Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Mean Blood Lead Level in Iranian Workers: A Systematic and Meta-Analysis

Milad Azami 1 , Zainab Tardeh 1 , Akram Mansouri 2 , Ali Soleymani 3 and Kourosh Sayehmiri 4 , *
Authors Information
1 Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran
2 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz jundishapour university of Medical science, Ahvaz, IR Iran
3 Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, IR Iran
4 Department of Biostatistics, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: January 2018, 20 (1); e64172
  • Published Online: January 14, 2018
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: November 30, 2016
  • Revised: April 17, 2017
  • Accepted: June 21, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.64172

To Cite: Azami M, Tardeh Z, Mansouri A, Soleymani A, Sayehmiri K. Mean Blood Lead Level in Iranian Workers: A Systematic and Meta-Analysis, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2018 ; 20(1):e64172. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.64172.

Copyright © 2017, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Context
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Nevin R. Understanding international crime trends: the legacy of preschool lead exposure. Environ Res. 2007;104(3):315-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2007.02.008. [PubMed: 17451672].
  • 2. Schober SE, Mirel LB, Graubard BI, Brody DJ, Flegal KM. Blood lead levels and death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: results from the NHANES III mortality study. Environ Health Perspectiv. 2006;114(10):1538-41.
  • 3. Whittaker SG. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45(7):724-33. doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000079083.95532.b5. [PubMed: 12855913].
  • 4. Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson L. Harrison's principle of internal medicine. 16th edition ed. New York: Mc Graw-Hill; 2005. p. 2577-80.
  • 5. Ekong EB, Jaar BG, Weaver VM. Lead-related nephrotoxicity: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Kidney Int. 2006;70(12):2074-84. doi: 10.1038/ [PubMed: 17063179].
  • 6. Poreba R, Gac P, Poreba M, Andrzejak R. The relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in persons with arterial hypertension. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;249(1):41-6. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2010.08.012. [PubMed: 20728461].
  • 7. Garcia-Leston J, Mendez J, Pasaro E, Laffon B. Genotoxic effects of lead: an updated review. Environ Int. 2010;36(6):623-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.011. [PubMed: 20466424].
  • 8. Azami M, Mansouri A, Khataee M, Soleymani A, Sayehmiri K. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mercury Concentrations in Blood, Urine, and Area Air Samples among Dentists in Iran. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2017;27(152):203-16.
  • 9. Shahrabi Farahani J, Dorosty AR, Jalali M, Sadrzadeh H, Farvid MS. Effect of 2-Week Ascorbic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Lead Levels in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Lead [In Persian]. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2006;5(2):75-84.
  • 10. Reihani Kermani H, Niktab A. The relationship between blood lead concentration and electroneurographic findings in lead-exposed subjects [In Persian]. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci. 2005:27-31.
  • 11. Dehghan-Nasiri M, Golbabaii F, Koohpaii AR, Rahimi-Forooshani A, Shahtaheri SJ. Biological and environmental monitoring of lead and exposure in the automobile industry [In Persian]. Iran Occupat Health. 2012;8(4):1-8.
  • 12. Sadeghniat Haghighi K, Aminian O, Chavoshi F, Bahaedini LS, Soltani S, Rahmati Najarkolaei F. Relationship between blood lead level and male reproductive hormones in male lead exposed workers of a battery factory: A cross-sectional study. Iran J Reprod Med. 2013;11(8):673-6. [PubMed: 24639806].
  • 13. Fazli D, Malekirad AA, Mirzaee M, Dastjerdi HA, Mostafalou S, Karkhane A, et al. Study on the Link between Lead Exposure and Hematological, Psychological, and Memorial Parameters in Automobile Repair Workers. Health. 2014;6(8):712.
  • 14. Aliasgharpour M, Ahbassi M. Determination of Blood lead level in various types of Industrial workers at reference laboratory Of Iran – Tehran. [In Persian]. Seventh National Conference on Environmental Health; 2004 Sep 14-16; Shahrekord. 2004.
  • 15. Nazifi Habib Abadi S, Saeb M. Determination of blood Lead and Delta Aminoleavulinic Acid Dehydratase levels in painter building workers [In Persian]. J Med Council Islam Repub Iran. 2004;22(3):209-14.
  • 16. Ghiasvand M, Aghakhani K, Salimi A, Kumar R. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2013;8:11. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-8-11. [PubMed: 23607481].
  • 17. Abdollahi M, Ebrahimi M, Nikfar Sh, Jalali N. Monitoring of Lead poisoning in simple workers of a copying center by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 1996;10(1):69-72.
  • 18. Abdollahi M, Sadeghi Mojarad A, Jalali N. Lead toxicity in employees of a paint factory. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 1996;10(3):203-6.
  • 19. Sadeghi M, Taheri L, Golshahi J, Rabiei K, Sarrafzadegan N. Left Ventricular Echocardiographic Variables in Occupational Exposure to Lead [Persian]. J Isfahan Med School. 2014;32(297):1-9.
  • 20. Malekirad AA, Kalantari-Dehaghi R, Abdollahi M. Clinical, haematological, and neurocognitive findings in lead-exposed workers of a battery plant in Iran. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2013;64(4):497-503. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2385. [PubMed: 24384755].
  • 21. Tabrizizadeh M, Boozarjomehri F, Akhavan Karbasi MH, Maziar F. Evaluation of the relationship between blood lead level and prevalence of oral complications in Koushk lead mine workers, Yazd province. J Dental Med. 2006;19(1):91-8.
  • 22. Ghoreishian SM, Ayatollahi M. Investigation of relationship between increase in blood Lead levels and serum levels of three major immunoglobulins in high risk professions [In Persian]. JSSU. 2004;12(suppl 1):36-43.
  • 23. Aminipour M, Barkhordari A, Ehrampoush M, Hakimian A. Blood Lead Levels in Workers at Kooshk Lead and Zinc Mine [In Persian]. JSSU. 2008;16(2):24-30.
  • 24. Yartireh H, Hashemian AH. The effect of lead on number and sex type of children in men occupationally exposed to lead. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil. 2013;16(69):9-15.
  • 25. Karimooy HN, Mood MB, Hosseini M, Shadmanfar S. Effects of occupational lead exposure on renal and nervous system of workers of traditional tile factories in Mashhad (northeast of Iran). Toxicol Ind Health. 2010;26(9):633-8. doi: 10.1177/0748233710377774. [PubMed: 20630982].
  • 26. Kianoush S, Balali-Mood M, Mousavi SR, Shakeri MT, Dadpour B, Moradi V, et al. Clinical, toxicological, biochemical, and hematologic parameters in lead exposed workers of a car battery industry. Iran J Med Sci. 2013;38(1):30-7. [PubMed: 23645955].
  • 27. Keramati MR, Sadeghian MH, Mood M. Correlation between Iron Deficiency and Lead Intoxication in the Workers of a Car Battery Plant. Int J Hematol Oncol. 2010;20(3):169-74.
  • 28. Kalantari S, Khoshi A, Mohebbi M, Fooladsaz K. Investigation of Blood Lead Levels and Its Toxicity in Workers of Zinc Melting Factory of Dandi, Zanjan, Iran [In Persian]. ZUMS J. 2009;17(66):79-86.
  • 29. Bahrami AR, Mahjub H, Assari MJ. A study of the relationship between ambient lead and blood bead among gasoline-station workers. Iran J Pub Health. 2002;31(3-4):92-5.
  • 30. Malekirad AA, Oryan S, Fani A, Babapor V, Hashemi M, Baeeri M, et al. Study on clinical and biochemical toxicity biomarkers in a zinc-lead mine workers. Toxicol Ind Health. 2010;26(6):331-7. doi: 10.1177/0748233710365697. [PubMed: 20371635].
  • 31. Azami M, Hafezi Ahmadi MR, Sayehmiri K. Hepatitis B vaccination efficacy in Iranian healthcare workers: a meta-analysis study. Hepat Mon. 2017;17(1). e37781.
  • 32. Tavan H, Sayehmiri K. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in Iran using the meta‑analysis and systematic review [In Persian]. GOVARESH. 2016;20(4):250-8.
  • 33. Panic N, Leoncini E, de Belvis G, Ricciardi W, Boccia S. Evaluation of the endorsement of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement on the quality of published systematic review and meta-analyses. PLoS One. 2013;8(12). e83138. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083138.
  • 34. Sargeant JM, O'Connor AM, Dohoo IR, Erb HN, Cevallos M, Egger M, et al. Methods and processes of developing the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology - veterinary (STROBE-Vet) statement. Prev Vet Med. 2016;134:188-96. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.09.005. [PubMed: 27836042].
  • 35. Sayehmiri K, Bigdeli Shamloo MB, Khataee M, Rabiei Fakhr F, Azami M. Occupational exposure and biological evaluation of lead in Iranian workers-a systematic review and meta-analysis [In Persian]. JHSW. 2016;6(3):1-14.
  • 36. Wronska-Nofer T, Pisarska A, Trzcinka-Ochocka M, Halatek T, Stetkiewicz J, Braziewicz J, et al. Scintigraphic assessment of renal function in steel plant workers occupationally exposed to lead. J Occup Health. 2015;57(2):91-9. doi: 10.1539/joh.14-0115-OA. [PubMed: 25735505].
  • 37. Gebrie HA, Tessema DA, Ambelu A. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2014;9(1):12. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-9-12. [PubMed: 24645964].
  • 38. Basit S, Karim N, Munshi AB. Occupational lead toxicity in battery workers. Pak J Med Sci. 2015;31(4):775-80. doi: 10.12669/pjms.314.7066. [PubMed: 26430401].
  • 39. Kim JH, Kim EA, Koh DH, Byun K, Ryu HW, Lee SG. Blood lead levels of Korean lead workers in 2003-2011. Ann Occup Environ Med. 2014;26:30. doi: 10.1186/s40557-014-0030-3. [PubMed: 25379187].
  • 40. OSHA . Blood Lead Laboratories program description and background. 2006. Available from: http://www.oshagov/SLTC/ bloodlead/ program..
  • 41. Ahamed M, Siddiqui MK. Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: current opinions. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;383(1-2):57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2007.04.024. [PubMed: 17573057].
  • 42. Chen Z, Lou J, Chen S, Zheng W, Wu W, Jin L, et al. Evaluating the genotoxic effects of workers exposed to lead using micronucleus assay, comet assay and TCR gene mutation test. Toxicology. 2006;223(3):219-26. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2006.03.016. [PubMed: 16713056].
  • 43. Schwartz BS, Lee BK, Lee GS, Stewart WF, Simon D, Kelsey K, et al. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(10):949-54. [PubMed: 11049814].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments