RETRACTED ARTICLE: Measurement of Central Venous Pressure Using Ultrasound in Emergency Department

AUTHORS

Ahmad Abbasian 1 , Hamideh Feiz Disfani 2 , Mohammad Afzalimoghaddam 3 , Mohammad Taghi Talebian 1 , Babak Masoumi 4 , Mohammad Nasr-Esfahani 4 , *

1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Pre-Hospital Emergency Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Hasheminejad Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran

3 Department of Emergency Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

4 Department of Emergency Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran

How to Cite: Abbasian A, Feiz Disfani H, Afzalimoghaddam M, Talebian M T, Masoumi B, et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Measurement of Central Venous Pressure Using Ultrasound in Emergency Department, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 ; 17(12):e19403. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.19403.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: 17 (12); e19403
Published Online: December 24, 2015
Article Type: Research Article
Received: April 10, 2014
Revised: November 8, 2014
Accepted: May 30, 2015
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Abstract

Background: In order to assessment of intravascular fluid measurement of central venous pressure (CVP) is used via central venous catheterization (CVC). This procedure is highly invasive and may cause serious complications such as pneumothorax, infection, hematoma and etc. It is so valuable procedure if we can uses a less invasive or noninvasive procedure to assess patients intravascular fluid in critical positions.

Objectives: In this study, the ultrasound was used to measure the central venous pressure (CVP).

Patients and Methods: In this study, patients with Central venous catheterization were selected using simple random sampling. The largest diameter of longitudinal, transverse views and the cross-section of inferior vena cava (IVC) and internal jugular vein (IJV) were measured using the ultrasound in the bedside of the patients. Central venous pressure was measured using routine methods. Correlations between variables were analyzed using SPSS and linear regression.

Results: Twenty patients with the mean age of 60.3 were studied. The main reason for cardiac catheterization was shock. There are no relationship between anterior posterior diameter of inferior vena cava and CVP of patients (P = 0.257). The longest diameter of IVC in ultrasonographic transverse view had significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.045) but in patients with BMI > 25 it was not significant. Cross section of internal jugular vein had significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.003). Longitudinal diameter of internal jugular vein had no significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.052), but transverse diameter of internal jugular generally had significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.003). Cross section of internal jugular had significant association with CVP (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Noninvasive assessment of the patient hydration condition using the ultrasound is a simple and practicable measure in emergency. With regard to the considerations, it is possible to estimate CVP via diameter measurement and cross-section of the central veins.

Keywords

Central Venous Pressure Inferior Vena Cava Internal Jugular Vein

Copyright © 2015, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Background

Exact examination of the body fluid condition is a part of every clinical assessment. In the most disease treatment and its effects, depends on body fluids. There are several methods to assess patient’s hydration condition. However, none of these methods are optimal and each has its own limitations (1). Assessment of central venous pressure (CVP) via catheter insertion is used mainly as a guide in hydrotherapy (2). Intake of fluid beyond the patient need will accompanied with symptoms such as sever lung edema, conversely intake of less fluid leads to permanent hypovolemic and consequently hypoperfusion and shock (3). Insertion of catheter in central vein is accompanied with complications such as perforating arteries, pneumothorax, and air embolism (4). Using alternative methods has taken consideration from the researchers since previous years, which include CVP measurement via insertion catheter in more peripheral veins, the plethysmography, the doppler echocardiography, the Doppler flow and the ultrasound (5). From the view point of application, the ideal method should be easy, accurate, fast and repetitive. The ultrasound in bedside of the patient which is performed by emergency physicians has got these specialties (6).

2. Objectives

The aim of this study was to measure the diameter and cross-section of inferior vena cava (IVC) and internal jugular vein (IJV) using the ultrasound, compare it with measured central vein pressure via catheter, and thus to introduce new methods to measure circulation volume in hospitalized patients in In emergency ward of Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran.

3. Patients and Methods

In this study, correlation between diameter and cross-section of IVC and diameter and IJV with CVP were examined. The hospitalized patients in emergency unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital which were monitored for CVP, after inserting catheter and determining the right position via chest X-ray were included in the study. Right atrium pressure (RAP) was measured using the fluid fill tube connected to water column in supine position. Before pressure measurement, calibration was conducted and zero was put in the mid thorax. Fukuda Denshi 4300, the ultrasound with 5 MHz probe, made by Japan was used for diameter measurement in the emergency unit. Measurements were conducted by a resident of emergency medicine and approved by a related faculty member. During the measurements, patient was in the supine position. The largest diameter of IVC and its perpendicularity in transverses position were measured using subxiphoid approaches. Anterior-posterior diameter in sagittal view was measured in the same point. Diameters of IJV in the range of thyroid gland were measured and the cross-sections of IVC and IJV were measured using the numbers.

3.1. Data Analysis

Liner regression was used to determine the correlations between CVP measured by central vein catheter and data resulting from the ultrasound. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS software (Tehran, Iran) and to assess liner correlation, the Pearson test was used.

4. Results

Twenty patients (13 women and 7 men) with the mean age of 60.3 were included in this study. Nine of them had normal BMI (20 - 25) and 4 were thin (BMI < 20) and 7 had BMI more than normal range. The main reason for cardiac catheterization was shock. Liner regression was used to determine the correlation between CVP measured by central vein catheter and data resulting from the ultrasound and the following results were gained:

There was no significant correlation between anterior-posterior diameters of IVC and CVP (P = 0.257) (Figure 1). This relation was studied based on patients BMI separately. Also, this correlation was insignificant in the participants with BMI more than normal (BMI > 25), normal (BMI: 20 - 25) and less than normal (BMI < 20) (P = 0.746, P = 0.056 and P = 0.060, respectively).

Relationship Between Anterior-Posterior Diameters of Inferior Vena Cava and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) (P = 0.257)
Figure 1. Relationship Between Anterior-Posterior Diameters of Inferior Vena Cava and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) (P = 0.257)

There was a significant relationship between the largest diameters of IVC and CVP in transverse view (P = 0.045, r = 0.453) (Figure 2). This correlation was insignificantin participants with BMI more than normal (P = 0.076). However, No significant correlation was seen in the largest diameters of IVC and CVP in transverse view between the participants with normal BMI and BMI less than normal. (P = 0.016, r = 0.769 and P = 0.012, r = 0.988, respectively).

Relationship Between the Largest Diameters of Inferior Vena Cava and Central Venous Pressure (CVP)
Figure 2. Relationship Between the Largest Diameters of Inferior Vena Cava and Central Venous Pressure (CVP)

There was a significant relationship between surface sections of IVC and CVP (P = 0.003, r = 0.63) (Figure 3). This significant relationship has not seen in participants with BMI more than normal (P = 0.121). But in participants with normal BMI and less than normal have not seen. (P = 0.002, r = 0.873 and P = 0.003, r = 0.997, respectively).

Relationship Between Surface Sections of Inferior Vena Cava and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) (P = 0.003, r = 0.63)
Figure 3. Relationship Between Surface Sections of Inferior Vena Cava and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) (P = 0.003, r = 0.63)

Also, there was no significant relationship between longitudinal view diameters of IJV and CVP (P = 0.052) (Figure 4). This non-significant relationship was seen in the participants with BMI more than normal and normal (P = 0.216 and P = 0.368) but there was significant relationships in people with less than normal BMI (P = 0.048, r = 0.952).

Relationship Between Longitudinal View Diameters of Internal Jugular Vein (CVP) (P = 0.052)
Figure 4. Relationship Between Longitudinal View Diameters of Internal Jugular Vein (CVP) (P = 0.052)

There was a significant relationship between the largest diameters of IJV and CVP in transverse view (P = 0.003, r = 0626) (Figure 5). This relationship was seen in participants with normal BMI (P = 0.276). However, significant relationship was seen between the largest diameters of IJV and CVP in the participants with normal BMI and BMI less than normal (P = 0.018, r = 0.753 and P = 0.0147, r = 0.953, respectively).

Relationship Between the Largest Diameters of Internal Jugular Vein and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) in Transverse View (P = 0.003, r = 0626)
Figure 5. Relationship Between the Largest Diameters of Internal Jugular Vein and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) in Transverse View (P = 0.003, r = 0626)

There was no significant relation between the cross-sections of IJV and CVP (P = 0.001, r = 0.677) (Figure 6). This relationship was significant in participants with BMI more than normal, normal and less than normal (P = 0.048, r = 0.758, P = 0.029, r = 0.719 and P = 0.044, r = 0.956, respectively).

Relationship Between Cross-Sections of Internal Jugular Vein and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) (P = 0.001, r = 0.677)
Figure 6. Relationship Between Cross-Sections of Internal Jugular Vein and Central Venous Pressure (CVP) (P = 0.001, r = 0.677)

5. Discussion

The quick, easy and noninvasive assessment of CVP, especially in emergency conditions, is important. Because CVP is an important part of the diagnostic algorithm and conditional treatment such as shock. By describing the method in this paper, it will be provided volume assessment of the patient in conditions which it is not possible to embedding central vein catheter such coagulation disorders, neck injury and disorganized anatomy. Moreover, the quick assessment to respond to fluid therapy will be possible via this method. On the other hand, in a condition fibrinolytic therapy and inhibiting platelets consumption, noninvasive assessment of CVP can be very helpful. The results of this study showed that there was a significant relationship between the largest diameters of inferior vena cava (IVC) in transverse view with those of CVP. However, this relationship in people with high BMI does not apply. According to the patient’s fatness and lower resolution images of the ultrasound, result might not be justified. In contrary to the previous study herein, the correlation between anterior posterior diameters of IVC with CVP rate was not significant (7-10). Of course in the measurement of IVC in longitudinal and transverse views showed by the echocardiography, the measured diameter in transverse view (Using M-Mode method) has stronger relation with the pressure of right atrium compared to measured diameter in longitudinal view (11-14). This indicates that the measured anterior posterior diameter of IVC in Sagittal view is not a very good criterion to evaluate the patient CVP rate. The correlation between section surfaces of IJV and CVP was evaluated. There was a significant relation among all the weight groups. Baumann et al. (15) have shown that estimating rate of CVP and evaluating its changes is possible via the ultrasound (5). The results of this study show that the cross-section of IJV is the best vascular criterion to relate the CVP of the patients.

Footnote

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