Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Effect of Six Months of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Azam Abdollahpour 1 , * , Nasim Khosravi 2 , Zohreh Eskandari 3 and Shahpar Haghighat 2
Authors Information
1 Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, IR Iran
2 Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACER, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Raja University, Qazvin, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: January 01, 2017, 19 (1); e27842
  • Published Online: June 1, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: February 10, 2015
  • Revised: March 31, 2015
  • Accepted: April 29, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.27842

To Cite: Abdollahpour A, Khosravi N, Eskandari Z, Haghighat S. Effect of Six Months of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2017 ; 19(1):e27842. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.27842.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11. 2013;
  • 2. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. 2010;
  • 3. Lynch BM, Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM. Physical activity and breast cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011; 186: 13-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Friedenreich CM. Physical activity and breast cancer: review of the epidemiologic evidence and biologic mechanisms. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011; 188: 125-39[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Friedenreich CM, Cust AE. Physical activity and breast cancer risk: impact of timing, type and dose of activity and population subgroup effects. Br J Sports Med. 2008; 42(8): 636-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Awatef M, Olfa G, Rim C, Asma K, Kacem M, Makram H, et al. Physical activity reduces breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Tunisia. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011; 35(6): 540-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Peters TM, Schatzkin A, Gierach GL, Moore SC, Lacey JJ, Wareham NJ, et al. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(1): 289-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM, Brockton NT, Millikan RC. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(1): 11-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. McTiernan A. Associations between energy balance and body mass index and risk of breast carcinoma in women from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. Cancer. 2000; 88(5 Suppl): 1248-55[PubMed]
  • 10. Campbell KL, McTiernan A. Exercise and biomarkers for cancer prevention studies. J Nutr. 2007; 137(1 Suppl): 161S-9S[PubMed]
  • 11. McTiernan A. Mechanisms linking physical activity with cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008; 8(3): 205-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Waki H, Tontonoz P. Endocrine functions of adipose tissue. Annu Rev Pathol. 2007; 2: 31-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Vona-Davis L, Rose DP. Adipokines as endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors in breast cancer risk and progression. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007; 14(2): 189-206[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Sandur SK, Pandey MK, Sethi G. Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochem Pharmacol. 2006; 72(11): 1605-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Slattery ML, Curtin K, Baumgartner R, Sweeney C, Byers T, Giuliano AR, et al. IL6, aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk in women living in the southwestern United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16(4): 747-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Elinav E, Nowarski R, Thaiss CA, Hu B, Jin C, Flavell RA. Inflammation-induced cancer: crosstalk between tumours, immune cells and microorganisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2013; 13(11): 759-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Cleary MP, Grossmann ME. Minireview: Obesity and breast cancer: the estrogen connection. Endocrinology. 2009; 150(6): 2537-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Kavouras S, Stefanadis C, Attica Study . The associations between leisure-time physical activity and inflammatory and coagulation markers related to cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA Study. Prev Med. 2005; 40(4): 432-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Colbert LH, Visser M, Simonsick EM, Tracy RP, Newman AB, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52(7): 1098-104[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Frank LL, Sorensen BE, Yasui Y, Tworoger SS, Schwartz RS, Ulrich CM, et al. Effects of exercise on metabolic risk variables in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial. Obes Res. 2005; 13(3): 615-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Friedenreich CM, Neilson HK, Woolcott CG, McTiernan A, Wang Q, Ballard-Barbash R, et al. Changes in insulin resistance indicators, IGFs, and adipokines in a year-long trial of aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011; 18(3): 357-69[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Oberbach A, Tonjes A, Kloting N, Fasshauer M, Kratzsch J, Busse MW, et al. Effect of a 4 week physical training program on plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006; 154(4): 577-85[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. McTiernan A, Schwartz RS, Potter J, Bowen D. Exercise clinical trials in cancer prevention research: a call to action. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999; 8(3): 201-7[PubMed]
  • 24. Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. 2008; 2008
  • 25. Friedenreich CM, Neilson HK, Woolcott CG, Wang Q, Stanczyk FZ, McTiernan A, et al. Inflammatory marker changes in a yearlong randomized exercise intervention trial among postmenopausal women. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012; 5(1): 98-108[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Masella M, Marfella R, et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003; 289(14): 1799-804[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 2013;
  • 28. Kohut ML, McCann DA, Russell DW, Konopka DN, Cunnick JE, Franke WD, et al. Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 independent of beta-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults. Brain Behav Immun. 2006; 20(3): 201-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Kern PA, Ranganathan S, Li C, Wood L, Ranganathan G. Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 280(5): 745-51[PubMed]
  • 30. Arsenault BJ, Cote M, Cartier A, Lemieux I, Despres JP, Ross R, et al. Effect of exercise training on cardiometabolic risk markers among sedentary, but metabolically healthy overweight or obese post-menopausal women with elevated blood pressure. Atherosclerosis. 2009; 207(2): 530-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Campbell PT, Campbell KL, Wener MH, Wood BL, Potter JD, McTiernan A, et al. A yearlong exercise intervention decreases CRP among obese postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41(8): 1533-9[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments