Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Holistic Care for Patients During Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation: A Qualitative Study

Ali Khalafi 1 , Nasrin Elahi 1 , * and Fazlollah Ahmadi 2
Authors Information
1 Nursing Care Research Center in Chronic Diseases, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
2 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: November 01, 2016, 18 (11); e33682
  • Published Online: August 6, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: October 8, 2015
  • Revised: November 22, 2015
  • Accepted: December 4, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.33682

To Cite: Khalafi A, Elahi N, Ahmadi F. Holistic Care for Patients During Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation: A Qualitative Study, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 ; 18(11):e33682. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.33682.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Blackwood B, Wilson-Barnett J, Trinder J. Protocolized weaning from mechanical ventilation: ICU physicians' views. J Adv Nurs. 2004; 48(1): 26-34[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Boles JM, Bion J, Connors A, Herridge M, Marsh B, Melot C, et al. Weaning from mechanical ventilation. Eur Respir J. 2007; 29(5): 1033-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Madani SJ, Saghafinia M, Sedighi Nezhad H, Ebadi A, Ghochani A, Fazel Tavasoli A, et al. Validity of Integrative Weaning Index of Discontinuation From Mechanical Ventilation in Iranian ICUs. Thrita J Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 62-8[DOI]
  • 4. Eckerblad J, Eriksson H, Karner A, Edell-Gustafsson U. Nurses' conceptions of facilitative strategies of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation--a phenomenographic study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2009; 25(5): 225-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Crocker C, Scholes J. The importance of knowing the patient in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Nurs Crit Care. 2009; 14(6): 289-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Martensson IE, Fridlund B. Factors influencing the patient during weaning from mechanical ventilation: a national survey. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2002; 18(4): 219-29[PubMed]
  • 7. Rose L, Nelson S, Johnston L, Presneill JJ. Decisions made by critical care nurses during mechanical ventilation and weaning in an Australian intensive care unit. Am J Crit Care. 2007; 16(5): 434-43[PubMed]
  • 8. Blackwood B, Alderdice F, Burns KE, Cardwell CR, Lavery GG, O'Halloran P. Protocolized vs. non-protocolized weaning for reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill adult patients: Cochrane review protocol. J Adv Nurs. 2009; 65(5): 957-64[PubMed]
  • 9. Position statement on nurses' role in weaning from ventilation 2012. 2012;
  • 10. Tingsvik C, Johansson K, Martensson J. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: factors that influence intensive care nurses' decision-making. Nurs Crit Care. 2015; 20(1): 16-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Gelsthorpe T, Crocker C. A study exploring factors which influence the decision to commence nurse-led weaning. Nurs Crit Care. 2004; 9(5): 213-21[PubMed]
  • 12. Lavelle C, Dowling M. The factors which influence nurses when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation: findings from a qualitative study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2011; 27(5): 244-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Blackwood B. The art and science of predicting patient readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Int J Nurs Stud. 2000; 37(2): 145-51[PubMed]
  • 14. Crocker C, Scholes J. Weaning from ventilation needs to be tailored to individual patients and involve them. Nurs Times. 2010; 106(4): 19-21[PubMed]
  • 15. Pun BT, Ely EW. The importance of diagnosing and managing ICU delirium. Chest. 2007; 132(2): 624-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. MacIntyre NR, Cook DJ, Ely EWJ, Epstein SK, Fink JB, Heffner JE, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for weaning and discontinuing ventilatory support: a collective task force facilitated by the American College of Chest Physicians; the American Association for Respiratory Care; and the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. 2001; 120(6 Suppl): 375S-95S[PubMed]
  • 17. Couchman BA, Wetzig SM, Coyer FM, Wheeler MK. Nursing care of the mechanically ventilated patient: what does the evidence say? Part one. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2007; 23(1): 4-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Papathanasiou I, Sklavou M, Kourkouta L. Holistic Nursing Care: Theories and Perspectives. Am J Nurs Sci. 2013; 2(1): 1-5[DOI]
  • 19. Tjale AA, Bruce J. A concept analysis of holistic nursing care in paediatric nursing. Curationis. 2007; 30(4): 45-52[PubMed]
  • 20. Selimen D, Andsoy ,I. The importance of a holistic approach during the perioperative period. AORN J. 2011; 93(4): 482-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. O'Regan P, Wills T. The growth of complementary therapies: and their benefits in the perioperative setting. J Perioper Pract. 2009; 19(11): 382-6[PubMed]
  • 22. Davis-Floyd R. The technocratic, humanistic, and holistic paradigms of childbirth. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001; 75 Suppl 1[PubMed]
  • 23. Olive P. The holistic nursing care of patients with minor injuries attending the A&E department. Accid Emerg Nurs. 2003; 11(1): 27-32[PubMed]
  • 24. Bahrami M. Do nurses provide holistic care to cancer patients? Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010; 15(4): 245-51[PubMed]
  • 25. Frisch NC. Standards of holistic nursing practice as guidelines for quality undergraduate nursing curricula. J Prof Nurs. 2003; 19(6): 382-6[PubMed]
  • 26. Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today. 2004; 24(2): 105-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. 2012;
  • 28. Lincoln YS, Guba EG. Naturalistic Inquiry. 1985;
  • 29. Orlando IJ. The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship: Function, Process, and Principles. 1990;
  • 30. Jenny J, Logan J. Knowing the patient: one aspect of clinical knowledge. Image J Nurs Sch. 1992; 24(4): 254-8[PubMed]
  • 31. Schou L, Egerod I. A qualitative study into the lived experience of post-CABG patients during mechanical ventilator weaning. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2008; 24(3): 171-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Patak L, Gawlinski A, Fung NI, Doering L, Berg J. Patients' reports of health care practitioner interventions that are related to communication during mechanical ventilation. Heart Lung. 2004; 33(5): 308-20[PubMed]
  • 33. Russell S. An exploratory study of patients' perceptions, memories and experiences of an intensive care unit. J Adv Nurs. 1999; 29(4): 783-91[PubMed]
  • 34. Magnus VS, Turkington L. Communication interaction in ICU--Patient and staff experiences and perceptions. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2006; 22(3): 167-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Watson J. Human Caring Science: A Theory of Nursing. 2011;
  • 36. Cederwall CJ, Plos K, Rose L, Dubeck A, Ringdal M. Critical care nurses management of prolonged weaning: an interview study. Nurs Crit Care. 2014; 19(5): 236-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Hancock HC, Easen PR. The decision-making processes of nurses when extubating patients following cardiac surgery: an ethnographic study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006; 43(6): 693-705[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Matiti MR, Trorey GM. Patients' expectations of the maintenance of their dignity. J Clin Nurs. 2008; 17(20): 2709-17[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Walsh K, Kowanko I. Nurses' and patients' perceptions of dignity. Int J Nurs Pract. 2002; 8(3): 143-51[PubMed]
  • 40. Newman MA. Newman's Theory of Health as Praxis. Nurs Sci Q. 1990; 3(1): 37-41[DOI]
  • 41. Rogers ME. The science of unitary human beings: current perspectives. Nurs Sci Q. 1994; 7(1): 33-5[PubMed]
  • 42. Chen CJ, Lin CJ, Tzeng YL, Hsu LN. Successful mechanical ventilation weaning experiences at respiratory care centers. J Nurs Res. 2009; 17(2): 93-101[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Flatten H. Patient Safety and Quality of Care in Intensive Care Medicine. 2009;
  • 44. Rose L, Blackwood B, Burns SM, Frazier SK, Egerod I. International perspectives on the influence of structure and process of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am J Crit Care. 2011; 20(1): 10-8[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments