Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women

Zohreh Abazarfard 1 , Ghazaleh Eslamian 2 , Mousa Salehi 1 , * and Sareh Keshavarzi 3
Authors Information
1 Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
2 Students’ Research Committee, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: March 01, 2016, 18 (3); e23628
  • Published Online: March 6, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: September 14, 2014
  • Revised: September 25, 2014
  • Accepted: October 7, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.23628

To Cite: Abazarfard Z, Eslamian G, Salehi M, Keshavarzi S. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 ; 18(3):e23628. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.23628.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Katagiri S, Nitta H, Nagasawa T, Izumi Y, Kanazawa M, Matsuo A, et al. High prevalence of periodontitis in non-elderly obese Japanese adults. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2010; 4(4)-342[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Milic S, Lulic D, Stimac D. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity: Biochemical, metabolic and clinical presentations. World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(28): 9330-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Gasteyger C, Larsen TM, Vercruysse F, Astrup A. Effect of a dietary-induced weight loss on liver enzymes in obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87(5): 1141-7[PubMed]
  • 4. Koike T, Miyamoto M, Oshida Y. Alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase as markers for elevated insulin resistance-associated metabolic abnormalities in obese Japanese men younger than 30 years of age. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2010; 4(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Hickman IJ, Jonsson JR, Prins JB, Ash S, Purdie DM, Clouston AD, et al. Modest weight loss and physical activity in overweight patients with chronic liver disease results in sustained improvements in alanine aminotransferase, fasting insulin, and quality of life. Gut. 2004; 53(3): 413-9[PubMed]
  • 6. Wang RT, Koretz RL, Yee HF. Is weight reduction an effective therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver? A systematic review. Am J Med. 2003; 115(7): 554-9[PubMed]
  • 7. Straznicky NE, Lambert EA, Grima MT, Eikelis N, Nestel PJ, Dawood T. The effects of dietary weight loss with or without exercise training on liver enzymes in obese metabolic syndrome subjects. Diabet Obes Metabol. 2012; 14(2): 139-48
  • 8. Hoy MK, Heshka S, Allison DB, Grasset E, Blank R, Abiri M, et al. Reduced risk of liver-function-test abnormalities and new gallstone formation with weight loss on 3350-kJ (800-kcal) formula diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 60(2): 249-54[PubMed]
  • 9. Friis R, Vaziri ND, Akbarpour F, Afrasiabi A. Effect of rapid weight loss with supplemented fasting on liver tests. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987; 9(2): 204-7[PubMed]
  • 10. Purkins L, Love ER, Eve MD, Wooldridge CL, Cowan C, Smart TS, et al. The influence of diet upon liver function tests and serum lipids in healthy male volunteers resident in a Phase I unit. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 57(2): 199-208[PubMed]
  • 11. Wien MA, Sabate JM, Ikle DN, Cole SE, Kandeel FR. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003; 27(11): 1365-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Li Z, Song R, Nguyen C, Zerlin A, Karp H, Naowamondhol K, et al. Pistachio nuts reduce triglycerides and body weight by comparison to refined carbohydrate snack in obese subjects on a 12-week weight loss program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010; 29(3): 198-203[PubMed]
  • 13. Pelkman CL, Fishell VK, Maddox DH, Pearson TA, Mauger DT, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) and low-fat weight-loss diets on the serum lipid profile in overweight and obese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79(2): 204-12[PubMed]
  • 14. Foster GD, Shantz KL, Vander Veur SS, Oliver TL, Lent MR, Virus A, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of an almond-enriched, hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96(2): 249-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Bao Y, Han J, Hu FB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(21): 2001-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Han JM, Jo AN, Lee SM, Bae HS, Jun DW, Cho YK, et al. Associations between intakes of individual nutrients or whole food groups and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among Korean adults. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 29(6): 1265-72[PubMed]
  • 17. Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL, Krause MV. Nutrition in weight management. 2012;
  • 18. Abazarfard Z, Salehi M, Keshavarzi S. The effect of almonds on anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in overweight and obese females in a weight reduction program: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci. 2014; 19(5): 457-64[PubMed]
  • 19. Kreitzman SN, Pedersen M, Budell W, Nichols D, Krissman P, Clements M. Safety and effectiveness of weight reduction using a very-low-calorie formulated food. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144(4): 747-50[PubMed]
  • 20. Luyckx FH, Desaive C, Thiry A, Dewe W, Scheen AJ, Gielen JE, et al. Liver abnormalities in severely obese subjects: Effect of drastic weight loss after gastroplasty. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998; 22(3): 222-6[PubMed]
  • 21. McManus K, Antinoro L, Sacks F. A randomized controlled trial of a moderate-fat, low-energy diet compared with a low fat, low-energy diet for weight loss in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25(10): 1503-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Clark JM. Weight loss as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006; 40 Suppl 1-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Phillips ML, Boase S, Wahlroos S, Dugar M, Kow L, Stahl J, et al. Associates of change in liver fat content in the morbidly obese after laparoscopic gastric banding surgery. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008; 10(8): 661-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Bugianesi E, Gentilcore E, Manini R, Natale S, Vanni E, Villanova N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of metformin versus vitamin E or prescriptive diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100(5): 1082-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Dixon JB, Bhathal PS, O'Brien PE. Weight loss and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Falls in gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations are associated with histologic improvement. Obes Surg. 2006; 16(10): 1278-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. de Luis DA, Aller R, Izaola O, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Conde R. Effect of two different hypocaloric diets in transaminases and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obese patients. Nutr Hosp. 2010; 25(5): 730-5[PubMed]
  • 27. Muller LG, Pase CS, Reckziegel P, Barcelos RC, Boufleur N, Prado AC, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of pecan nut shells on ethanol-induced liver damage. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013; 65(1-2): 165-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, Rajaram S, Fraser GE. Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals. Br J Nutr. 2004; 92(3): 533-40[PubMed]
  • 29. Sabate J. Nut consumption and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78(3 Suppl): 647S-50S[PubMed]
  • 30. Jackson CL, Hu FB. Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 100 Suppl 1: 408S-11S[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Vadivel V, Kunyanga CN, Biesalski HK. Health benefits of nut consumption with special reference to body weight control. Nutrition. 2012; 28(11-12): 1089-97[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Hollis J, Mattes R. Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans. Br J Nutr. 2007; 98(3): 651-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Slavin JL. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition. 2005; 21(3): 411-8
  • 34. Oosthuizen W, van Graan A, Kruger A, Vorster HH. Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is adversely related to liver function in HIV-infected subjects: the THUSA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83(5): 1193-8[PubMed]
  • 35. Scorletti E, Byrne CD. Omega-3 fatty acids, hepatic lipid metabolism, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 2013; 33: 231-48[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Poikolainen K, Alho H. Magnesium treatment in alcoholics: A randomized clinical trial. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2008; 3: 1[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Gullestad L, Dolva LO, Soyland E, Manger AT, Falch D, Kjekshus J. Oral magnesium supplementation improves metabolic variables and muscle strength in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992; 16(5): 986-90[PubMed]
  • 38. Sodhi S, Sharma A, Brar RS. A protective effect of vitamin E and selenium in ameliorating the immunotoxicity of malathion in chicks. Vet Res Commun. 2006; 30(8): 935-42[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments