Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Development and Validity of the Persian Handwriting Assessment Tool for Primary School-Aged Children

Naser Havaei 1 , Akram Azad 1 , * , Mehdi Alizadeh Zarei 1 and Abbas Ebadi 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: March 01, 2017, 19 (3); e40508
  • Published Online: September 24, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 1, 2016
  • Revised: September 7, 2016
  • Accepted: September 17, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.40508

To Cite: Havaei N, Azad A, Alizadeh Zarei M, Ebadi A. Development and Validity of the Persian Handwriting Assessment Tool for Primary School-Aged Children, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2017 ; 19(3):e40508. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.40508.

Abstract
Copyright © 2016, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Athenes S, Sallagoity I, Zanone PG, Albaret JM. Evaluating the coordination dynamics of handwriting. Hum Mov Sci. 2004; 23(5): 621-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. World Health Organization. . International classification of functioning, disability, and health: Children & youth version: ICF-CY. 2007;
  • 3. Feder KP, Majnemer A. Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007; 49(4): 312-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Hoy MM, Egan MY, Feder KP. A systematic review of interventions to improve handwriting. Can J Occup Ther. 2011; 78(1): 13-25[PubMed]
  • 5. Karlsdottir R, Stefansson T. Problems in developing functional handwriting. Percept Mot Skills. 2002; 94(2): 623-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Feder K, Majnemer A, Synnes A. Handwriting: current trends in occupational therapy practice. Can J Occup Ther. 2000; 67(3): 197-204[PubMed]
  • 7. Case-Smith J, O'Brien JC. Occupational therapy for children and adolescents. 2015;
  • 8. Hamstra-Bletz L, Blote AW. A longitudinal study on dysgraphic handwriting in primary school. J Learn Disabil. 1993; 26(10): 689-99[PubMed]
  • 9. Koziatek SM, Powell NJ. A validity study of the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Cursive. Am J Occup Ther. 2002; 56(4): 446-53[PubMed]
  • 10. Feder KP, Majnemer A. Children's handwriting evaluation tools and their psychometric properties. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2003; 23(3): 65-84[PubMed]
  • 11. Li-Tsang CW, Wong AS, Leung HW, Cheng JS, Chiu BH, Tse LF, et al. Validation of the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS) for primary school students in Hong Kong. Res Dev Disabil. 2013; 34(9): 2872-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Rosenblum S, Weiss PL, Parush S. Handwriting evaluation for developmental dysgraphia: Process versus product. . Reading and writing. 2004; 17(5): 433-58
  • 13. Roston KL, Hinojosa J, Kaplan H. Using the minnesota handwriting assessment and handwriting checklist in screening first and second graders' handwriting legibility. J Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention. 2008; 1(2): 100-15
  • 14. Standard databases for recognition of handwritten digits, numerical strings, legal amounts, letters and dates in Farsi language. Tenth international workshop on frontiers in handwriting recognition.
  • 15. Ragheb H HM. ;():. . A preliminary study of validity and reliability for handwriting achievement test in primary school student (grade 1). Except Child. 2005; 11-14(4): 51-62
  • 16. Hadavand-Khani F, Bahrami H, Behnia F, Farahbod M, Salehi M. Handwriting evalution in mentally retarded students: Identifying an instrument. J Rehabilitation. 2008; 8(4): 45-52
  • 17. Javan Tash A, Mirzakhani N, Pashazadeh Z. The quest for exploring the normal speed of handwriting in students of grade 2-5 in Tehran. Rehabilitation Med. 2012; 1(1): 57-63
  • 18. Overvelde A, Hulstijn W. Handwriting development in grade 2 and grade 3 primary school children with normal, at risk, or dysgraphic characteristics. Res Dev Disabil. 2011; 32(2): 540-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Falk TH, Tam C, Schellnus H, Chau T. On the development of a computer-based handwriting assessment tool to objectively quantify handwriting proficiency in children. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2011; 104(3): 102-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Cheng S. Development and validation of a Chinese handwriting assessment tool (CHAT) for primary school students. 2010;
  • 21. Summers J, Catarro F. Assessment of handwriting speed and factors influencing written output of university students in examinations. Aust Occup Ther J. 2003; 50(3): 148-57
  • 22. Tomchek S, Schneck C. evaluation of handwriting. hand function in the child: foundations for remediation. 2006; : 291-309
  • 23. Rosenblum S, Weiss PL, Parush S. Product and process evaluation of handwriting difficulties. Educat Psychol Review. 2003; 15(1): 41-81
  • 24. Ayre C, Scally AJ. Critical values for lawshe’s content validity ratio revisiting the original methods of calculation. Meas Eval Couns Dev. 2014; 47(1): 79-86
  • 25. Reisman JE. Development and reliability of the research version of the minnesota handwriting test. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 1993; 13(2): 41-55
  • 26. Plichta SB, Kelvin EA, Munro BH. Munro's statistical methods for health care research: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012;
  • 27. Sudsawad P, Trombly CA, Henderson A, Tickle-Degnen L. The relationship between the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting and teachers' perceptions of handwriting legibility. Am J Occup Ther. 2001; 55(5): 518-23[PubMed]
  • 28. Portney LG, Watkins MP. Foundations of clinical research: Applications to practice (3rdedn) pearson prentice hall. 2009;
  • 29. Graham S, Berninger V, Weintraub N, Schafer W. Development of handwriting speed and legibility in grades 1–9. J Educat Res. 1998; 92(1): 42-52
  • 30. Schneck CM, Amundson SJ, Case-Smith J, O’Brien JC. Prewriting and handwriting skills. Occupational therapy for children. 2010; 6: 555-80
  • 31. Stefansson T, Karlsdottir R. Formative evaluation of handwriting quality. Percept Mot Skills. 2003; 97(3 Pt 2): 1231-64[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Tseng MH, Chow SM. Perceptual-motor function of school-age children with slow handwriting speed. Am J Occup Ther. 2000; 54(1): 83-8[PubMed]
  • 33. Crouch AL, Jakubecy JJ. Dysgraphia: How it affects a student's performance and what can be done about it. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus. 2007; 3(3)
  • 34. Dennis JL, Swinth Y. Pencil grasp and children's handwriting legibility during different-length writing tasks. Am J Occup Ther. 2001; 55(2): 175-83[PubMed]
  • 35. Hammerschmidt SL, Sudsawad P. Teachers' survey on problems with handwriting: referral, evaluation, and outcomes. Am J Occup Ther. 2004; 58(2): 185-92[PubMed]
  • 36. Brossard-Racine M, Mazer B, Julien M, Majnemer A. Validating the use of the evaluation tool of children's handwriting-manuscript to identify handwriting difficulties and detect change in school-age children. Am J Occup Ther. 2012; 66(4): 414-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Rosenblum S, Dvorkin AY, Weiss PL. Automatic segmentation as a tool for examining the handwriting process of children with dysgraphic and proficient handwriting. Hum Mov Sci. 2006; 25(4-5): 608-21[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments