2013;3(5). e002538. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002538.
  • 32. King RB, Hartke RJ, Houle T, Lee J, Herring G, Alexander-Peterson BS, et al. A problem-solving early intervention for stroke caregivers: One year follow-up. Rehabil Nurs. 2012;37(5):231-43. doi: 10.1002/rnj.039.
  • 33. Bayat F, Shojaeezadeh D, Baikpour M, Heshmat R, Baikpour M, Hosseini M. The effects of education based on extended health belief model in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2013;12(1):45. doi: 10.1186/2251-6581-12-45.
  • 34. Alidosti M, Sharifirad GR, Golshiri P, Azadbakht L, Hasanzadeh A, Hemati Z. An investigation on the effect of gastric cancer education based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, attitude and nutritional practice of housewives. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2012;17(4):256-62. [PubMed: 23833623]. [PubMed Central: PMC3702143].
  • 35. Lotfi Mainbolagh B, Rakhshani F, Zareban I, Montazerifar F, Alizadeh Sivaki H, Parvizi Z. The effect of peer education based on health belief model on nutrition behaviors in primary school boys. J Res Health Sci. 2012;2(2):214-25.
  • 36. Montanaro EA, Bryan AD. Comparing theory-based condom interventions: Health belief model versus theory of planned behavior. Health Psychol. 2014;33(10):1251-60. doi: 10.1037/a0033969.
  • 37. Wang Y, Zang XY, Bai J, Liu SY, Zhao Y, Zhang Q. Effect of a health belief model-based nursing intervention on Chinese patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. J Clin Nurs. 2014;23(9-10):1342-53. doi: 10.1111/jocn.12394.
  • 38. Mehta P, Sharma M, Lee RC. Designing and evaluating a health belief model-based intervention to increase intent of HPV vaccination among college males. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2014;34(1):101-17. doi: 10.2190/IQ.34.1.h.
  • 39. Bondemark L, Ruf S. Randomized controlled trial: the gold standard or an unobtainable fallacy? Eur J Orthod. 2015;37(5):457-61. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjv046.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments