Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Effects of Second and Third Generation Oral Contraceptives on Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized Triple-Blind Controlled Trial

Mahnaz Shahnazi 1 , Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili 2 , Samira Pourzeinali-Beilankouh 1 , * and Farnaz Sadrimehr 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
2 Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Tabriz Health Services Management Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: September 01, 2016, 18 (9); e36982
  • Published Online: June 19, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: February 8, 2016
  • Revised: March 28, 2016
  • Accepted: April 23, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.36982

To Cite: Shahnazi M, Farshbaf-Khalili A, Pourzeinali-Beilankouh S, Sadrimehr F. Effects of Second and Third Generation Oral Contraceptives on Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized Triple-Blind Controlled Trial, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 ; 18(9):e36982. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.36982.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Junod SW. FDA's approval of the first oral contraceptive, enovid. 2009;
  • 2. Hasan Sidd Y, Naz F, Jyoti S, Afzal M. Biochemical Effects of Oral Contraceptives among Users: A Review. Int J Pharmacol. 2012; 8(5): 314-20[DOI]
  • 3. Prasad RN, Liew D, Ratnam SS. Comparative metabolic effects of three types of combined oral contraceptive pills in Chinese women. Contraception. 1989; 39(1): 21-35[PubMed]
  • 4. Gaspard UJ, Lefebvre PJ. Clinical aspects of the relationship between oral contraceptives, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism, and the development of cardiovascular disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 163(1 Pt 2): 334-43[PubMed]
  • 5. Berek JS, Novak E. Berek and Novak's Gynecology. 2012;
  • 6. Sitruk-Ware R, Nath A. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2011; 12(2): 63-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 2012;
  • 8. Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Schulz KF. Steroidal contraceptives: effect on carbohydrate metabolism in women without diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; (4)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Sitruk-Ware R, Nath A. Characteristics and metabolic effects of estrogen and progestins contained in oral contraceptive pills. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 27(1): 13-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Cagnacci A, Ferrari S, Tirelli A, Zanin R, Volpe A. Insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism with oral contraceptives containing chlormadinone acetate or desogestrel: a randomized trial. Contraception. 2009; 79(2): 111-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Guerra JA, Lopez-Mu-oz F, Alamo C. Progestins in combined contraceptives. J Exp Clin Med. 2013; 5(2): 51-5
  • 12. Rader DJ. Effect of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and intra-abdominal adiposity on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 2007; 120(3 Suppl 1)-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Obesity and overweight . 2015;
  • 14. Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients. 2013; 5(4): 1218-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Bacha F, Lee S, Gungor N, Arslanian SA. From pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes in obese youth: pathophysiological characteristics along the spectrum of glucose dysregulation. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33(10): 2225-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Neeland IJ, Turer AT, Ayers CR, Powell-Wiley TM, Vega GL, Farzaneh-Far R, et al. Dysfunctional adiposity and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in obese adults. JAMA. 2012; 308(11): 1150-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Instruction of contraception methods in isalamic republic of iran [in persian] 2008;
  • 18. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin clem. 1972; 18(6): 499-502[PubMed]
  • 19. National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection E, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in A. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002; 106(25): 3143-421[PubMed]
  • 20. Kemmeren JM, Algra A, Grobbee DE. Effect of second and third generation oral contraceptives on lipid metabolism in the absence or presence of the factor V Leiden mutation. J Intern Med. 2001; 250(5): 441-8[PubMed]
  • 21. Knopp RH, Broyles FE, Cheung M, Moore K, Marcovina S, Chandler WL. Comparison of the lipoprotein, carbohydrate, and hemostatic effects of phasic oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or levonorgestrel. Contraception. 2001; 63(1): 1-11[PubMed]
  • 22. van Rooijen M, von Schoultz B, Silveira A, Hamsten A, Bremme K. Different effects of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel or desogestrel on plasma lipoproteins and coagulation factor VII. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 186(1): 44-8[PubMed]
  • 23. Klipping C, Marr J. Effects of two combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol 20 microg combined with either drospirenone or desogestrel on lipids, hemostatic parameters and carbohydrate metabolism. Contraception. 2005; 71(6): 409-16[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. deGoma EM, Leeper NJ, Heidenreich PA. Clinical significance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51(1): 49-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Foulon T, Payen N, Laporte F, Bijaoui S, Dupont G, Roland F, et al. Effects of two low-dose oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol and either desogestrel or levonorgestrel on serum lipids and lipoproteins with particular regard to LDL size. Contraception. 2001; 64(1): 11-6[PubMed]
  • 26. Talayero BG, Sacks FM. The role of triglycerides in atherosclerosis. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2011; 13(6): 544-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Winkler UH, Sudik R. The effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and either 2 mg of chlormadinone acetate or 0.15 mg of desogestrel on lipid, hormone and metabolic parameters. Contraception. 2009; 79(1): 15-23[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Tabak AG, Herder C, Rathmann W, Brunner EJ, Kivimaki M. Prediabetes: a high-risk state for diabetes development. Lancet. 2012; 379(9833): 2279-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Ford ES, Zhao G, Li C. Pre-diabetes and the risk for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55(13): 1310-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Beasley A, Estes C, Guerrero J, Westhoff C. The effect of obesity and low-dose oral contraceptives on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Contraception. 2012; 85(5): 446-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Cheang KI, Essah PA, Sharma S, Wickham E3, Nestler JE. Divergent effects of a combined hormonal oral contraceptive on insulin sensitivity in lean versus obese women. Fertil Steril. 2011; 96(2): 353-359 e1[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments