Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy of the Human Mirror Neuron System: Impact on Functional Recovery of Ischemic Hemiparetic Patients

Monireh Motaqhey 1 , Ali Ghanjal 2 , Reza Mastri Farahani 1 , * , Mojdeh Ghabaee 3 , Gholamreza Kaka 4 , Mohsen Noroziyan 1 and Fatemeh Fadaee Fathabadi 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Neurology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Neuroscience Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: August 01, 2015, 17 (8); e28363
  • Published Online: August 24, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: March 2, 2015
  • Revised: April 11, 2015
  • Accepted: April 30, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.28363

To Cite: Motaqhey M, Ghanjal A, Mastri Farahani R, Ghabaee M, Kaka G, et al. Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy of the Human Mirror Neuron System: Impact on Functional Recovery of Ischemic Hemiparetic Patients, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 ; 17(8):e28363. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.28363.

Copyright © 2015, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Aminoff MJ, Boller F, Swaab DF. Clinical neurology and stroke. Foreword. Handb Clin Neurol. 2009; 93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Cheng Y, Chou KH, Decety J, Chen IY, Hung D, Tzeng OJ, et al. Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of human mirror-neuron system: a voxel-based morphometric investigation. Neuroscience. 2009; 158(2): 713-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Ertelt D, Small S, Solodkin A, Dettmers C, McNamara A, Binkofski F, et al. Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. Neuroimage. 2007; 36 Suppl 2-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Chen X, Sachdev PS, Wen W, Anstey KJ. Sex differences in regional gray matter in healthy individuals aged 44-48 years: a voxel-based morphometric study. Neuroimage. 2007; 36(3): 691-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Rabinowicz T, Petetot JM, Gartside PS, Sheyn D, Sheyn T, de CM. Structure of the cerebral cortex in men and women. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002; 61(1): 46-57[PubMed]
  • 6. Cheng YW, Tzeng OJ, Decety J, Imada T, Hsieh JC. Gender differences in the human mirror system: a magnetoencephalography study. Neuroreport. 2006; 17(11): 1115-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Han S, Fan Y, Mao L. Gender difference in empathy for pain: an electrophysiological investigation. Brain Res. 2008; 1196: 85-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Buccino G, Binkofski F, Riggio L. The mirror neuron system and action recognition. Brain Lang. 2004; 89(2): 370-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Stefan K. Formation of a Motor Memory by Action Observation. Journal of Neuroscience. 2005; 25(41): 9339-46[DOI]
  • 10. Douglas C. Design and analysis of experiments. 2008;
  • 11. G*Power 3.1 manual. 2014;
  • 12. Nakhostin Ansari N. Rehabilitation techniques in the treatment of stroke. 2010;
  • 13. Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG, Rodgers MM, Romani WA. Muscles Testing and Function with Posture and Pain. 2005;
  • 14. Jang SH, Kim YH, Cho SH, Lee JH, Park JW, Kwon YH. Cortical reorganization induced by task-oriented training in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Neuroreport. 2003; 14(1): 137-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Jeannerod M. Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. Neuroimage. 2001; 14(1 Pt 2)-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Buccino G, Vogt S, Ritzl A, Fink GR, Zilles K, Freund HJ, et al. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron. 2004; 42(2): 323-34[PubMed]
  • 17. Lexell J, Flansbjer UB. Muscle strength training, gait performance and physiotherapy after stroke. Minerva Med. 2008; 99(4): 353-68[PubMed]
  • 18. Flansbjer UB, Miller M, Downham D, Lexell J. Progressive resistance training after stroke: effects on muscle strength, muscle tone, gait performance and perceived participation. J Rehabil Med. 2008; 40(1): 42-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Zijlstra A, Mancini M, Chiari L, Zijlstra W. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations: a systematic review. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2010; 7: 58[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. van de Port IG, Wood-Dauphinee S, Lindeman E, Kwakkel G. Effects of exercise training programs on walking competency after stroke: a systematic review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007; 86(11): 935-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Mihara M, Miyai I, Hattori N, Hatakenaka M, Yagura H, Kawano T, et al. Cortical control of postural balance in patients with hemiplegic stroke. Neuroreport. 2012; 23(5): 314-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Brincks J, Nielsen JF. Increased power generation in impaired lower extremities correlated with changes in walking speeds in sub-acute stroke patients. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012; 27(2): 138-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Ghanjal A, Torkaman G, Ghabaee M, Ebrahimi E. The effect of action observation on the symmetry of weight distribution and stability indices in semi-dynamic stability in healthy men and women. Modern Rehabil. 2013; 7(4): 57-66
  • 24. Dickstein R. Rehabilitation of gait speed after stroke: a critical review of intervention approaches. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008; 22(6): 649-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Bovonsunthonchai S, Hiengkaew V, Vachalathiti R, Vongsirinavarat M. Gait symmetrical indexes and their relationships to muscle tone, lower extremity function, and postural balance in mild to moderate stroke. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011; 94(4): 476-84[PubMed]
  • 26. Bonan IV, Colle FM, Guichard JP, Vicaut E, Eisenfisz M, Tran Ba Huy P, et al. Reliance on visual information after stroke. Part I: Balance on dynamic posturography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004; 85(2): 268-73[PubMed]
  • 27. Cho K, Lee G. Impaired dynamic balance is associated with falling in post-stroke patients. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013; 230(4): 233-9[PubMed]
  • 28. Mansfield A, Danells CJ, Inness E, Mochizuki G, McIlroy WE. Between-limb synchronization for control of standing balance in individuals with stroke. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2011; 26(3): 312-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Oliveira CB, Medeiros IR, Greters MG, Frota NA, Lucato LT, Scaff M, et al. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011; 66(12): 2043-8[PubMed]
  • 30. Wang L, Yu C, Chen H, Qin W, He Y, Fan F, et al. Dynamic functional reorganization of the motor execution network after stroke. Brain. 2010; 133: 1224-38[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Jeon BJ, Kim WH, Park EY. Effect of task-oriented training for people with stroke: a meta-analysis focused on repetitive or circuit training. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2015; 22(1): 34-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Carver T, Nadeau S, Leroux A. Relation between physical exertion and postural stability in hemiparetic participants secondary to stroke. Gait Posture. 2011; 33(4): 615-9[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments