Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Patients’ Experience of Tuberculosis Treatment Using Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course (DOTS): A Qualitative Study

Masoud Behzadifar 1 , 2 , Masoud Mirzaei 3 , * , Meysam Behzadifar 4 , Abouzar Keshavarzi 5 , Maryam Behzadifar 2 , 6 and Maryam Saran 7
Authors Information
1 Department of Health Technology Assessment (HTA), Faculty of Health, University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran
2 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran
5 Department of Health Education, Faculty of Health, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran
6 Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, IR Iran
7 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: April 2015, 17 (4); e59656
  • Published Online: April 25, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 16, 2014
  • Revised: September 13, 2014
  • Accepted: March 20, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.17(4)2015.20277

To Cite: Behzadifar M, Mirzaei M, Behzadifar M, Keshavarzi A, Behzadifar M, et al. Patients’ Experience of Tuberculosis Treatment Using Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course (DOTS): A Qualitative Study, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 ; 17(4):e59656. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.17(4)2015.20277.

Copyright © 2015, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Ritz N, Curtis N. Novel concepts in the epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention of childhood tuberculosis. Swiss Med Wkly. 2014; 144[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Zanini F, Carugati M, Schiroli C, Lapadula G, Lombardi A, Codecasa L, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family: analysis of the epidemiological and clinical factors associated with an emerging lineage in the urban area of Milan. Infect Genet Evol. 2014; 25: 14-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. World Health Organization . Tuberculosis (TB) Global tuberculosis report 2014. 2014;
  • 4. Comas I, Coscolla M, Luo T, Borrell S, Holt KE, Kato-Maeda M, et al. Out-of-Africa migration and Neolithic coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with modern humans. Nat Genet. 2013; 45(10): 1176-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. World Health Organization . Global tuberculosis report 2013. 2013;
  • 6. Diacon AH, Pym A, Grobusch MP, de los Rios JM, Gotuzzo E, Vasilyeva I, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and culture conversion with bedaquiline. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(8): 723-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Zumla A, Abubakar I, Raviglione M, Hoelscher M, Ditiu L, McHugh TD, et al. Drug-resistant tuberculosis--current dilemmas, unanswered questions, challenges, and priority needs. J Infect Dis. 2012; 205 Suppl 2-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Mjid M, Cherif J, Ben Salah N, Toujani S, Ouahchi Y, Zakhama H, et al. [Tuberculosis epidemiology]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2015; 71(2-3): 67-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Murray CJ, Ortblad KF, Guinovart C, Lim SS, Wolock TM, Roberts DA, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of DiseasADDIN EN.CITE.DATAe Study 2013. Lancet. 2014; 384(9947): 1005-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Kazemnejad A, Arsang Jang S, Amani F, Omidi A. Global Epidemic Trend of Tuberculosis during 1990-2010: Using Segmented Regression Model. J Res Health Sci. 2014; 14(2): 115-21[PubMed]
  • 11. Hill PC, Whalen CC. Non-clinical factors associated with TB: important for DOTS impact evaluation and disease elimination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014; 108(9): 523-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Nagata Y, Urakawa M, Kobayashi N, Kato S. [Analysis on workload for hospital DOTS service]. Kekkaku. 2014; 89(4): 495-502[PubMed]
  • 13. Pandit S, Dey A, Chaudhuri AD, Saha M, Sengupta A, Kundu S, et al. Five-years experiences of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in northern part of Kolkata, India. Lung India. 2009; 26(4): 109-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Sivaraj R, Umarani S, Parasuraman S, Muralidhar P. Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program regimens with and without directly observed treatment, short-course: A comparative study of therapeutic cure rate and adverse reactions. Perspect Clin Res. 2014; 5(1): 16-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Mohajeri P, Norozi B, Atashi S, Farahani A. Anti tuberculosis drug resistance in west of iran. J Glob Infect Dis. 2014; 6(3): 114-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Tritar F, Daghfous H, Ben Saad S, Slim-Saidi L. [Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2015; 71(2-3): 130-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Raviglione MC, Uplekar MW. WHO's new Stop TB Strategy. Lancet. 2006; 367(9514): 952-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Munro SA, Lewin SA, Smith HJ, Engel ME, Fretheim A, Volmink J. Patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review of qualitative research. PLoS Med. 2007; 4(7)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Hsieh HF, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005; 15(9): 1277-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Xu B, Jiang QW, Xiu Y, Diwan VK. Diagnostic delays in access to tuberculosis care in counties with or without the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in rural China. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005; 9(7): 784-90[PubMed]
  • 21. Sumartojo E. Structural factors in HIV prevention: concepts, examples, and implications for research. AIDS. 2000; 14 Suppl 1-10[PubMed]
  • 22. Vermeire E, Hearnshaw H, Van Royen P, Denekens J. Patient adherence to treatment: three decades of research. A comprehensive review. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001; 26(5): 331-42[PubMed]
  • 23. Tulsky JP, Hahn JA, Long HL, Chambers DB, Robertson MJ, Chesney MA, et al. Can the poor adhere? Incentives for adherence to TB prevention in homeless adults. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004; 8(1): 83-91[PubMed]
  • 24. De Vos PF. Tuberculosis, Adherence Behaviour & the Inner City. 2002;
  • 25. Watkins RE, Plant AJ. Pathways to treatment for tuberculosis in Bali: patient perspectives. Qual Health Res. 2004; 14(5): 691-703[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Harper M, Ahmadu FA, Ogden JA, McAdam KP, Lienhardt C. Identifying the determinants of tuberculosis control in resource-poor countries: insights from a qualitative study in The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003; 97(5): 506-10[PubMed]
  • 27. Khan MA, Walley JD, Witter SN, Shah SK, Javeed S. Tuberculosis patient adherence to direct observation: results of a social study in Pakistan. Health Policy Plan. 2005; 20(6): 354-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Dixon-Woods M, Shaw RL, Agarwal S, Smith JA. The problem of appraising qualitative research. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13(3): 223-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Watkins RE, Rouse CR, Plant AJ. Tuberculosis treatment delivery in Bali: a qualitative study of clinic staff perceptions. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004; 8(2): 218-25[PubMed]
  • 30. Klink WB. Problems of regimen compliance in tuberculosis treatment. 1969;
  • 31. Greene JA. An ethnography of nonadherence: culture, poverty, and tuberculosis in urban Bolivia. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2004; 28(3): 401-25[PubMed]
  • 32. Rowe KA, Makhubele B, Hargreaves JR, Porter JD, Hausler HP, Pronyk PM. Adherence to TB preventive therapy for HIV-positive patients in rural South Africa: implications for antiretroviral delivery in resource-poor settings? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005; 9(3): 263-9[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments