Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 5 28 gregorian 2017 5 28 19 1
en 10.5812/ircmj.26614 Parents’ and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Strategies to Reduce Fast Food Consumption Among Iranian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study Parents’ and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Strategies to Reduce Fast Food Consumption Among Iranian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study research-article research-article Background

Many people are concerned with the problems and side effects caused by increased levels of fast food (FF) consumption, especially among adolescents. Several studies have assessed the problems of FF consumption particularly weight gain and obesity. However, few address the methods, strategies, and policies needed to reduce this issue.

Objectives

This study aims to explore parent and stakeholder views and perspectives on the means to reduce adolescent FF consumption.

Patients and Methods

The present paper is based on original research conducted from June to December 2012. In this study, 19 participants were selected using purposive sampling. Their experiences and perspectives were explored using in-depth semi-structured interviews; a thematic content analysis with a conventional approach was conducted to analyze the data. Using this approach, the transcripts were coded openly, and subcategories and categories were chosen based on similarities. Subsequently, themes were defined at a more abstract level.

Conclusions

Based on the extracted themes, some interventions can be suggested to reduce FF consumption among young people. A holistic approach that incorporates a change of culture, social support, and supervision is promising. Further quantitative studies are also recommended.

Results

Three main themes were identified as approaches and strategies suggested by parents and stakeholders to reduce FF consumption. These included culture building, supporting healthy eating styles, and controlling and supervising healthy eating styles.

Background

Many people are concerned with the problems and side effects caused by increased levels of fast food (FF) consumption, especially among adolescents. Several studies have assessed the problems of FF consumption particularly weight gain and obesity. However, few address the methods, strategies, and policies needed to reduce this issue.

Objectives

This study aims to explore parent and stakeholder views and perspectives on the means to reduce adolescent FF consumption.

Patients and Methods

The present paper is based on original research conducted from June to December 2012. In this study, 19 participants were selected using purposive sampling. Their experiences and perspectives were explored using in-depth semi-structured interviews; a thematic content analysis with a conventional approach was conducted to analyze the data. Using this approach, the transcripts were coded openly, and subcategories and categories were chosen based on similarities. Subsequently, themes were defined at a more abstract level.

Conclusions

Based on the extracted themes, some interventions can be suggested to reduce FF consumption among young people. A holistic approach that incorporates a change of culture, social support, and supervision is promising. Further quantitative studies are also recommended.

Results

Three main themes were identified as approaches and strategies suggested by parents and stakeholders to reduce FF consumption. These included culture building, supporting healthy eating styles, and controlling and supervising healthy eating styles.

Fast Food;Adolescent;Parents;Qualitative Research Fast Food;Adolescent;Parents;Qualitative Research http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26614 Hesamedin Askari Majdabadi Hesamedin Askari Majdabadi Department of Health, Nursing Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Heath Services and Health Education, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Health, Nursing Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Heath Services and Health Education, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Ali Montazeri Ali Montazeri Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Davoud Shojaeizadeh Davoud Shojaeizadeh Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Saharnaz Nedjat Saharnaz Nedjat Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center (KURC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center (KURC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farideh Khalajabadi Farahani Farideh Khalajabadi Farahani Department of Population Health and Family Planning, National Institute of Population Researches, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Population Health and Family Planning, National Institute of Population Researches, Tehran, IR Iran Abolghasem Djazayeri Abolghasem Djazayeri Department of Educational Development, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Educational Development, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Asadi-Lari Mohsen Asadi-Lari Department of Epidemiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahnaz Solhi Mahnaz Solhi Department of Heath Services and Health Education, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health Services and Health Education, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2186704756, Fax: +98-2188622707 Department of Heath Services and Health Education, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health Services and Health Education, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2186704756, Fax: +98-2188622707
en 10.5812/ircmj.23285 Risk Factors for Migraine Attacks in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Hepatitis C Risk Factors for Migraine Attacks in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Hepatitis C letter letter Migraine;Hepatitis C;Treatment Migraine;Hepatitis C;Treatment http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23285 Razie Salesi Razie Salesi Medical Student Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Medical Student Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Asieh Salesi Asieh Salesi Department of Statistics, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Statistics, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, IR Iran Faraidoon Haghdoost Faraidoon Haghdoost Medical Student Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Medical Student Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Seyed Moayed Alavian Seyed Moayed Alavian Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188945186 Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188945186
en 10.5812/ircmj.27842 Effect of Six Months of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial Effect of Six Months of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

We suggest that regular aerobic exercise can favorably alter the inflammatory profile, which is a known risk factor in breast cancer development, in postmenopausal women.

Patients and Methods

This study was a randomized controlled trial. We randomly assigned 41 postmenopausal, sedentary women aged 50 to 74 to either an exercise or a control group. The intervention involved facility-based aerobic exercise (three days/week, at 70 - 80% of the maximum heart rate, for six months).

Results

Twenty-seven women completed the study. The plasma IL-6 level decreased by 21.3% in the exercisers and by 6.9% in the controls, and the intervention effect was significant (P = 0.001). The plasma TNF-α level decreased by 17.1% and 10.8% in the exercisers and controls, respectively, although the effect of exercise was not statistically significant (P = 0.28). Overall, long-term aerobic exercise may result in a decreased IL-6 concentration.

Background

Increased physical activity is associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer; however, the exact mechanism of the reduction is not yet completely known.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effect of six months of aerobic exercise on the plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels as breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women.

Conclusions

We suggest that regular aerobic exercise can favorably alter the inflammatory profile, which is a known risk factor in breast cancer development, in postmenopausal women.

Patients and Methods

This study was a randomized controlled trial. We randomly assigned 41 postmenopausal, sedentary women aged 50 to 74 to either an exercise or a control group. The intervention involved facility-based aerobic exercise (three days/week, at 70 - 80% of the maximum heart rate, for six months).

Results

Twenty-seven women completed the study. The plasma IL-6 level decreased by 21.3% in the exercisers and by 6.9% in the controls, and the intervention effect was significant (P = 0.001). The plasma TNF-α level decreased by 17.1% and 10.8% in the exercisers and controls, respectively, although the effect of exercise was not statistically significant (P = 0.28). Overall, long-term aerobic exercise may result in a decreased IL-6 concentration.

Background

Increased physical activity is associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer; however, the exact mechanism of the reduction is not yet completely known.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effect of six months of aerobic exercise on the plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels as breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women.

Aerobic Exercise;Breast Cancer;Inflammation;Postmenopausal Women Aerobic Exercise;Breast Cancer;Inflammation;Postmenopausal Women http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27842 Azam Abdollahpour Azam Abdollahpour Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, IR Iran; Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: + 98-2833665275, Fax: + 98-2833665279 Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, IR Iran; Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: + 98-2833665275, Fax: + 98-2833665279 Nasim Khosravi Nasim Khosravi Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACER, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACER, Tehran, IR Iran Zohreh Eskandari Zohreh Eskandari Raja University, Qazvin, IR Iran Raja University, Qazvin, IR Iran Shahpar Haghighat Shahpar Haghighat Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACER, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACER, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.34597 Functional Genetic Variants of FOXP3 and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis Functional Genetic Variants of <italic>FOXP3</italic> and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis research-article research-article Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS is one of the most common cause of neurological impairment at a young age with a complex etiology. The forkhead/winged helix (FOXP3) gene encodes a transcription factor that plays an important role in the working and progress of regulatory T cells. Loss of the FOXP3 function impairs the suppressor activity of regulatory T (T-reg) cells, which have been reported in MS patients.

Conclusions

The functional variant of the FOXP3, rs2232365 A/G, may be considered a substantial risk factor for MS.

Results

The Rs2232365 G allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of MS (P = 0.0068). In contrast, the allele and genotype frequencies of rs3761548 was not significantly different between the case and control groups (P > 0.05).

Patients and Methods

In this case-control study, a total of 384 samples consisting of 190 MS patients and 194 unrelated healthy subjects from the Iranian population were recruited between December 2014 and September 2015. The patients were diagnosed by a neurologist based on McDonald’s criteria. The control group had no history or presence of autoimmune diseases. The polymorphisms were genotyped using tetra-ARMS PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques.

Objectives

To determine whether rs2232365 and rs3761548 polymorphisms of FOXP3 are associated with the risk of MS in an Iranian population.

Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS is one of the most common cause of neurological impairment at a young age with a complex etiology. The forkhead/winged helix (FOXP3) gene encodes a transcription factor that plays an important role in the working and progress of regulatory T cells. Loss of the FOXP3 function impairs the suppressor activity of regulatory T (T-reg) cells, which have been reported in MS patients.

Conclusions

The functional variant of the FOXP3, rs2232365 A/G, may be considered a substantial risk factor for MS.

Results

The Rs2232365 G allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of MS (P = 0.0068). In contrast, the allele and genotype frequencies of rs3761548 was not significantly different between the case and control groups (P > 0.05).

Patients and Methods

In this case-control study, a total of 384 samples consisting of 190 MS patients and 194 unrelated healthy subjects from the Iranian population were recruited between December 2014 and September 2015. The patients were diagnosed by a neurologist based on McDonald’s criteria. The control group had no history or presence of autoimmune diseases. The polymorphisms were genotyped using tetra-ARMS PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques.

Objectives

To determine whether rs2232365 and rs3761548 polymorphisms of FOXP3 are associated with the risk of MS in an Iranian population.

Autoimmune Diseases;Genetic Polymorphisms;Multiple Sclerosis;FOXP3 Autoimmune Diseases;Genetic Polymorphisms;Multiple Sclerosis;FOXP3 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34597 Milad Gholami Milad Gholami Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Darvish Hossein Darvish Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Habib Ahmadi Habib Ahmadi Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Simin Rahimi-Aliabadi Simin Rahimi-Aliabadi Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Babak Emamalizadeh Babak Emamalizadeh Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Eslami Amirabadi Mohammad Reza Eslami Amirabadi Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Javad Jamshidi Javad Jamshidi Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, IR Iran Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, IR Iran Abolfazl Movafagh Abolfazl Movafagh Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-21-23872572 Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-21-23872572
en 10.5812/ircmj.33559 Logistic Regression Modeling for Evaluation of Factors Affecting Trauma Outcome in a Level I Trauma Center in Shiraz Logistic Regression Modeling for Evaluation of Factors Affecting Trauma Outcome in a Level I Trauma Center in Shiraz research-article research-article Conclusions

Age, injury severity, injured body region, and hospital-acquired infections are important determinants of trauma outcome in our center. Timely recognition of factors affecting trauma mortality is crucial for monitoring changes of trauma quality of care. Our findings suggest the need to allocate resources for trauma prevention along with a potential focus on reducing in-hospital complications.

Background

Since injury-related mortality is preventable, identifying factors that inversely affect trauma outcome are important initial steps towards reducing injury burden.

Objectives

This study aims to determine independent risk factors of early/late in-hospital mortality among adult trauma victims with equal injury characteristics and severity at Shahid Rajaee (Emtiaz) Hospital during 2013 and 2014.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study of adult trauma patients (age ≥ 15 years) sustaining injury through traffic accidents, violence, and unintentional incidents was conducted. Information was retrieved from three hospital administrative databases. Data on demographics, injury mechanisms, injured body regions, injury descriptions, outcomes of hospitalization, and development of nosocomial infections were recorded. Injury severity score was calculated by cross walking from international classification of diseases (ICD-10) injury diagnosis codes to abbreviated injury scale (AIS-98) severity codes. Two multiple logistic regression models were employed to reflect the partial effect of each covariate on early (within 48 hours) and late (beyond 48 hours) deaths.

Results

There were 47,295 hospitalized patients (male/female ratio: 2.7:1.0) with a median age of 30 years (interquartile range 23 - 44 years). A crude mortality rate of 1% (454 cases) was observed and 52% of deaths occurred within 48 hours of hospital arrival. One percent developed a nosocomial infection in the course of admission. After adjusting for covariates, sustaining a thoracic injury (OR 8.5, 95% CI [4.7 - 15.2]), ISS over 16 (OR 6.4, 95% CI [3.6 - 11.4]) and age over 65 years (OR 5.1, 95% CI [3.0 - 8.8]) were the most important independent risk factors of early trauma death. Presence of a hospital-acquired infection (OR 12.7, 95% CI [8.9 - 18.1]), age over 65 years (OR 7.4 95% CI [4.5 - 12.1]), and ISS of more than 16 (OR 14.6, 95% CI [6.2 - 34.3]) were independent predictors of late death.

Conclusions

Age, injury severity, injured body region, and hospital-acquired infections are important determinants of trauma outcome in our center. Timely recognition of factors affecting trauma mortality is crucial for monitoring changes of trauma quality of care. Our findings suggest the need to allocate resources for trauma prevention along with a potential focus on reducing in-hospital complications.

Background

Since injury-related mortality is preventable, identifying factors that inversely affect trauma outcome are important initial steps towards reducing injury burden.

Objectives

This study aims to determine independent risk factors of early/late in-hospital mortality among adult trauma victims with equal injury characteristics and severity at Shahid Rajaee (Emtiaz) Hospital during 2013 and 2014.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study of adult trauma patients (age ≥ 15 years) sustaining injury through traffic accidents, violence, and unintentional incidents was conducted. Information was retrieved from three hospital administrative databases. Data on demographics, injury mechanisms, injured body regions, injury descriptions, outcomes of hospitalization, and development of nosocomial infections were recorded. Injury severity score was calculated by cross walking from international classification of diseases (ICD-10) injury diagnosis codes to abbreviated injury scale (AIS-98) severity codes. Two multiple logistic regression models were employed to reflect the partial effect of each covariate on early (within 48 hours) and late (beyond 48 hours) deaths.

Results

There were 47,295 hospitalized patients (male/female ratio: 2.7:1.0) with a median age of 30 years (interquartile range 23 - 44 years). A crude mortality rate of 1% (454 cases) was observed and 52% of deaths occurred within 48 hours of hospital arrival. One percent developed a nosocomial infection in the course of admission. After adjusting for covariates, sustaining a thoracic injury (OR 8.5, 95% CI [4.7 - 15.2]), ISS over 16 (OR 6.4, 95% CI [3.6 - 11.4]) and age over 65 years (OR 5.1, 95% CI [3.0 - 8.8]) were the most important independent risk factors of early trauma death. Presence of a hospital-acquired infection (OR 12.7, 95% CI [8.9 - 18.1]), age over 65 years (OR 7.4 95% CI [4.5 - 12.1]), and ISS of more than 16 (OR 14.6, 95% CI [6.2 - 34.3]) were independent predictors of late death.

In-hospital Mortality;Risk Factors;Injury Severity Score;Logistic Models;Nosocomial Infection In-hospital Mortality;Risk Factors;Injury Severity Score;Logistic Models;Nosocomial Infection http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=33559 Mahnaz Yadollahi Mahnaz Yadollahi Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mehrdad Anvar Mehrdad Anvar Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7136254206, Fax: +98-7136254206 Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7136254206, Fax: +98-7136254206 Haleh Ghaem Haleh Ghaem Department of Epidemiology, Research Center for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, Research Center for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Shahram Bolandparvaz Shahram Bolandparvaz Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Shahram Paydar Shahram Paydar Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Fateme Izianloo Fateme Izianloo Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Shahid Rajaee Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.34931 The Effects of Satureja hortensis L. Dried Leaves on Serum Sugar, Lipid Profiles, hs-CRP, and Blood Pressure in Metabolic Syndrome Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial The Effects of <italic>Satureja hortensis </italic>L. Dried Leaves on Serum Sugar, Lipid Profiles, hs-CRP, and Blood Pressure in Metabolic Syndrome Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial research-article research-article Objectives

This double-blind randomized clinical trial assessed the effects of dried leave of S. hortensis on the serum sugar levels, lipid profiles, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), and blood pressures of 60 metabolic syndrome patients referred to the healthy heart institute in Shiraz, Iran during 2013.

Materials and Methods

First, components from the essential oil of the plant powder were identified using GC-MS instrumentation. Then, capsules of the plant were used in a double-blind randomized and controlled clinical trial involving 47 metabolic syndrome patients who were treated with either dried leaves from S. hortensis or a placebo capsule once daily for 10 weeks.

Results

This study was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (No. IRCT2014012616372N1). At the end of the study, group changes (mean ± SD) in the group that received S. hortensis showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (239.4 ± 34.6 to 222.3 ± 38.0; P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (138.6 ± 25.2 to 117.6 ± 20.8; P < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (220.0 ± 67.5 to 187.5 ± 65.9; P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (83.1 ± 11.3 to 75.3 ± 9.5; P < 0.001), and hs-CRP (3.03 ± 1.84 to 1.51 ± 1.76; P < 0.05) as well as an elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (43.8 ± 7.4 to 47.3 ± 9.6; P < 0.05). In the placebo group, a significant increase was only observed for hs-CRP (2.31 ± 1.18 to 3.32 ± 1.52; P < 0.05). Different outcomes between the groups (means (95% CIs)) revealed statistically significant diminutions in LDL-C when the dosage was 27.1 mg/dL ((-16.3, -37.9); P < 0.001), in TG with a dosage of 39.1 mg/dL ((-19.5, -64.4); P < 0.05), in DBP with a dosage of 7.6 mm/Hg ((-4.3, -11.2); P = 0.001), and in hs-CRP with a dosage of 2.5 ng/mL ((-1.4, -5.1); P < 0.05).

Conclusions

When used as a supplement, S. hortensis could be helpful for prevention or improvement of metabolic syndrome symptoms and primary concomitant disorders.

Background

Metabolic syndrome, which includes multiple metabolic disorders in an individual, has a direct relationship with incidence of various heart diseases. Satureja hortensis L. has been considered to treat this syndrome because its active compounds have valuable therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, vasodilator, and antihyperlipidemic properties as well as being antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

Objectives

This double-blind randomized clinical trial assessed the effects of dried leave of S. hortensis on the serum sugar levels, lipid profiles, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), and blood pressures of 60 metabolic syndrome patients referred to the healthy heart institute in Shiraz, Iran during 2013.

Materials and Methods

First, components from the essential oil of the plant powder were identified using GC-MS instrumentation. Then, capsules of the plant were used in a double-blind randomized and controlled clinical trial involving 47 metabolic syndrome patients who were treated with either dried leaves from S. hortensis or a placebo capsule once daily for 10 weeks.

Results

This study was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (No. IRCT2014012616372N1). At the end of the study, group changes (mean ± SD) in the group that received S. hortensis showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (239.4 ± 34.6 to 222.3 ± 38.0; P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (138.6 ± 25.2 to 117.6 ± 20.8; P < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (220.0 ± 67.5 to 187.5 ± 65.9; P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (83.1 ± 11.3 to 75.3 ± 9.5; P < 0.001), and hs-CRP (3.03 ± 1.84 to 1.51 ± 1.76; P < 0.05) as well as an elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (43.8 ± 7.4 to 47.3 ± 9.6; P < 0.05). In the placebo group, a significant increase was only observed for hs-CRP (2.31 ± 1.18 to 3.32 ± 1.52; P < 0.05). Different outcomes between the groups (means (95% CIs)) revealed statistically significant diminutions in LDL-C when the dosage was 27.1 mg/dL ((-16.3, -37.9); P < 0.001), in TG with a dosage of 39.1 mg/dL ((-19.5, -64.4); P < 0.05), in DBP with a dosage of 7.6 mm/Hg ((-4.3, -11.2); P = 0.001), and in hs-CRP with a dosage of 2.5 ng/mL ((-1.4, -5.1); P < 0.05).

Conclusions

When used as a supplement, S. hortensis could be helpful for prevention or improvement of metabolic syndrome symptoms and primary concomitant disorders.

Background

Metabolic syndrome, which includes multiple metabolic disorders in an individual, has a direct relationship with incidence of various heart diseases. Satureja hortensis L. has been considered to treat this syndrome because its active compounds have valuable therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, vasodilator, and antihyperlipidemic properties as well as being antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

Metabolic Syndrome;Medicinal Plant;Persian Medicine;Satureja Metabolic Syndrome;Medicinal Plant;Persian Medicine;Satureja http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34931 Farzad Nikaein Farzad Nikaein Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Siavash Babajafari Siavash Babajafari Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P .O. Box: 71348-14336, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9175550409 Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P .O. Box: 71348-14336, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9175550409 Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammadjavad Zibaeenezhad Mohammadjavad Zibaeenezhad Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Arman Zargaran Arman Zargaran Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.29700 The Functional, Communicative, and Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL) Scales: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and the Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version The Functional, Communicative, and Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL) Scales: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and the Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version research-article research-article Conclusions

We concluded that the FCCHL scales are valid and reliable, and can be used to measure health literacy among Iranian diabetic patients. However, further research is needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the use of this questionnaire in Iran.

Results

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified three main factors with 27.07%, 22.46%, and 16.23% of extracted variance, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) completely supported the three-factor model of the HL scales. Internal consistency was approved for the total scale (α = 0.82) and for the functional, communicative, and critical subscales (α = 0.91, 0.80, and 0.76, respectively). Convergent validity analysis indicated a significant positive correlation (r = 0.45; P < 0.01) between the scores on the functional HL scales and the Iranian version of the Short Test of Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), which was to be expected.

Background

Patients today are required to understand more and more complex health information, and to navigate increasingly complex health systems. As a result, they need to develop skills such as finding, processing, understanding, and applying information about health issues, which has been conceptualized as health literacy (HL). Assessing HL is critical to providing meaningful health information to patients.

Objectives

This study aimed to examine the cultural adaptation and the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the functional, communicative and critical health literacy (FCCHL) scales measuring three aspects of HL among type 2 diabetic patients.

Patients and Methods

We conducted a methodological survey of 187 patients with type 2 diabetes using a cross-sectional design. The study was carried out in two phases: the first phase was designed to obtain a cross-cultural equivalent of the FCCHL scales, based on Beaton’s guidelines. In the second phase, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire.

Conclusions

We concluded that the FCCHL scales are valid and reliable, and can be used to measure health literacy among Iranian diabetic patients. However, further research is needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the use of this questionnaire in Iran.

Results

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified three main factors with 27.07%, 22.46%, and 16.23% of extracted variance, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) completely supported the three-factor model of the HL scales. Internal consistency was approved for the total scale (α = 0.82) and for the functional, communicative, and critical subscales (α = 0.91, 0.80, and 0.76, respectively). Convergent validity analysis indicated a significant positive correlation (r = 0.45; P < 0.01) between the scores on the functional HL scales and the Iranian version of the Short Test of Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), which was to be expected.

Background

Patients today are required to understand more and more complex health information, and to navigate increasingly complex health systems. As a result, they need to develop skills such as finding, processing, understanding, and applying information about health issues, which has been conceptualized as health literacy (HL). Assessing HL is critical to providing meaningful health information to patients.

Objectives

This study aimed to examine the cultural adaptation and the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the functional, communicative and critical health literacy (FCCHL) scales measuring three aspects of HL among type 2 diabetic patients.

Patients and Methods

We conducted a methodological survey of 187 patients with type 2 diabetes using a cross-sectional design. The study was carried out in two phases: the first phase was designed to obtain a cross-cultural equivalent of the FCCHL scales, based on Beaton’s guidelines. In the second phase, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire.

Health Literacy;Validation Studies;Psychometrics;Questionnaires Health Literacy;Validation Studies;Psychometrics;Questionnaires http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29700 Mahnoush Reisi Mahnoush Reisi Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Firoozeh Mostafavi Firoozeh Mostafavi Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Homamodin Javadzede Homamodin Javadzede Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Behzad Mahaki Behzad Mahaki Department of Bio-statistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Bio-statistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Gholamreza Sharifirad Gholamreza Sharifirad Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131290174 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131290174 Elahe Tavassoli Elahe Tavassoli Department of Public Health, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Public Health, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.34759 The Effects of Cool Dialysate on Pruritus Status During Hemodialysis of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial The Effects of Cool Dialysate on Pruritus Status During Hemodialysis of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Dialysis with cool dialysate is a simple and cheap nondrug method, which was readily accepted by the patients. This method could significantly reduce the severity of pruritus in patients during dialysis.

Results

Before the intervention, there was no significant between-group difference in the severity of pruritus (P < 0.05). After the intervention, the severity of pruritus was significantly reduced (reduction of 3 points, itching score range of 0 - 10) (P < 0.0001).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cool dialysate on the severity of pruritus during hemodialysis of patients with chronic renal failure.

Patients and Methods

This study was a two-group, triple-blinded randomized clinical trial, with a parallel design. It consisted of 60 patients with chronic renal failure who were receiving hemodialysis at hemodialysis centers in Mashhad. The patients were divided into two equal groups: 30 patients in an intervention group and 30 patients in a control group. Initially, the patients in both groups underwent dialysis for one week (three sessions) with a standard dialysis solution (temperature of 37 °C). In the next phase, the control group received the standard dialysis solution, whereas the intervention group received a cool dialysis solution (35.5°C) for one week (three sessions). The severity of pruritus was recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS), with itching scored from 0 - 10 on an hourly basis during the dialysis sessions.

Background

Pruritus during dialysis is a common complaint among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Despite progress in medical science and technology in the field of hemodialysis, there is still no cure for pruritus.

Conclusions

Dialysis with cool dialysate is a simple and cheap nondrug method, which was readily accepted by the patients. This method could significantly reduce the severity of pruritus in patients during dialysis.

Results

Before the intervention, there was no significant between-group difference in the severity of pruritus (P < 0.05). After the intervention, the severity of pruritus was significantly reduced (reduction of 3 points, itching score range of 0 - 10) (P < 0.0001).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cool dialysate on the severity of pruritus during hemodialysis of patients with chronic renal failure.

Patients and Methods

This study was a two-group, triple-blinded randomized clinical trial, with a parallel design. It consisted of 60 patients with chronic renal failure who were receiving hemodialysis at hemodialysis centers in Mashhad. The patients were divided into two equal groups: 30 patients in an intervention group and 30 patients in a control group. Initially, the patients in both groups underwent dialysis for one week (three sessions) with a standard dialysis solution (temperature of 37 °C). In the next phase, the control group received the standard dialysis solution, whereas the intervention group received a cool dialysis solution (35.5°C) for one week (three sessions). The severity of pruritus was recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS), with itching scored from 0 - 10 on an hourly basis during the dialysis sessions.

Background

Pruritus during dialysis is a common complaint among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Despite progress in medical science and technology in the field of hemodialysis, there is still no cure for pruritus.

Pruritus;Dialysis Solutions;Renal Dialysis;Kidney Failure;Chronic Pruritus;Dialysis Solutions;Renal Dialysis;Kidney Failure;Chronic http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34759 Mostafa Rad Mostafa Rad Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Elahe Jaghouri Elahe Jaghouri School of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5134446070 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5134446070 Farzaneh Sharifipour Farzaneh Sharifipour Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohammad Hasan Rakhshani Mohammad Hasan Rakhshani Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.36369 Regulation of Serum Lipid Profile, Glucose, Insulin, and Adiponectin in Obese Diabetic Women Under Diet Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Study Regulation of Serum Lipid Profile, Glucose, Insulin, and Adiponectin in Obese Diabetic Women Under Diet Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Improvement of biomarkers of insulin sensitivity, including adiponectin and lipid metabolism, is an important therapeutic effect of medical nutrition therapy in obese patients with T2DM.

Objectives

We evaluated the effects of calorie-restricted diet therapy on the circulating level of the serum lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin in obese women with T2DM.

Materials and Methods

This randomized clinical controlled trial was performed for 10 weeks on 30 eligible obese T2DM women distributed to control (n = 15) and diet therapy (n = 15) groups. Demographic, nutritional, anthropometric, and laboratory data were obtained before and after the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS vs.15 and Nutritionist IV.

Results

In addition to anthropometric measurements, diet therapy independently improved fasting blood sugar (P = 0.024, -69.37 to -5.57 mg/dL), 2-h postprandial blood sugar (P = 0.007, -123.34 to -22.3 mg/dL), serum total cholesterol (P = 0.005, -46.48 to -9.72 mg/dL), serum alanine transaminase (P = 0.001, -8.91 to -3.18 U/L), and increased circulating adiponectin (P = 0.038, 0.01 to 0.47 μg/mL).

Background

Obesity is the main cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diet therapy is the cornerstone in the management of obesity and T2DM.

Conclusions

Improvement of biomarkers of insulin sensitivity, including adiponectin and lipid metabolism, is an important therapeutic effect of medical nutrition therapy in obese patients with T2DM.

Objectives

We evaluated the effects of calorie-restricted diet therapy on the circulating level of the serum lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin in obese women with T2DM.

Materials and Methods

This randomized clinical controlled trial was performed for 10 weeks on 30 eligible obese T2DM women distributed to control (n = 15) and diet therapy (n = 15) groups. Demographic, nutritional, anthropometric, and laboratory data were obtained before and after the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS vs.15 and Nutritionist IV.

Results

In addition to anthropometric measurements, diet therapy independently improved fasting blood sugar (P = 0.024, -69.37 to -5.57 mg/dL), 2-h postprandial blood sugar (P = 0.007, -123.34 to -22.3 mg/dL), serum total cholesterol (P = 0.005, -46.48 to -9.72 mg/dL), serum alanine transaminase (P = 0.001, -8.91 to -3.18 U/L), and increased circulating adiponectin (P = 0.038, 0.01 to 0.47 μg/mL).

Background

Obesity is the main cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diet therapy is the cornerstone in the management of obesity and T2DM.

Diet Therapy;T2DM;Obesity Diet Therapy;T2DM;Obesity http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36369 Somayeh Mohammadi Somayeh Mohammadi Department of Diet and Nutrition Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Diet and Nutrition Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini Department of Diet and Nutrition Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Diet and Nutrition Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Zarin Sharifnia Zarin Sharifnia Department of Biotechnology, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biotechnology, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357580; Fax: +98- 4133340634 Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357580; Fax: +98- 4133340634
en 10.5812/ircmj.34482 A Young Woman with Acute Abdominal Pain Following Minor Trauma A Young Woman with Acute Abdominal Pain Following Minor Trauma case-report case-report Conclusions

In hemodynamically stable patients with a ruptured RAML, early detection by CT followed by selective arterial embolization may be lifesaving.

Introduction

Renal angiomyolipoma (RAML), is a rare, benign tumor arising from renal mesenchymal cells. Frequently, it is asymptomatic and found incidentally. Spontaneous rupture with consequent retroperitoneal hemorrhage is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of RAML.

Case Presentation

Herein, we report a case of a ruptured RAML with a massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage, seen at the emergency department following a minor trauma. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left RAML with retroperitoneal hemorrhage. An angiography was performed and then a transarterial embolization. Cessation of bleeding and clinical stabilization occurred without deterioration of renal function.

Conclusions

In hemodynamically stable patients with a ruptured RAML, early detection by CT followed by selective arterial embolization may be lifesaving.

Introduction

Renal angiomyolipoma (RAML), is a rare, benign tumor arising from renal mesenchymal cells. Frequently, it is asymptomatic and found incidentally. Spontaneous rupture with consequent retroperitoneal hemorrhage is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of RAML.

Case Presentation

Herein, we report a case of a ruptured RAML with a massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage, seen at the emergency department following a minor trauma. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left RAML with retroperitoneal hemorrhage. An angiography was performed and then a transarterial embolization. Cessation of bleeding and clinical stabilization occurred without deterioration of renal function.

Angiomyolipoma;Retroperitoneal Space;Computed Tomography;Embolization Angiomyolipoma;Retroperitoneal Space;Computed Tomography;Embolization http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34482 Donya Farrokh Donya Farrokh Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Masoud Pezeshki-Rad Masoud Pezeshki-Rad Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Vascular and Interventional Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Vascular and Interventional Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Hamidreza Reihani Hamidreza Reihani Emergency Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Emergency Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Reza Akhavan Reza Akhavan Emergency Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Emergency Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Bita Abbasi Bita Abbasi Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Radiology Department, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155035726 Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Radiology Department, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155035726
en 10.5812/ircmj.27077 Primary Ovarian Carcinoma Associated with Ovulation Induction: A Case Report Primary Ovarian Carcinoma Associated with Ovulation Induction: A Case Report case-report case-report Case Presentation

The studied patient was a 32-year-old G1P1 woman with abdominal pain who was diagnosed with a large ovarian cyst during ovulation induction, which could possibly raise the risk of ovarian torsion. She had a 2-year secondary infertility and had received three cycles of ovulation induction with letrozole 6 months earlier. An emergency laparoscopy showed large complex ovarian cysts without torsion. We then performed a cystectomy. Based on the pathology report revealing a primary ovarian cystadenocarcinoma, the patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.

Introduction

The relationship between ovulation induction and ovarian cancer is an important issue in gynecology.

Conclusions

The emergence of a suspected ovarian cyst during letrozole-induced ovulation is of great importance and needs to be investigated.

Case Presentation

The studied patient was a 32-year-old G1P1 woman with abdominal pain who was diagnosed with a large ovarian cyst during ovulation induction, which could possibly raise the risk of ovarian torsion. She had a 2-year secondary infertility and had received three cycles of ovulation induction with letrozole 6 months earlier. An emergency laparoscopy showed large complex ovarian cysts without torsion. We then performed a cystectomy. Based on the pathology report revealing a primary ovarian cystadenocarcinoma, the patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.

Introduction

The relationship between ovulation induction and ovarian cancer is an important issue in gynecology.

Conclusions

The emergence of a suspected ovarian cyst during letrozole-induced ovulation is of great importance and needs to be investigated.

Infertility;Ovulation Induction;Letrozole;Ovarian Cancer Infertility;Ovulation Induction;Letrozole;Ovarian Cancer http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27077 Zahra Asgari Zahra Asgari Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Safoura Rouholamin Safoura Rouholamin Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131132616, Fax: +98-2177736647 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131132616, Fax: +98-2177736647 Reihaneh Hosseini Reihaneh Hosseini Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Afsaneh Tehranian Afsaneh Tehranian Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.29252 Effect of an Empowerment Program on Self-Efficacy of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Effect of an Empowerment Program on Self-Efficacy of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes research-article research-article Conclusions

Using an empowerment program had positive effects on self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Results

Before intervention, the mean score of self-efficacy was 45 ± 14.49 and 39.61 ± 17.01 for the experimental and control groups, respectively, and the difference was not significant (P = 0.1). Two months after the intervention, the mean of self-efficacy was 55.71 ± 13.25 and 40.24 ± 17.55 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was significant (P < 0.001).

Objectives

This study analyzes the effect of empowerment programs on self-efficacy in type 2 diabetes patients.

Patients and Methods

In this clinical trial, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes who had inclusion criteria were chosen randomly and divided into control and experimental groups by a randomized block method. Intervention was accomplished through educational sessions scheduled twice a week for four weeks. Diabetes self-efficacy questionnaires were completed before and two months after the intervention for each group. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16 and the Mann Whitney U, chi-square, exact Fisher’s, and t-test statistical tests.

Background

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is spreading very quickly worldwide and is second in priority for investigation of chronic diseases. According to research, self-efficacy is low in diabetic patients.

Conclusions

Using an empowerment program had positive effects on self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Results

Before intervention, the mean score of self-efficacy was 45 ± 14.49 and 39.61 ± 17.01 for the experimental and control groups, respectively, and the difference was not significant (P = 0.1). Two months after the intervention, the mean of self-efficacy was 55.71 ± 13.25 and 40.24 ± 17.55 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was significant (P < 0.001).

Objectives

This study analyzes the effect of empowerment programs on self-efficacy in type 2 diabetes patients.

Patients and Methods

In this clinical trial, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes who had inclusion criteria were chosen randomly and divided into control and experimental groups by a randomized block method. Intervention was accomplished through educational sessions scheduled twice a week for four weeks. Diabetes self-efficacy questionnaires were completed before and two months after the intervention for each group. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16 and the Mann Whitney U, chi-square, exact Fisher’s, and t-test statistical tests.

Background

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is spreading very quickly worldwide and is second in priority for investigation of chronic diseases. According to research, self-efficacy is low in diabetic patients.

Empowerment;Self-efficacy;Type 2 Diabetes Empowerment;Self-efficacy;Type 2 Diabetes http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29252 Maryam Moein Maryam Moein Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mohammad Aghajani Mohammad Aghajani PhD Candidate, Nursing and Midwifery School, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran PhD Candidate, Nursing and Midwifery School, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz Department of Nursing, Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; International Branch of Shahid Bbeheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-315540021 Department of Nursing, Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; International Branch of Shahid Bbeheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-315540021 Leila Khorasanifar Leila Khorasanifar Golabchi Diabetes Center, Kashan, IR Iran Golabchi Diabetes Center, Kashan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.28947 RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Skp2 Inhibits Human Bladder Cancer Proliferation and Invasion in T24 Cells RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Skp2 Inhibits Human Bladder Cancer Proliferation and Invasion in T24 Cells research-article research-article Conclusions

The proliferation and invasion of human bladder cancer cells can be inhibited by RNAi-targeting Skp2. As a result, Skp2 may be a potential target for gene therapy in cases of human bladder cancer.

Materials and Methods

The expression of the Skp2 gene was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in T24 cells. The transcription level of Skp2 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The expression of Skp2, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and p27 (p27Kip1) were measured by western blot assay. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry. Cell invasion analysis was performed by a matrigel transwell assay. We also detected the level of MMP2 (metalloproteinase-2) and MMP9 (metalloproteinase-9) in cell culture medium by ELISA.

Background

Skp2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 is overexpressed in many kinds of cancers, and is related to the occurrence and development of tumors. The molecular mechanism of Skp2 in the regulation of bladder cancer cell biological behavior after Skp2 expression knockdown, however, has remained unknown.

Results

The levels of Skp2 mRNA in the negative control group (0.911 ± 0.073) and the blank control group (0.940 ± 0.046) was significantly higher than Skp2 RNAi group (0.185 ± 0.033) (P < 0.001). The levels of Skp2 protein in the negative control group (0.907 ± 0.049) and the blank control group (0.925 ± 0.042) was significantly higher than Skp2 RNAi group (0.220 ± 0.047) (P < 0.001). The proliferation and invasion of T24 cells were significantly inhibited in vitro upon Skp2 RNAi treatment.

Objectives

In our present studies (experimental cytobiological studies, we used an RNAi approach to knock down Skp2 expression, and studied its impact on cell proliferation and invasion of T24 cells.

Conclusions

The proliferation and invasion of human bladder cancer cells can be inhibited by RNAi-targeting Skp2. As a result, Skp2 may be a potential target for gene therapy in cases of human bladder cancer.

Materials and Methods

The expression of the Skp2 gene was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in T24 cells. The transcription level of Skp2 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The expression of Skp2, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and p27 (p27Kip1) were measured by western blot assay. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry. Cell invasion analysis was performed by a matrigel transwell assay. We also detected the level of MMP2 (metalloproteinase-2) and MMP9 (metalloproteinase-9) in cell culture medium by ELISA.

Background

Skp2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 is overexpressed in many kinds of cancers, and is related to the occurrence and development of tumors. The molecular mechanism of Skp2 in the regulation of bladder cancer cell biological behavior after Skp2 expression knockdown, however, has remained unknown.

Results

The levels of Skp2 mRNA in the negative control group (0.911 ± 0.073) and the blank control group (0.940 ± 0.046) was significantly higher than Skp2 RNAi group (0.185 ± 0.033) (P < 0.001). The levels of Skp2 protein in the negative control group (0.907 ± 0.049) and the blank control group (0.925 ± 0.042) was significantly higher than Skp2 RNAi group (0.220 ± 0.047) (P < 0.001). The proliferation and invasion of T24 cells were significantly inhibited in vitro upon Skp2 RNAi treatment.

Objectives

In our present studies (experimental cytobiological studies, we used an RNAi approach to knock down Skp2 expression, and studied its impact on cell proliferation and invasion of T24 cells.

Skp2;RNA;Bladder;Cancer;T24;Cell;Invasion Skp2;RNA;Bladder;Cancer;T24;Cell;Invasion http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28947 Song-Tao Xu Song-Tao Xu Clinical Department , Luohe Medical College, Louhe, P. R. China Clinical Department , Luohe Medical College, Louhe, P. R. China Jun-ping xiong Jun-ping xiong Department of Stomatology, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, P. R. China Department of Stomatology, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, P. R. China Guo-Jian Gu Guo-Jian Gu Department of pathology, The First People’s Hospital of Taicang, Taicang, P. R. China Department of pathology, The First People’s Hospital of Taicang, Taicang, P. R. China Song Meng Song Meng Clinical Department , Luohe Medical College, Louhe, P. R. China Clinical Department , Luohe Medical College, Louhe, P. R. China Yong-Chao Ma Yong-Chao Ma The Foundation Department, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, P. R. China; The Foundation Department, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, P. R. China. Tel: +86-3952985220, Fax: +86-3952985220 The Foundation Department, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, P. R. China; The Foundation Department, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, P. R. China. Tel: +86-3952985220, Fax: +86-3952985220
en 10.5812/ircmj.23925 Saddle Nose Reconstruction with Bone Graft in Multiple Facial Fracture Patients Saddle Nose Reconstruction with Bone Graft in Multiple Facial Fracture Patients research-article research-article Conclusions

Saddle nose reconstruction with bone graft in multiple facial fracture patients is a predictable method if surgical accesses to the region are carefully designed, considering the accompanying fractures.

Results

There were 11 patients treated using this method. The male-to-female ratio was 7:5. One miniscrew with the lag technique was the preferred method for the fixation of the dorsal nasal bone graft. Splitcalvarial bone graft was the most commonly used type of bone graft. An open rhinoplasty approach and maxillary degloving were two commonly used incisions, and the most commonly associated fractures were maxillary Lefort fractures. The cantilever design was used in eight patients for the correction of the saddle nose deformity, and in four patients the bone graft was inserted into the nose in the subcutaneous plane.

Objectives

The current study aimed to report the results of a protocol for choosing the source of bone graft for dorsal nasal bone grafting in acute trauma patients with multiple facial fractures.

Patients and Methods

In a retrospective study, archived files of maxillofacial trauma patients who were treated between 2005 and 2012 at Mashhad Emdad hospital (a level one trauma center) were reviewed. Cases were selected in which a traumatic saddle nose deformity concomitant with other facial fractures had been corrected with dorsal nasal bone grafting. The donor site, type of fixation, access to the dorsum of the nose, associated facial fractures, shape of the graft (cantilever or L-shaped), and plane of dissection in the dorsum of the nose (subperiosteal or subcutaneous) were assessed.

Background

Saddle nose deformities mostly result from trauma. Most reports of saddle nose correction after trauma relate to isolated fractures, but in this article the experience of the authors is presented in relation to bone grafting for the correction of the saddle nose in multiple facial fracture patients.

Conclusions

Saddle nose reconstruction with bone graft in multiple facial fracture patients is a predictable method if surgical accesses to the region are carefully designed, considering the accompanying fractures.

Results

There were 11 patients treated using this method. The male-to-female ratio was 7:5. One miniscrew with the lag technique was the preferred method for the fixation of the dorsal nasal bone graft. Splitcalvarial bone graft was the most commonly used type of bone graft. An open rhinoplasty approach and maxillary degloving were two commonly used incisions, and the most commonly associated fractures were maxillary Lefort fractures. The cantilever design was used in eight patients for the correction of the saddle nose deformity, and in four patients the bone graft was inserted into the nose in the subcutaneous plane.

Objectives

The current study aimed to report the results of a protocol for choosing the source of bone graft for dorsal nasal bone grafting in acute trauma patients with multiple facial fractures.

Patients and Methods

In a retrospective study, archived files of maxillofacial trauma patients who were treated between 2005 and 2012 at Mashhad Emdad hospital (a level one trauma center) were reviewed. Cases were selected in which a traumatic saddle nose deformity concomitant with other facial fractures had been corrected with dorsal nasal bone grafting. The donor site, type of fixation, access to the dorsum of the nose, associated facial fractures, shape of the graft (cantilever or L-shaped), and plane of dissection in the dorsum of the nose (subperiosteal or subcutaneous) were assessed.

Background

Saddle nose deformities mostly result from trauma. Most reports of saddle nose correction after trauma relate to isolated fractures, but in this article the experience of the authors is presented in relation to bone grafting for the correction of the saddle nose in multiple facial fracture patients.

Saddle Nose;Bone Graft;Fracture Saddle Nose;Bone Graft;Fracture http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23925 Amin Rahpeyma Amin Rahpeyma Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Saeedeh Khajehahmadi Saeedeh Khajehahmadi Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5138829501 Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5138829501
en 10.5812/ircmj.30874 Patient Safety Culture and Factors that Impact That Culture in Tehran Hospitals in 2013 Patient Safety Culture and Factors that Impact That Culture in Tehran Hospitals in 2013 research-article research-article Background

Sufficient evidence is lacking about patient safety culture in Iran. It is only by focusing on the culture of safety within healthcare and treatment institutes that improvements may be made in patient care services.

Conclusions

Given that “Staffing” was the lowest rated element in patient safety culture, improving this element could help to increase patient safety culture in hospitals in Tehran.

Results

Overall, the study participants rated patient safety culture within their healthcare institutions at 64.7%. The highest and lowest patient safety culture subscales were 73.8% and 50.1% for “teamwork within units” and “staffing,” respectively. According to the findings, hospital size (P < 0.001) and hospital area (P < 0.001) had a significant relationship with patient safety culture.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in two government teaching hospitals (135- and 650-bed hospitals) in Tehran city in February of 2013 using a proportional stratified sampling method. The participants completed questionnaires with questions concerning their demographics and patient safety culture.

Objectives

The present study aimed to examine patient safety culture and factors that affect that culture in two hospitals in Tehran city.

Background

Sufficient evidence is lacking about patient safety culture in Iran. It is only by focusing on the culture of safety within healthcare and treatment institutes that improvements may be made in patient care services.

Conclusions

Given that “Staffing” was the lowest rated element in patient safety culture, improving this element could help to increase patient safety culture in hospitals in Tehran.

Results

Overall, the study participants rated patient safety culture within their healthcare institutions at 64.7%. The highest and lowest patient safety culture subscales were 73.8% and 50.1% for “teamwork within units” and “staffing,” respectively. According to the findings, hospital size (P < 0.001) and hospital area (P < 0.001) had a significant relationship with patient safety culture.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in two government teaching hospitals (135- and 650-bed hospitals) in Tehran city in February of 2013 using a proportional stratified sampling method. The participants completed questionnaires with questions concerning their demographics and patient safety culture.

Objectives

The present study aimed to examine patient safety culture and factors that affect that culture in two hospitals in Tehran city.

Hospital;Patient Safety Culture;Iran Hospital;Patient Safety Culture;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30874 Mehdi Habibi Mehdi Habibi Iran Helal Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran, IR Iran Iran Helal Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128958088; +98-2182883578 Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128958088; +98-2182883578 Hossein Samadinia Hossein Samadinia Najmieh Subspecialty Hospital, Baqiatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Najmieh Subspecialty Hospital, Baqiatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Mohamadian Maryam Mohamadian Najmieh Subspecialty Hospital, Baqiatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Najmieh Subspecialty Hospital, Baqiatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Somayesadat Anvari Somayesadat Anvari Department of Education in Tehran City, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Education in Tehran City, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.22940 Literature Review of Adipose-derived Mesanchymal Cells from History to Approaches Literature Review of Adipose-derived Mesanchymal Cells from History to Approaches review-article review-article Conclusions

This review was to focus on the roles of ASCs in different applications and also provide the researcher general information about the history and current applications of ASCs. We found that the ASCs have a potential role to be used for the treatment of different sorts of disorders, with the less side effects and is also a new approach toward new remedies.

Context

After about 40 years from the discovery of bone marrow stem cells, the adipose stem cells (ASCs) were identify and the applications of these cells in different fields including the medical and biomedical fields have always attracted the attention of the scientists. The great quantity of stem cells obtained from adipose tissue allows the scientists to rapidly apply these primary cells without culture expansion.

Evidence Acquisition

Human has different types of fat tissues and each has its own applications, which means that the ASCs are harvested from different niches and each could be applied for different purposes. There are also specific biomarkers on the surface of the stem cells which is specific for every kind of these cells and the ASCs have also their own surface markers which help to easily detect.

Results

Already the ASCs are clinically applied in many other purposes but the first clinical application of ASCs was reported in 2004 for the treatment of traumatic calvarial deficiency in a 7-year-old girl. However in the last decade a huge number of studies has been done on ASCs and the ASCs are used for different reasons and in different medical fields including the treatment of cardiovascular and immune diseases, for healing the wound scars and also is applied for skin rejuvenate, radiation injury, scar remodeling, and skin engineering.

Conclusions

This review was to focus on the roles of ASCs in different applications and also provide the researcher general information about the history and current applications of ASCs. We found that the ASCs have a potential role to be used for the treatment of different sorts of disorders, with the less side effects and is also a new approach toward new remedies.

Context

After about 40 years from the discovery of bone marrow stem cells, the adipose stem cells (ASCs) were identify and the applications of these cells in different fields including the medical and biomedical fields have always attracted the attention of the scientists. The great quantity of stem cells obtained from adipose tissue allows the scientists to rapidly apply these primary cells without culture expansion.

Evidence Acquisition

Human has different types of fat tissues and each has its own applications, which means that the ASCs are harvested from different niches and each could be applied for different purposes. There are also specific biomarkers on the surface of the stem cells which is specific for every kind of these cells and the ASCs have also their own surface markers which help to easily detect.

Results

Already the ASCs are clinically applied in many other purposes but the first clinical application of ASCs was reported in 2004 for the treatment of traumatic calvarial deficiency in a 7-year-old girl. However in the last decade a huge number of studies has been done on ASCs and the ASCs are used for different reasons and in different medical fields including the treatment of cardiovascular and immune diseases, for healing the wound scars and also is applied for skin rejuvenate, radiation injury, scar remodeling, and skin engineering.

Review;Adipose-Derived Stem Cell;Application Review;Adipose-Derived Stem Cell;Application http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22940 Mohammad Amir Amirkhani Mohammad Amir Amirkhani Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; MOHME Faculty Member, Adviser of Curative Deputy, Tehran, IR Iran Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; MOHME Faculty Member, Adviser of Curative Deputy, Tehran, IR Iran Sona Zare Sona Zare Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Alireza Shoaei-Hassani Alireza Shoaei-Hassani Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine RCSTM, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine RCSTM, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Elham Torbati Elham Torbati Young and Elite Research Club, Tehran, IR Iran Young and Elite Research Club, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122201710 Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122201710
en 10.5812/ircmj.37521 Dietary Regulation of miR-33b and miR-29a in Relationship to Metabolic Biomarkers of Glucose and Lipids in Obese Diabetic Women: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Study Dietary Regulation of miR-33b and miR-29a in Relationship to Metabolic Biomarkers of Glucose and Lipids in Obese Diabetic Women: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Our findings introduced a novel therapeutic effect of diet therapy on circulating miRNAs in obese patients with T2DM. MiR-33b is an important therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of T2DM and its complications.

Results

The circulating levels of miR-29a and miR-33b in the diabetic women were higher (0.40-fold) and lower (1.43-fold), respectively, than normal levels. Diet therapy significantly increased the circulating level of miR-33b (P = 0.023, 0.97-fold upregulation) to normal levels. This increase was independently correlated with caloric restriction (95%CI: -0.004 to -0.0001, P = 0.022) and 2hPPBS (95%CI: -0.009 to -0.001, P = 0.035). No remarkable change was observed in circulating levels of miR-29a.

Background

MicroRNAs have recently been introduced as epigenetic regulators of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, which are impaired in obesity and diabetes.

Objectives

We evaluated the effects of calorie-restricted diet therapy on the circulating levels of miR-33b and miR-29a in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

This randomized clinical controlled trial was performed on 30 eligible obese women with T2DM, randomly divided into two groups (control group, n = 15; diet therapy group, n = 15) for 10 weeks. Ten healthy women with normal weight were enrolled at the baseline of the study as controls. Demographic information, dietary intake, and anthropometric and biochemical indices were obtained before and after the study. Circulating miR-33b and miR-29a were assessed for all subjects using quantitative RT-PCR, and the fold change of each circulating miRNA was compared between groups.

Conclusions

Our findings introduced a novel therapeutic effect of diet therapy on circulating miRNAs in obese patients with T2DM. MiR-33b is an important therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of T2DM and its complications.

Results

The circulating levels of miR-29a and miR-33b in the diabetic women were higher (0.40-fold) and lower (1.43-fold), respectively, than normal levels. Diet therapy significantly increased the circulating level of miR-33b (P = 0.023, 0.97-fold upregulation) to normal levels. This increase was independently correlated with caloric restriction (95%CI: -0.004 to -0.0001, P = 0.022) and 2hPPBS (95%CI: -0.009 to -0.001, P = 0.035). No remarkable change was observed in circulating levels of miR-29a.

Background

MicroRNAs have recently been introduced as epigenetic regulators of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, which are impaired in obesity and diabetes.

Objectives

We evaluated the effects of calorie-restricted diet therapy on the circulating levels of miR-33b and miR-29a in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

This randomized clinical controlled trial was performed on 30 eligible obese women with T2DM, randomly divided into two groups (control group, n = 15; diet therapy group, n = 15) for 10 weeks. Ten healthy women with normal weight were enrolled at the baseline of the study as controls. Demographic information, dietary intake, and anthropometric and biochemical indices were obtained before and after the study. Circulating miR-33b and miR-29a were assessed for all subjects using quantitative RT-PCR, and the fold change of each circulating miRNA was compared between groups.

Diet Therapy;microRNAs;Diabetes;Obesity Diet Therapy;microRNAs;Diabetes;Obesity http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37521 Somayeh Mohammadi Somayeh Mohammadi Department of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, School of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, School of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini Department of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, School of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, School of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Parviz Fallah Parviz Fallah Department of Hematology, Alborz University of Medical Science, Karaj, IR Iran Department of Hematology, Alborz University of Medical Science, Karaj, IR Iran Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Sepideh Zununi Sepideh Zununi Department of Biotechnology, School of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Biotechnology, School of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Masoud Soleimani Masoud Soleimani Department of Hematology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Hematology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Banitalebi Dehkordi Mehdi Banitalebi Dehkordi Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Ghanbarian Hossein Ghanbarian Department of Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122439957, Fax: +98-2122439956 Department of Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122439957, Fax: +98-2122439956
en 10.5812/ircmj.29504 The Effect of Weight Loss Program on Overweight and Obese Females Based on Protection Motivation Theory: A Randomized Control Trial The Effect of Weight Loss Program on Overweight and Obese Females Based on Protection Motivation Theory: A Randomized Control Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Motivational interviewing resulted in decreased daily energy intake, anthropometric characteristics as well as augmented scores of coping and threat appraisal.

Results

The mean age of females was 38.45 ± 9.49 years, most of them had academic degree 46.7% (n = 70), 78.7% (n = 118) were married and 60.7% (n = 91) were housewives. ANOVA repeated measure test showed that daily energy intake decreased two (P = 0.001) and six months (P = 0.001), weight (P = 0.007) and body mass index (BMI) (0.005) after intervention. Threat appraisal statistically differed six months after intervention (P = 0.001).

Objectives

The current study aimed to test the effect of weight loss program on overweight and obese females based on protection motivation theory.

Methods

A randomized clinical trial (RCT) was implemented in the form of single blind. In total, 150 females with overweight and obesity were randomly divided into three groups including: 1, standard program group; 2, motivation interviewing (MI) group and; 3, motivation interviewing (MI) and intention intervention (II) condition (50 subjects in each group). They participated in a randomized clinical trial, also attended a private nutrition clinic in Gorgan city (Golestan province, North of Iran) for the first time. A researcher-made questionnaire and participant’s sheets (including three days food recall and anthropometric traits) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS (ver.11) and statistical tests including Kruskal-Wallis, One-way ANOVA, Friedman test, Tukey test, Paired T-test and linear regression model were employed.

Background

It is especially true that prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide and it is probably because of changes in diet and physical behavior pattern.

Conclusions

Motivational interviewing resulted in decreased daily energy intake, anthropometric characteristics as well as augmented scores of coping and threat appraisal.

Results

The mean age of females was 38.45 ± 9.49 years, most of them had academic degree 46.7% (n = 70), 78.7% (n = 118) were married and 60.7% (n = 91) were housewives. ANOVA repeated measure test showed that daily energy intake decreased two (P = 0.001) and six months (P = 0.001), weight (P = 0.007) and body mass index (BMI) (0.005) after intervention. Threat appraisal statistically differed six months after intervention (P = 0.001).

Objectives

The current study aimed to test the effect of weight loss program on overweight and obese females based on protection motivation theory.

Methods

A randomized clinical trial (RCT) was implemented in the form of single blind. In total, 150 females with overweight and obesity were randomly divided into three groups including: 1, standard program group; 2, motivation interviewing (MI) group and; 3, motivation interviewing (MI) and intention intervention (II) condition (50 subjects in each group). They participated in a randomized clinical trial, also attended a private nutrition clinic in Gorgan city (Golestan province, North of Iran) for the first time. A researcher-made questionnaire and participant’s sheets (including three days food recall and anthropometric traits) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS (ver.11) and statistical tests including Kruskal-Wallis, One-way ANOVA, Friedman test, Tukey test, Paired T-test and linear regression model were employed.

Background

It is especially true that prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide and it is probably because of changes in diet and physical behavior pattern.

Motivational Interviewing;Weight Reduction Programs;Psychological Theory;Humans Motivational Interviewing;Weight Reduction Programs;Psychological Theory;Humans http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29504 Kamal Mirkarimi Kamal Mirkarimi Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Firoozeh Mostafavi Firoozeh Mostafavi Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9132118364, Fax: +98-1732421657 Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9132118364, Fax: +98-1732421657 Rahman Berdi Ozouni-Davaji Rahman Berdi Ozouni-Davaji Health Management and Social Development Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Health Management and Social Development Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Samira Eshghinia Samira Eshghinia Biochemistry and Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Biochemistry and Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Vakili Mohammad Ali Vakili Department of Health and Medical Science, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Department of Health and Medical Science, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.25666 Effects of L-Carnitine Supplement on Serum Levels of Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone in Felines Following Ovariohysterectomy Effects of L-Carnitine Supplement on Serum Levels of Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone in Felines Following Ovariohysterectomy research-article research-article Conclusions

It is concluded that dietary supplementation of L-carnitine has no effect on serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone in cats following ovariohysterectomy. Long-term study is recommended.

Background

The benefits of the addition of L-carnitine to the diet of cats to control weight gain after the removal of their ovaries have been highlighted recently. It is also used in women after menopause. Whether its supplementation alters the sexual hormones is a concern.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of L-carnitine on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone in cats following ovariohysterectomy.

Methods

Conventional midline ovariohysterectomy was performed in 14 DSH adult and healthy female cats. 10 days after the surgery, the cats were divided into two groups randomly. In group 2, a single dose of 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine was added to the regular diet for 50 days. The cats in group 1 received no L-carnitine in their diet. Blood samples were taken from all cats prior to surgery, and then again 10 and 60 days post-operatively. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone were measured using a commercially available AMH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results

Serum levels of estrogen and progesterone significantly decreased at 10 days after the surgery in all cats (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum level of testosterone prior and after the surgery between the groups. Also, no significant difference was observed in serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone at 60 days after the surgery between the groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

It is concluded that dietary supplementation of L-carnitine has no effect on serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone in cats following ovariohysterectomy. Long-term study is recommended.

Background

The benefits of the addition of L-carnitine to the diet of cats to control weight gain after the removal of their ovaries have been highlighted recently. It is also used in women after menopause. Whether its supplementation alters the sexual hormones is a concern.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of L-carnitine on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone in cats following ovariohysterectomy.

Methods

Conventional midline ovariohysterectomy was performed in 14 DSH adult and healthy female cats. 10 days after the surgery, the cats were divided into two groups randomly. In group 2, a single dose of 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine was added to the regular diet for 50 days. The cats in group 1 received no L-carnitine in their diet. Blood samples were taken from all cats prior to surgery, and then again 10 and 60 days post-operatively. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone were measured using a commercially available AMH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results

Serum levels of estrogen and progesterone significantly decreased at 10 days after the surgery in all cats (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum level of testosterone prior and after the surgery between the groups. Also, no significant difference was observed in serum levels of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone at 60 days after the surgery between the groups (P > 0.05).

L-Carnitine;Sexual Hormone;Ovariohysterectomy;Feline L-Carnitine;Sexual Hormone;Ovariohysterectomy;Feline http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25666 Azin Tavakoli Azin Tavakoli Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box: 3581631167, Garmsar, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9127693797, Fax: +98-2334552121 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box: 3581631167, Garmsar, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9127693797, Fax: +98-2334552121 Ramin Khodadoost Ramin Khodadoost Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, IR Iran Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, IR Iran Leila Mohammadyar Leila Mohammadyar Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, IR Iran Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.37746 Comparative Nephroprotective Effects of Silymarin, N-Acetylcysteine, and Thymoquinone Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats Comparative Nephroprotective Effects of Silymarin, N-Acetylcysteine, and Thymoquinone Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

In conclusion, we suggest that TQ may be used as a prophylactic agent against nephrotoxicity, especially in instances of tubular injury. However, human-based studies are still needed.

Objectives

In this study, we investigated the comparative nephroprotective effects of silymarin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and thymoquinone (TQ) in animal models (rats) in which we induced nephrotoxicity using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

Methods

This animal experimental study was conducted at the experimental animals center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey, in 2015. Thirty-eight adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. We defined five experimental groups and treated them for four weeks. The first group (n = 8) was given no medicine. The second group (n = 8) was given only CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, intraperitoneally (IP), in olive oil, twice a week). The third group (n = 6) was given TQ (10 mg/kg, IP, in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), daily) and CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg). The fourth group (n = 8) was given silymarin (100 mg/kg, IP, in DMSO, daily) and CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg), while the fifth group (n = 8) was given NAC (10 mg/kg, IP, daily) and CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg). The kidneys of all the rats in every group were evaluated histologically using light microscopic methods at the end of the fourth week. A grading scheme was used to score the histological alterations related to tubular injury: absent (−), mild (+), moderate (++), severe (+++), and quite severe (++++).

Results

In terms of the mean values of tubular damage, the first group had a mean of 0.0, the second group had 3.88 ± 0.35, the third group had 1.00 ± 0.89, the fourth group had 2.13 ± 1.13, and the fifth group had 2.75 ± 1.04. The results showed that, histopathologically, CCl4 had quite a severe toxic effect on the tubules when compared to the control group, although the glomeruli were intact. Silymarin, TQ, and NAC all showed statistically significant nephroprotective effects (P < 0.01). However, of the three, TQ was the most powerful nephroprotective agent (P < 0.01).

Background

Many pharmacological agents may lead to kidney damage. Preventing nephrotoxicity reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality, as well as decreasing hospitalization costs.

Conclusions

In conclusion, we suggest that TQ may be used as a prophylactic agent against nephrotoxicity, especially in instances of tubular injury. However, human-based studies are still needed.

Objectives

In this study, we investigated the comparative nephroprotective effects of silymarin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and thymoquinone (TQ) in animal models (rats) in which we induced nephrotoxicity using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

Methods

This animal experimental study was conducted at the experimental animals center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey, in 2015. Thirty-eight adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. We defined five experimental groups and treated them for four weeks. The first group (n = 8) was given no medicine. The second group (n = 8) was given only CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, intraperitoneally (IP), in olive oil, twice a week). The third group (n = 6) was given TQ (10 mg/kg, IP, in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), daily) and CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg). The fourth group (n = 8) was given silymarin (100 mg/kg, IP, in DMSO, daily) and CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg), while the fifth group (n = 8) was given NAC (10 mg/kg, IP, daily) and CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg). The kidneys of all the rats in every group were evaluated histologically using light microscopic methods at the end of the fourth week. A grading scheme was used to score the histological alterations related to tubular injury: absent (−), mild (+), moderate (++), severe (+++), and quite severe (++++).

Results

In terms of the mean values of tubular damage, the first group had a mean of 0.0, the second group had 3.88 ± 0.35, the third group had 1.00 ± 0.89, the fourth group had 2.13 ± 1.13, and the fifth group had 2.75 ± 1.04. The results showed that, histopathologically, CCl4 had quite a severe toxic effect on the tubules when compared to the control group, although the glomeruli were intact. Silymarin, TQ, and NAC all showed statistically significant nephroprotective effects (P < 0.01). However, of the three, TQ was the most powerful nephroprotective agent (P < 0.01).

Background

Many pharmacological agents may lead to kidney damage. Preventing nephrotoxicity reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality, as well as decreasing hospitalization costs.

Kidney;Nephrotoxicity;Nephroprotective;Silymarin;N-Acetylcysteine;Thymoquinone Kidney;Nephrotoxicity;Nephroprotective;Silymarin;N-Acetylcysteine;Thymoquinone http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37746 Lokman Ustyol Lokman Ustyol Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey; Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey. Tel: +90-5054511414, Fax: +90-4324865413 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey; Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey. Tel: +90-5054511414, Fax: +90-4324865413 Kaan Demirören Kaan Demirören Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Ibrahim Kandemir Ibrahim Kandemir Baskale Goverment Hospital, Van, Turkey Baskale Goverment Hospital, Van, Turkey Remzi Erten Remzi Erten Department of Pathology, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Department of Pathology, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Kezban Bulan Kezban Bulan Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Sultan Kaba Sultan Kaba Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Nihat Demir Nihat Demir Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Mehmet Turan Basunlu Mehmet Turan Basunlu Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncuyıl University, Van, Turkey
en 10.5812/ircmj.27834 Management of Castor Bean Seed-Associated Intraventricular Hemorrhage with Fresh Frozen Plasma: A Case Report Management of Castor Bean Seed-Associated Intraventricular Hemorrhage with Fresh Frozen Plasma: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

Intraventricular hemorrhage followed by comatose state is a rare finding of the castor bean seed ingestion. The patient’s condition improved dramatically after FFP transfusion.

Introduction

Castor bean seed is used to control some medical conditions including diabetes mellitus due to popular belief in its effectiveness. However it may cause severe poisoning in humans and animals and its components (ricin) might be used as a biological weapon. In the present case, a rare intra-ventricular hemorrhage followed by unconsciousness had occurred after poisoning with caster bean. Because there is no direct antidote or reversal agent for this condition, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was prescribed to control the hemorrhage and good results were achieved.

Case Presentation

A 63-year-old female taking castor bean seed as a treatment for her diabetes was admitted to the emergency ward for a comatose state. A computed tomography image of her head demonstrated an intraventricular hemorrhage. Symptomatic and supporting care was prescribed. After two weeks without significant improvement, the patient was administered five units of FFP. However, the patient’s neurological status dramatically improved and remained stable.

Conclusions

Intraventricular hemorrhage followed by comatose state is a rare finding of the castor bean seed ingestion. The patient’s condition improved dramatically after FFP transfusion.

Introduction

Castor bean seed is used to control some medical conditions including diabetes mellitus due to popular belief in its effectiveness. However it may cause severe poisoning in humans and animals and its components (ricin) might be used as a biological weapon. In the present case, a rare intra-ventricular hemorrhage followed by unconsciousness had occurred after poisoning with caster bean. Because there is no direct antidote or reversal agent for this condition, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was prescribed to control the hemorrhage and good results were achieved.

Case Presentation

A 63-year-old female taking castor bean seed as a treatment for her diabetes was admitted to the emergency ward for a comatose state. A computed tomography image of her head demonstrated an intraventricular hemorrhage. Symptomatic and supporting care was prescribed. After two weeks without significant improvement, the patient was administered five units of FFP. However, the patient’s neurological status dramatically improved and remained stable.

Castor Bean;Cerebral Ventricles;Hemorrhage;Biological Warfare Agents;Blood Plasma Castor Bean;Cerebral Ventricles;Hemorrhage;Biological Warfare Agents;Blood Plasma http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27834 Najmeh Hosseini Najmeh Hosseini Ali-Asghar Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Ali-Asghar Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Leila Hosseini Leila Hosseini Internist, Department of Traditional Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Internist, Department of Traditional Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Ali Noorafshan Ali Noorafshan Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7132304372 Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7132304372
en 10.5812/ircmj.36676 The Impact of a Hospital-Based Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model on Self-Care Behaviors of Heart Failure Patients The Impact of a Hospital-Based Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model on Self-Care Behaviors of Heart Failure Patients research-article research-article Objectives

This study aimed to examine the effect of a hospital-based educational program based on the constructs of the health belief model (HBM) on self-care behaviors of patients with HF.

Methods

This controlled quasi-experimental study consisted of 84 patients with HF (42 patients in an intervention group and 42 in a control group) who were admitted to two large, specialized, referral hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from April to August 2015. The patients were selected using purposive sampling. Data on self-care according to the constructs of the HBM were collected using a European HF self-care behavior questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire.

Conclusions

This study showed that implementation of the HBM-based educational intervention positively influenced the self-care behaviors of patients with HF. Thus, implementing long-term educational interventions, including continuous follow-ups, in inpatient treatment centers may result in improved and sustained self-care behaviors. We strongly suggest that novel trials of educational interventions that use other health behavior theories and training strategies are needed to expand training knowledge in hospitals.

Results

Before the intervention, the mean score for self-care behaviors was 30.69 ± 5.13 in the intervention group and 31.23 ± 5.48 in the control group. In the first and second post-tests of the intervention group, the mean scores for self-care behaviors were 39.47 ± 3.40 and 40.09 ± 2.91, respectively (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the determinants of self-care behaviors based on the HBM after the intervention. The results also pointed to a significant difference in the constructs of the HBM (knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action and self-efficacy) in the intervention group during different stages of measurement.

Background

The empowerment of heart failure (HF) patients to improve self-care behaviors through appropriate training programs is necessary. Evidence has indicated a lack of theory-based trials in hospitals and healthcare centers, both of which represent important health promotion settings.

Objectives

This study aimed to examine the effect of a hospital-based educational program based on the constructs of the health belief model (HBM) on self-care behaviors of patients with HF.

Methods

This controlled quasi-experimental study consisted of 84 patients with HF (42 patients in an intervention group and 42 in a control group) who were admitted to two large, specialized, referral hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from April to August 2015. The patients were selected using purposive sampling. Data on self-care according to the constructs of the HBM were collected using a European HF self-care behavior questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire.

Conclusions

This study showed that implementation of the HBM-based educational intervention positively influenced the self-care behaviors of patients with HF. Thus, implementing long-term educational interventions, including continuous follow-ups, in inpatient treatment centers may result in improved and sustained self-care behaviors. We strongly suggest that novel trials of educational interventions that use other health behavior theories and training strategies are needed to expand training knowledge in hospitals.

Results

Before the intervention, the mean score for self-care behaviors was 30.69 ± 5.13 in the intervention group and 31.23 ± 5.48 in the control group. In the first and second post-tests of the intervention group, the mean scores for self-care behaviors were 39.47 ± 3.40 and 40.09 ± 2.91, respectively (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the determinants of self-care behaviors based on the HBM after the intervention. The results also pointed to a significant difference in the constructs of the HBM (knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action and self-efficacy) in the intervention group during different stages of measurement.

Background

The empowerment of heart failure (HF) patients to improve self-care behaviors through appropriate training programs is necessary. Evidence has indicated a lack of theory-based trials in hospitals and healthcare centers, both of which represent important health promotion settings.

Hospital;Patient Education;Self-Care;Heart Failure Hospital;Patient Education;Self-Care;Heart Failure http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36676 Mohammad Hossien Kaveh Mohammad Hossien Kaveh Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251001 Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251001 Zakieh Khoramaki Zakieh Khoramaki Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Javad Kojouri Javad Kojouri Medical Education Development Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Medical Education Development Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Sareh Keshavarzi Sareh Keshavarzi Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.28773 An Investigation of the Complex Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytoplasmic Extract on Apoptosis in K562 Cells An Investigation of the Complex Effects of a <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> Cytoplasmic Extract on Apoptosis in K562 Cells research-article research-article Methods

S. cerevisiae was cultured and then disrupted by sonication. After centrifugation, the harvested supernatant was considered to be a cytoplasmic extract. The protein concentration was determined by the Biuret method and the extract was diluted to concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 µg protein/ml. The frequencies of apoptosis and necrosis were assessed in extract-treated K562 cells by electrophoresis to show DNA segmentation and by flow cytometry.

Objectives

The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro effects of a cytoplasmic extract from S. cerevisiae on the proliferation and viability of a K562 (chronic myeloid leukemia) cell line.

Conclusions

The cytoplasmic extract of S. cerevisiae investigated here may inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

Results

The cytoplasmic extract exhibited a time-dependent antitumor activity. DNA electrophoresis did not reveal apoptosis and necrosis in the treated cells, but the DNA bands were weak. The flow cytometry results indicated the induction of apoptosis as well as necrosis in the K562 cell line and the intensity of apoptosis increased with time.

Background

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common probiotic, can induce in vitro apoptosis in human cancer cells, which could explain its antitumor activity.

Methods

S. cerevisiae was cultured and then disrupted by sonication. After centrifugation, the harvested supernatant was considered to be a cytoplasmic extract. The protein concentration was determined by the Biuret method and the extract was diluted to concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 µg protein/ml. The frequencies of apoptosis and necrosis were assessed in extract-treated K562 cells by electrophoresis to show DNA segmentation and by flow cytometry.

Objectives

The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro effects of a cytoplasmic extract from S. cerevisiae on the proliferation and viability of a K562 (chronic myeloid leukemia) cell line.

Conclusions

The cytoplasmic extract of S. cerevisiae investigated here may inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

Results

The cytoplasmic extract exhibited a time-dependent antitumor activity. DNA electrophoresis did not reveal apoptosis and necrosis in the treated cells, but the DNA bands were weak. The flow cytometry results indicated the induction of apoptosis as well as necrosis in the K562 cell line and the intensity of apoptosis increased with time.

Background

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common probiotic, can induce in vitro apoptosis in human cancer cells, which could explain its antitumor activity.

Apoptosis;Cytoplasmic Extract;K562 Cell Line;Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apoptosis;Cytoplasmic Extract;K562 Cell Line;Saccharomyces cerevisiae http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28773 Farzaneh Bonyadi Farzaneh Bonyadi Department of Comparative Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Comparative Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Vahid Nejati Vahid Nejati Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, IRIran Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, IRIran Amir Tukmechi Amir Tukmechi Department of Pathobiology and Biotechnology, Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Pathobiology and Biotechnology, Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Shapour Hasanzadeh Shapour Hasanzadeh Department of Comparative Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran; Department of Comparative Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran. Tel: +98-09144475731 Department of Comparative Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran; Department of Comparative Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran. Tel: +98-09144475731 Aram Mokarizadeh Aram Mokarizadeh Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.35141 Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale in Iranian Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale in Iranian Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia research-article research-article Conclusions

This study has provided some preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the Persian version of RCAS when used with family caregivers of older adults with dementia.

Background

Caregivers’ self-assessments of the care they provide are the main vehicles that help explore their experiences and are thought to have a major role in care outcomes. The rising number of people with dementia and their need for care provided within the family makes family caregiving a major topic for study and evaluation.

Objectives

The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of the revised caregiving appraisal scale (RCAS) in family caregivers of older adults with dementia.

Methods

In this cross-sectional methodological study, 236 family caregivers were recruited through convenience sampling. The revised caregiving appraisal scale (RCAS) was translated using the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) protocol, and then a panel of experts examined its face and content validities. To ensure construct validity, the translated revised caregiving appraisal scale (RCAS) was completed by 236 family caregivers, and the factor construct of the scale was assessed using five initial factors for confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The confirmatory factor analysis was performed with LISREL-8.8 software for Windows®.

Results

The mean age of the participating caregivers was 53.5 ± 13.13 years. The content and face validities of the scale were confirmed using the feedback of the family caregivers and panel of experts. The confirmatory factor analysis results reported appropriate values for all the fit indices (RMSEA = 0.046, df / χ2 = 2.428, CFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.84, and GFI = 0.9), and the 5-factor model was confirmed with 27 items. The scale-level Cronbach’s alpha was reported as 0.894 and the scale-level ICC as 0.94. The scale met the minimum reliability standards (Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.7).

Conclusions

This study has provided some preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the Persian version of RCAS when used with family caregivers of older adults with dementia.

Background

Caregivers’ self-assessments of the care they provide are the main vehicles that help explore their experiences and are thought to have a major role in care outcomes. The rising number of people with dementia and their need for care provided within the family makes family caregiving a major topic for study and evaluation.

Objectives

The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of the revised caregiving appraisal scale (RCAS) in family caregivers of older adults with dementia.

Methods

In this cross-sectional methodological study, 236 family caregivers were recruited through convenience sampling. The revised caregiving appraisal scale (RCAS) was translated using the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) protocol, and then a panel of experts examined its face and content validities. To ensure construct validity, the translated revised caregiving appraisal scale (RCAS) was completed by 236 family caregivers, and the factor construct of the scale was assessed using five initial factors for confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The confirmatory factor analysis was performed with LISREL-8.8 software for Windows®.

Results

The mean age of the participating caregivers was 53.5 ± 13.13 years. The content and face validities of the scale were confirmed using the feedback of the family caregivers and panel of experts. The confirmatory factor analysis results reported appropriate values for all the fit indices (RMSEA = 0.046, df / χ2 = 2.428, CFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.84, and GFI = 0.9), and the 5-factor model was confirmed with 27 items. The scale-level Cronbach’s alpha was reported as 0.894 and the scale-level ICC as 0.94. The scale met the minimum reliability standards (Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.7).

Psychometric;Dementia;Elderly;Self-Appraisal;Family Caregivers;Reliability and Validity Psychometric;Dementia;Elderly;Self-Appraisal;Family Caregivers;Reliability and Validity http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35141 Akram Farhadi Akram Farhadi Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahshid Foroughan Mahshid Foroughan Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122180004 Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122180004 Farahnaz Mohammadi Farahnaz Mohammadi Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Rassouli Maryam Rassouli Department of Nursing, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Noroozian Maryam Noroozian Department of Memory and Behavioral Neurology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, IR Iran Department of Memory and Behavioral Neurology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, IR Iran Shima Nazari Shima Nazari Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Leila Sadeghmoghadam Leila Sadeghmoghadam Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Narjeskhatoun Sadeghi Narjeskhatoun Sadeghi Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Centre on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.39328 The Impact of Post-Discharge Call Interview to Improve the Screening of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis: An Experimental Study The Impact of Post-Discharge Call Interview to Improve the Screening of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis: An Experimental Study research-article research-article Results

There was a significant difference in follow-up rates at the due date between the intervention group (50.7%, 34of 67 participants) and the control group (17.5%, 11 of 63 participants) (OR = 4.871, 95% CI = 2.172 to 10.924, P < 0.0001). In the control group, the call interviews significantly increased the follow-up rate from 17.5% to 66.7 % (42 of 63 participants) (P < 0.0001), although follow-up occurred after the due date. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the patients who had attempted suicide completed follow-up more than those who had not (P = 0.017), that interviews with patients and their parents were more effect than interviews with others (P < 0.05), and that phone call interviews after the follow-up due date were more effective than those before the follow-up due date (OR = 2.653, 95%CI = 1.079 to 6.526, P = 0.034).

Conclusions

We highly recommend making call interviews, along with distributing the oral and written educational materials, to increase the follow-up rate among discharged ICU patients.

Objectives

To determine the effect of post-discharge call interviews on improving screening of post-intubation tracheal stenosis.

Methods

This experimental study was conducted in Iran in September 2014. Using the simple randomization method, 140 patients who had undergone than 24 hours of endotracheal intubation and had received oral and written educational materials upon discharge from the ICU were equally assigned to an intervention and a control groups (received a call interview before or after the follow-up due date, respectively). The needed sample size was calculated to be 70 participants in each group (considering α = 5%, the statistical power of 90%, and effect size = 0.4).

Background

Tracheal stenosis is one of the worst complications of endotracheal intubation, but timely diagnosis can change its natural history. Management of these patients places a great burden on the health care system and the well-being of the patients and their families. Therefore, discharged intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients who underwent more than 24 hours of intubation should be actively followed-up 3 months after extubation and screened for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. The present study was aimed at assessing the impact of post-discharge follow-up call interviews on increasing successful screening for post-intubation tracheal stenosis.

Results

There was a significant difference in follow-up rates at the due date between the intervention group (50.7%, 34of 67 participants) and the control group (17.5%, 11 of 63 participants) (OR = 4.871, 95% CI = 2.172 to 10.924, P < 0.0001). In the control group, the call interviews significantly increased the follow-up rate from 17.5% to 66.7 % (42 of 63 participants) (P < 0.0001), although follow-up occurred after the due date. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the patients who had attempted suicide completed follow-up more than those who had not (P = 0.017), that interviews with patients and their parents were more effect than interviews with others (P < 0.05), and that phone call interviews after the follow-up due date were more effective than those before the follow-up due date (OR = 2.653, 95%CI = 1.079 to 6.526, P = 0.034).

Conclusions

We highly recommend making call interviews, along with distributing the oral and written educational materials, to increase the follow-up rate among discharged ICU patients.

Objectives

To determine the effect of post-discharge call interviews on improving screening of post-intubation tracheal stenosis.

Methods

This experimental study was conducted in Iran in September 2014. Using the simple randomization method, 140 patients who had undergone than 24 hours of endotracheal intubation and had received oral and written educational materials upon discharge from the ICU were equally assigned to an intervention and a control groups (received a call interview before or after the follow-up due date, respectively). The needed sample size was calculated to be 70 participants in each group (considering α = 5%, the statistical power of 90%, and effect size = 0.4).

Background

Tracheal stenosis is one of the worst complications of endotracheal intubation, but timely diagnosis can change its natural history. Management of these patients places a great burden on the health care system and the well-being of the patients and their families. Therefore, discharged intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients who underwent more than 24 hours of intubation should be actively followed-up 3 months after extubation and screened for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. The present study was aimed at assessing the impact of post-discharge follow-up call interviews on increasing successful screening for post-intubation tracheal stenosis.

Patient Education;Interview;Phone;Follow-Up;Intensive Care Units;Tracheal Stenosis Patient Education;Interview;Phone;Follow-Up;Intensive Care Units;Tracheal Stenosis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=39328 Roya Farzanegan Roya Farzanegan Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Alehashem Maryam Alehashem Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behrooz Farzanegan Behrooz Farzanegan Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sharareh R Niakan Kalhori Sharareh R Niakan Kalhori Department of Health Information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Farshid Rahimi Bashar Farshid Rahimi Bashar Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behjat Barari Behjat Barari Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdi Zangi Mahdi Zangi Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Behgam Shadmehr Mohammad Behgam Shadmehr Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Professor of Surgery, Tracheal Diseases Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Massih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2126105387, Fax: +98-2126105387 Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Professor of Surgery, Tracheal Diseases Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Massih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2126105387, Fax: +98-2126105387
en 10.5812/ircmj.40076 Non-Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain 9 Gene (MYH9) Polymorphism (rs4821481) is Associated with Urinary Albumin Excretion in Iranian Diabetic Patients Non-Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain 9 Gene (<italic>MYH9</italic>) Polymorphism (rs4821481) is Associated with Urinary Albumin Excretion in Iranian Diabetic Patients research-article research-article Conclusions

Although we found an association between MYH9 gene polymorphism and urinary albumin excretion, the results did not show a significant association between MYH9 polymorphism (rs4821481) and risk of DN in Iranian diabetic patients.

Background

Myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in different types of renal disease, as well as in nephropathy attributed to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Objectives

This study sought to analyze the association of MYH9 gene polymorphism (rs4821481) with diabetic nephropathy (DN), urine albumin excretion value, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in an Iranian diabetic population.

Methods

This case-control study included 201 diabetic patients with and without DN, who were referred to the diabetes and metabolic center, Tehran, Iran. The allele and genotype frequencies of rs4821481 were determined using ARMS-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). In both groups, blood levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and lipids, as well as urine albumin and creatinine, were measured and GFR was calculated.

Results

Patients who carried the rs4821481 polymorphism had significantly higher urinary excretion of albumin (P < 0.05) and insignificantly lower GFR values (P = 0.08). The frequency of rs4821481 SNP was 22.8% in patients without DN versus 28% in the DN group, which was not statistically significant. Only 2% and 3% of patients without DN and with DN, respectively, had two copies of the C allele. No significant association was found between the rs4821481 polymorphism and DN (OR [95% CI] 1.56 [0.79 - 3.08], P = 0.19).

Conclusions

Although we found an association between MYH9 gene polymorphism and urinary albumin excretion, the results did not show a significant association between MYH9 polymorphism (rs4821481) and risk of DN in Iranian diabetic patients.

Background

Myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in different types of renal disease, as well as in nephropathy attributed to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Objectives

This study sought to analyze the association of MYH9 gene polymorphism (rs4821481) with diabetic nephropathy (DN), urine albumin excretion value, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in an Iranian diabetic population.

Methods

This case-control study included 201 diabetic patients with and without DN, who were referred to the diabetes and metabolic center, Tehran, Iran. The allele and genotype frequencies of rs4821481 were determined using ARMS-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). In both groups, blood levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and lipids, as well as urine albumin and creatinine, were measured and GFR was calculated.

Results

Patients who carried the rs4821481 polymorphism had significantly higher urinary excretion of albumin (P < 0.05) and insignificantly lower GFR values (P = 0.08). The frequency of rs4821481 SNP was 22.8% in patients without DN versus 28% in the DN group, which was not statistically significant. Only 2% and 3% of patients without DN and with DN, respectively, had two copies of the C allele. No significant association was found between the rs4821481 polymorphism and DN (OR [95% CI] 1.56 [0.79 - 3.08], P = 0.19).

Diabetic Nephropathy;Albuminuria, SNP;rs4821481;MYH9 Gene Diabetic Nephropathy;Albuminuria, SNP;rs4821481;MYH9 Gene http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=40076 Effat Asdadollahpour Effat Asdadollahpour Medical Biotechnology Research Center, Ashkezar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ashkezar, Yazd, IR Iran Medical Biotechnology Research Center, Ashkezar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ashkezar, Yazd, IR Iran Maryam Daneshpour Maryam Daneshpour Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Bahareh Sedaghati Khayat Bahareh Sedaghati Khayat Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Arsalan Hashemiaghdam Arsalan Hashemiaghdam Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahsa Mohammad Amoli Mahsa Mohammad Amoli Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mostafa Qorbani Mostafa Qorbani Department of Community Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran Farideh Razi Farideh Razi Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188220037, Fax: +98-2188220052 Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188220037, Fax: +98-2188220052
en 10.5812/ircmj.36237 Fish-Oil Supplementation and Maternal Mental Health: A Triple-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial Fish-Oil Supplementation and Maternal Mental Health: A Triple-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial research-article research-article Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation on antenatal and postpartum depression score.

Methods

This was a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We enrolled 150 eligible pregnant women with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) score of less than 20, aged 18 to 35 from Feburary 2014 to April 2015 in Tabriz, Iran. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 1000 mg of fish oil supplements or placebo from 16 - 20 weeks of gestation to one month after giving birth. Participants completed the EPDS at baseline, 26 - 30 weeks, 35 - 37 weeks, and 30 - 45 days after birth. Primary outcome measures were the mean depression score at 26 - 30 weeks, 35-37 weeks, and postpartum period. The statistical analysis was intent-to-treat.

Results

A total of 150 females were included, and no one was lost to follow up. There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean score of depression only at 35 - 37 (adjusted mean difference = -1.4; [95% CI -2.6 to -0.25]). The mean score of depression during pregnancy and postpartum period significantly decreased within the fish oil group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the baseline docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaneoic acid (EPA) serum levels.

Conclusions

Fish oil supplements significantly decreased the mean score of EPDS at weeks 35 to 37. It seems that females may benefit from daily fish oil supplements during pregnancy especially in countries with low intake of fish yet further studies are needed to confirm these results.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation on antenatal and postpartum depression score.

Methods

This was a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We enrolled 150 eligible pregnant women with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) score of less than 20, aged 18 to 35 from Feburary 2014 to April 2015 in Tabriz, Iran. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 1000 mg of fish oil supplements or placebo from 16 - 20 weeks of gestation to one month after giving birth. Participants completed the EPDS at baseline, 26 - 30 weeks, 35 - 37 weeks, and 30 - 45 days after birth. Primary outcome measures were the mean depression score at 26 - 30 weeks, 35-37 weeks, and postpartum period. The statistical analysis was intent-to-treat.

Results

A total of 150 females were included, and no one was lost to follow up. There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean score of depression only at 35 - 37 (adjusted mean difference = -1.4; [95% CI -2.6 to -0.25]). The mean score of depression during pregnancy and postpartum period significantly decreased within the fish oil group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the baseline docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaneoic acid (EPA) serum levels.

Conclusions

Fish oil supplements significantly decreased the mean score of EPDS at weeks 35 to 37. It seems that females may benefit from daily fish oil supplements during pregnancy especially in countries with low intake of fish yet further studies are needed to confirm these results.

Fish Oil;Antenatal Depression;Postpartum Depression;Supplemantation Fish Oil;Antenatal Depression;Postpartum Depression;Supplemantation http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36237 Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili Health Services Management Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Health Services Management Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Department of Midwifery, Research Center of Social Determinants of Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Midwifery, Research Center of Social Determinants of Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Ahad Farshbaf-Khalili Ahad Farshbaf-Khalili Psychiatrist, 29 Bahman Hospital, Tabriz, IR Iran Psychiatrist, 29 Bahman Hospital, Tabriz, IR Iran Fatemeh Mohammadi Fatemeh Mohammadi Health Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Health Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Alireza Ostadrahimi Alireza Ostadrahimi Health Services Management Research Center, Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Health Services Management Research Center, Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357580, Fax: +98-4134796969 Health Services Management Research Center, Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Health Services Management Research Center, Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357580, Fax: +98-4134796969
en 10.5812/ircmj.38577 Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract Supplementation Reduces Pain and Improves Clinical Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study Pomegranate (<italic>Punica Granatum</italic> L.) Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract Supplementation Reduces Pain and Improves Clinical Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study research-article research-article Conclusions

This study presented some effects of the pomegranate peel extract in reducing pain and improving clinical signs and symptoms in women with knee OA and might be considered as a complementary medicine in treating OA.

Results

There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean of age, body mass index (BMI), disease duration and parity before intervention (P > 0.05). The mean of KOOS increased from 46.15 ± 16.82 to 57.57 ± 15.61 after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) as compared to the placebo group 50.83 ± 18.83 declining to 56.10 ± 18.07 (P < 0.001). The VAS score declined significantly in both treatment and control groups compared with baselines (P < 0.005). These changes in the intervention group were significantly greater than those in the control group after adjusting for baseline values, weight changes, energy intake, physical activity, disease duration and parity (P < 0.05).

Background

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with several pathological mechanisms. The intervention that provides for reduced pain and disability with fewer side effects may help improve OA. Pomegranate peel is known to have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to its great amount of polyphenols.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the pomegranate peel extract on clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA.

Methods

This randomized, doubleblind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted amongst 60 women in the age range of 38 - 60 years who were referred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran (Sep 2014 - Feb 2015). The participants were allocated using the block randomization method in one of two study arms. The intervention and control groups received 500 mg of pomegranate peel, hydro alcoholic extract (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30), twice daily for 8 weeks, along with standard drug therapy. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean, Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the secondary outcome measure was the visual analog scale score.

Conclusions

This study presented some effects of the pomegranate peel extract in reducing pain and improving clinical signs and symptoms in women with knee OA and might be considered as a complementary medicine in treating OA.

Results

There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean of age, body mass index (BMI), disease duration and parity before intervention (P > 0.05). The mean of KOOS increased from 46.15 ± 16.82 to 57.57 ± 15.61 after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) as compared to the placebo group 50.83 ± 18.83 declining to 56.10 ± 18.07 (P < 0.001). The VAS score declined significantly in both treatment and control groups compared with baselines (P < 0.005). These changes in the intervention group were significantly greater than those in the control group after adjusting for baseline values, weight changes, energy intake, physical activity, disease duration and parity (P < 0.05).

Background

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with several pathological mechanisms. The intervention that provides for reduced pain and disability with fewer side effects may help improve OA. Pomegranate peel is known to have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to its great amount of polyphenols.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the pomegranate peel extract on clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA.

Methods

This randomized, doubleblind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted amongst 60 women in the age range of 38 - 60 years who were referred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran (Sep 2014 - Feb 2015). The participants were allocated using the block randomization method in one of two study arms. The intervention and control groups received 500 mg of pomegranate peel, hydro alcoholic extract (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30), twice daily for 8 weeks, along with standard drug therapy. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean, Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the secondary outcome measure was the visual analog scale score.

Punicaceae;Clinical Signs;Knee Osteoarthritis Punicaceae;Clinical Signs;Knee Osteoarthritis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38577 Maryam Rafraf Maryam Rafraf Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Salar Hemmati Salar Hemmati Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Abdolvahab Moghaddam Abdolvahab Moghaddam Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Mahdiyeh Khadem Haghighian Mahdiyeh Khadem Haghighian Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357581, Fax: +98-4133340634 Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357581, Fax: +98-4133340634
en 10.5812/ircmj.38743 Epidemiology of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran: Based on the Data from Disaster Management Information System (DMIS) Of the Iranian Red Crescent Epidemiology of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran: Based on the Data from Disaster Management Information System (DMIS) Of the Iranian Red Crescent research-article research-article Conclusions

Considering the high occurrence of the mortality and the injuries of the RTIs compared to that of the other types of accidents, more attention to RTIs in planning and interventions seems necessary.

Background

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of injuries and the second cause of mortality in Iran.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological pattern of RTIs in Iran based on the data from disaster management information system (DMIS) of the Iranian Red Crescent.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, the pattern of RTIs in Iran was studied based on the data from DMIS in the period from 20 March 2012 to 19 February 2016 (35 months). All of the 78775 RTIs recorded were selected through census. Data analysis was done using the SPSS.16 software package. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Among the 19 types of accidents whose data are recorded, road traffic accidents with a 78775 number of occurrence (136.1 ± 86.5 per 100000 people), 186860 injuries (332.1 ± 220 per 100000 people) and 12596 deaths (22.6 ± 11.1 per 100000 people) were the highest in ranking. The most common annunciator of the accidents was the emergency. Receiving the first report of the rescue operation was most done by telephone. The mean number of the operational forces involved in RTIs per 100000 people was 529.2 ± 407. The results showed that there was a significant difference between high, moderate and low population rate provinces in the mean number of injuries cases, the mortality of RTIs and the total number of Red Crescent operational forces (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Considering the high occurrence of the mortality and the injuries of the RTIs compared to that of the other types of accidents, more attention to RTIs in planning and interventions seems necessary.

Background

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of injuries and the second cause of mortality in Iran.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological pattern of RTIs in Iran based on the data from disaster management information system (DMIS) of the Iranian Red Crescent.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, the pattern of RTIs in Iran was studied based on the data from DMIS in the period from 20 March 2012 to 19 February 2016 (35 months). All of the 78775 RTIs recorded were selected through census. Data analysis was done using the SPSS.16 software package. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Among the 19 types of accidents whose data are recorded, road traffic accidents with a 78775 number of occurrence (136.1 ± 86.5 per 100000 people), 186860 injuries (332.1 ± 220 per 100000 people) and 12596 deaths (22.6 ± 11.1 per 100000 people) were the highest in ranking. The most common annunciator of the accidents was the emergency. Receiving the first report of the rescue operation was most done by telephone. The mean number of the operational forces involved in RTIs per 100000 people was 529.2 ± 407. The results showed that there was a significant difference between high, moderate and low population rate provinces in the mean number of injuries cases, the mortality of RTIs and the total number of Red Crescent operational forces (P < 0.05).

Road Traffic;Injuries;Accidents;Epidemiological Mortality Road Traffic;Injuries;Accidents;Epidemiological Mortality http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38743 Saber Azami-Aghdash Saber Azami-Aghdash Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Hassan Abolghasem Gorji Hassan Abolghasem Gorji Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center of Excellence in Health Management and Economics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 1995614111, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-9370657754 Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center of Excellence in Health Management and Economics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 1995614111, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-9370657754 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Hosein Shabaninejad Hosein Shabaninejad Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center of Excellence in Health Management and Economics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center of Excellence in Health Management and Economics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.41507 Prevalence of HBsAg Amongst Healthy Children in Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Prevalence of HBsAg Amongst Healthy Children in Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis review-article review-article Results

We included 20 articles in our meta-analysis. The pooled HBsAg prevalence in children of E and M countries was 2.73% (95% CI: %1.73% - 3.72%). The prevalence rates in the EMRO and Middle Eastern countries were 1.85% (95% CI: 1.27% - 2.43%) and 2.66% (95% CI: 1.31% - 4.01%), respectively. The prevalence rates amongst children in nations considered in more than one study were 0.81% (95% CI: 0% - 1.74%) in Iran, 2.64% (95% CI: 1.63% - 3.64%) in Pakistan, and 5.83% (95% CI: 2.99% - 8.67%) in Turkey.

Conclusions

Based on the world health organization classification of HBV prevalence, intermediate HBsAg prevalence rates were detected in children of E and M countries during 2000 - 2016. Nevertheless, the prevalence rates were low in several included countries in mentioned regions.

Context

Infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) pose a major challenge to the public health and also results in high mortality and morbidity rates in different parts of the world, especially in children. This study performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies conducted during the years 2000-16 to clarify the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in children and adolescents younger than 16 years of age in EMRO and Middle Eastern (E and M) countries.

Evidence Acquisition

Scientific databases including PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Persian databases were searched for relevant articles published from January 1, 2000 to October 31, 2016. Based on the results of homogeneity tests (a significant homogeneity test and a large I2 value) a random effects model was used to aggregate the collected data and calculate the pooled prevalence estimates.

Results

We included 20 articles in our meta-analysis. The pooled HBsAg prevalence in children of E and M countries was 2.73% (95% CI: %1.73% - 3.72%). The prevalence rates in the EMRO and Middle Eastern countries were 1.85% (95% CI: 1.27% - 2.43%) and 2.66% (95% CI: 1.31% - 4.01%), respectively. The prevalence rates amongst children in nations considered in more than one study were 0.81% (95% CI: 0% - 1.74%) in Iran, 2.64% (95% CI: 1.63% - 3.64%) in Pakistan, and 5.83% (95% CI: 2.99% - 8.67%) in Turkey.

Conclusions

Based on the world health organization classification of HBV prevalence, intermediate HBsAg prevalence rates were detected in children of E and M countries during 2000 - 2016. Nevertheless, the prevalence rates were low in several included countries in mentioned regions.

Context

Infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) pose a major challenge to the public health and also results in high mortality and morbidity rates in different parts of the world, especially in children. This study performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies conducted during the years 2000-16 to clarify the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in children and adolescents younger than 16 years of age in EMRO and Middle Eastern (E and M) countries.

Evidence Acquisition

Scientific databases including PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Persian databases were searched for relevant articles published from January 1, 2000 to October 31, 2016. Based on the results of homogeneity tests (a significant homogeneity test and a large I2 value) a random effects model was used to aggregate the collected data and calculate the pooled prevalence estimates.

Prevalence;Hepatitis B;Eastern Mediterranean;Middle East;Meta-Analysis;Child Prevalence;Hepatitis B;Eastern Mediterranean;Middle East;Meta-Analysis;Child http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=41507 Mehran Babanejad Mehran Babanejad Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Neda Izadi Neda Izadi PhD Student, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran PhD Student, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Alireza Rai Alireza Rai Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Shabboo Sohrabzadeh Shabboo Sohrabzadeh Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Seyed Moayed Alavian Seyed Moayed Alavian Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; MD, Professor of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Director of Baqiyatallah Research Center, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, PO Box 14155/3651, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188067114 Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; MD, Professor of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Director of Baqiyatallah Research Center, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, PO Box 14155/3651, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188067114 Alireza Zangeneh Alireza Zangeneh Center of Excellence for Community Oriented Medicine Education, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Center of Excellence for Community Oriented Medicine Education, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.43951 Is Serum Lactate Level a Prognostic Factor for the Incidence and Mortality of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Among Poisoned ICU-Admitted Patients? Is Serum Lactate Level a Prognostic Factor for the Incidence and Mortality of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Among Poisoned ICU-Admitted Patients? research-article research-article Conclusions

Based on the findings, the mortality rate was 22.9% among poisoned patients with an elevated serum lactate level. We can conclude that mortality is associated with toxicants, but not the occurrence of VAP; in fact, VAP scenarios do not elevate serum lactate level.

Background

Lactate level is known to increase among the majority of patients with toxicity. This study aimed to determine whether lactate level upon admission is higher among patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Objectives

We aimed to determine whether serum lactate level is associated with the increased risk of VAP in intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients with toxicity.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted in a training medical poisoning center in Iran, using convenience sampling. A total of 157 poisoned patients, aged ≥ 13 years, who were admitted to the ICU over the past seven months, were included in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups, based on their VAP diagnosis (VAP-positive and non-VAP) and the outcomes (surviving or non-surviving). The VAP-positive patients were compared with others with regard to the mean level of serum lactate level upon admission. Additionally, non-surviving patients were compared with their surviving counterparts.

Results

Overall, 71 (45.2 %) VAS-positive cases were reported, in addition to 36 cases of mortality. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was the most common toxic agent (36%), followed by methanol. Significant differences were noted between the groups in terms of Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (SAPS-II), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, length of ICU stay, and percentage of ventilation process. The mean levels of lactate at admission were 3.71 ± 3.35 and 4.19 ± 4.09 among VAP-positive and non-VAP patients, respectively; the difference was not statistically significant. Also, non-surviving patients had a longer ICU stay (12.20 days), compared to surviving patients (5.39) (P = 0.008). Moreover, admission lactate level was 7.06 ± 5.29 mmol/L among non-surviving patients and 3.01 ± 2.53 among surviving cases (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Based on the findings, the mortality rate was 22.9% among poisoned patients with an elevated serum lactate level. We can conclude that mortality is associated with toxicants, but not the occurrence of VAP; in fact, VAP scenarios do not elevate serum lactate level.

Background

Lactate level is known to increase among the majority of patients with toxicity. This study aimed to determine whether lactate level upon admission is higher among patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Objectives

We aimed to determine whether serum lactate level is associated with the increased risk of VAP in intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients with toxicity.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted in a training medical poisoning center in Iran, using convenience sampling. A total of 157 poisoned patients, aged ≥ 13 years, who were admitted to the ICU over the past seven months, were included in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups, based on their VAP diagnosis (VAP-positive and non-VAP) and the outcomes (surviving or non-surviving). The VAP-positive patients were compared with others with regard to the mean level of serum lactate level upon admission. Additionally, non-surviving patients were compared with their surviving counterparts.

Results

Overall, 71 (45.2 %) VAS-positive cases were reported, in addition to 36 cases of mortality. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was the most common toxic agent (36%), followed by methanol. Significant differences were noted between the groups in terms of Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (SAPS-II), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, length of ICU stay, and percentage of ventilation process. The mean levels of lactate at admission were 3.71 ± 3.35 and 4.19 ± 4.09 among VAP-positive and non-VAP patients, respectively; the difference was not statistically significant. Also, non-surviving patients had a longer ICU stay (12.20 days), compared to surviving patients (5.39) (P = 0.008). Moreover, admission lactate level was 7.06 ± 5.29 mmol/L among non-surviving patients and 3.01 ± 2.53 among surviving cases (P < 0.001).

VAP;ICU;Lactate;Poisoning VAP;ICU;Lactate;Poisoning http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=43951 Naser Mozafari Naser Mozafari Plastic Surgery Department, 15 Khordad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Plastic Surgery Department, 15 Khordad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Helya Sadat Mortazavi Helya Sadat Mortazavi Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tahereh Alinia Tahereh Alinia Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behjat Barari Behjat Barari Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Haleh Talaie Haleh Talaie Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Toxicological Research Center, Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.43158 Preparation Measures of Volunteers in Disasters in Hospitals of Tehran Preparation Measures of Volunteers in Disasters in Hospitals of Tehran letter letter Preparation;Measures;Volunteers;Disasters;Hospitals Preparation;Measures;Volunteers;Disasters;Hospitals http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=43158 Forouzandeh Jannat Forouzandeh Jannat Department of Management of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Management of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122076735, Fax: +98-2188533206 Department of Management of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Management of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122076735, Fax: +98-2188533206 Ali Ardalan Ali Ardalan Department of Disaster and Emergency Health , Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Disaster and Emergency Health , Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mokhtar Malekpour Mokhtar Malekpour Department of Disaster and Emergency Health, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Disaster and Emergency Health, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.43364 An Exploration in Women’s Perception of the Use of Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Content Analysis An Exploration in Women’s Perception of the Use of Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Content Analysis research-article research-article Conclusions

Participants’ experience highlighted the necessity of awareness about adverse side effects of OTC drug use; such awareness can be achieved through various methods such as information dissemination and proper culture of drug use promoted by healthcare professionals to resolve the mentioned issues and improve, consolidate, and promote society’s level of knowledge and health.

Methods

The present study is a conventional qualitative content analysis conducted on women’s community in the Guilan province, the North of Iran. The study population was selected through purposive sampling, and the data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, which continued up to data saturation point. Data analysis was performed as per the stages recommended by Graneheim and Lundman. Research strength and its scientific accuracy were evaluated as per the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln.

Background

Arbitrary drug use is considered as one of the major problems in all countries. Several studies indicate that self-medication is more prevalent in women. In addition to the side-effects of drugs on women’s health, their health behavior can affect their families, as well. Qualitative research provides insight into participants’ internal world as well as the chance to specify and interpret the data and their experience at a deeper level.

Results

Data analysis identified three main themes and 9 subthemes as follows: “fragmented interaction in health system (poor relationship between patients and therapists, government’s poor economic support, inadequate supervision); “false self-confidence” (belief in the non-riskiness/efficiency of self-medication, self-esteem in understanding one’s health status, good memories of healing); “perceived personal stonewalling” (limitations in time, huge costs of treatment, and poor understanding of nuisances).

Objectives

The present qualitative study aimed to explore women’s perception of OTC drugs.

Conclusions

Participants’ experience highlighted the necessity of awareness about adverse side effects of OTC drug use; such awareness can be achieved through various methods such as information dissemination and proper culture of drug use promoted by healthcare professionals to resolve the mentioned issues and improve, consolidate, and promote society’s level of knowledge and health.

Methods

The present study is a conventional qualitative content analysis conducted on women’s community in the Guilan province, the North of Iran. The study population was selected through purposive sampling, and the data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, which continued up to data saturation point. Data analysis was performed as per the stages recommended by Graneheim and Lundman. Research strength and its scientific accuracy were evaluated as per the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln.

Background

Arbitrary drug use is considered as one of the major problems in all countries. Several studies indicate that self-medication is more prevalent in women. In addition to the side-effects of drugs on women’s health, their health behavior can affect their families, as well. Qualitative research provides insight into participants’ internal world as well as the chance to specify and interpret the data and their experience at a deeper level.

Results

Data analysis identified three main themes and 9 subthemes as follows: “fragmented interaction in health system (poor relationship between patients and therapists, government’s poor economic support, inadequate supervision); “false self-confidence” (belief in the non-riskiness/efficiency of self-medication, self-esteem in understanding one’s health status, good memories of healing); “perceived personal stonewalling” (limitations in time, huge costs of treatment, and poor understanding of nuisances).

Objectives

The present qualitative study aimed to explore women’s perception of OTC drugs.

Over-the-Counter Drugs;Women;Qualitative Research;Content Analysis Over-the-Counter Drugs;Women;Qualitative Research;Content Analysis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=43364 Parand Pourghane Parand Pourghane Nursing Department, Guilan university of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Nursing Department, Guilan university of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Tel: +98-1342536263 Nursing Department, Guilan university of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Nursing Department, Guilan university of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Tel: +98-1342536263 Fazlollah Ahmadi Fazlollah Ahmadi Nursing Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Nursing Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Sanaz Salimi Sanaz Salimi Pharmacy Department, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran Pharmacy Department, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.43780 Alteration of Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein after Treatment with Carbamazepine in Colon Cancer Alteration of Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein after Treatment with Carbamazepine in Colon Cancer brief-report brief-report Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that APP reduction by HDACIs can apparently play an important role in the treatment of colon cancer.

Background

Amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is involved in cell proliferation, is observed to be over expressed in human cancer. Thus, it is crucial to investigate its role in cancer and suggest treatment strategies to alter its effects on cell growth.

Results

We found that treatment with CBZ (P < 0.001) and VPA (P < 0.001) reduced the APP levels significantly compared to controls. The APP level reduction by CBZ was 41.6% more than that by VPA.

Methods

In the present experimental study, carried out during the period 2014 - 2016 in Iran, 1000000 cells were seeded and incubated in a six-well plate for each sample preparation. The cells were then treated with drugs and APP was evaluated. The concentration of this protein was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

Objectives

The main purpose of this study was to determine APP concentrations in colon cancer SW480 cell line after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), namely valproic acid (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ).

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that APP reduction by HDACIs can apparently play an important role in the treatment of colon cancer.

Background

Amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is involved in cell proliferation, is observed to be over expressed in human cancer. Thus, it is crucial to investigate its role in cancer and suggest treatment strategies to alter its effects on cell growth.

Results

We found that treatment with CBZ (P < 0.001) and VPA (P < 0.001) reduced the APP levels significantly compared to controls. The APP level reduction by CBZ was 41.6% more than that by VPA.

Methods

In the present experimental study, carried out during the period 2014 - 2016 in Iran, 1000000 cells were seeded and incubated in a six-well plate for each sample preparation. The cells were then treated with drugs and APP was evaluated. The concentration of this protein was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

Objectives

The main purpose of this study was to determine APP concentrations in colon cancer SW480 cell line after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), namely valproic acid (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ).

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor;Colon Cancer;Amyloid Precursor Protein Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor;Colon Cancer;Amyloid Precursor Protein http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=43780 Ladan Akbarzadeh Ladan Akbarzadeh Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Fax: +98-22439969 Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Fax: +98-22439969 Taraneh Moini Zanjani Taraneh Moini Zanjani Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Masoumeh Sabetkasaei Masoumeh Sabetkasaei Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Yalda Khazaei Yalda Khazaei Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Baheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.43788 Histopathological Evaluation of Burdock (Arctium lappa) Root Hydroalcoholic Extract on Wound Healing Histopathological Evaluation of Burdock (<italic>Arctium lappa</italic>) Root Hydroalcoholic Extract on Wound Healing research-article research-article Conclusions

The crude hydroalcoholic extract of Burdock root was found to cause better outcomes in the healing process, acute inflammation, and fibrosis on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day postoperatively.

Objectives

In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats each weighting approximately 200 - 220 g were studied in six groups, each with 6 animals for 21 days. Hydroalcoholic extract of Burdock root was prepared through the maceration method. The animals underwent a 2 × 2 cm diameter resection of cutaneous fragment on the dorsum. The first group was kept without treatment as the control group, the second group (negative control) was treated with Eucerin, and the third group (positive control) was treated with ointment of phenytoin (1%). Eucerin based-ointments from hydroalcoholic extracts of Burdock root with concentrations of 20%, 40% and 60% of weight/weight were administered to the animals in the other three groups twice a day. The lesion diameter and programmed euthanasia were analyzed through a surgical specimen resected for histopathology.

Results

The healing process was completed in 21 days in both no treatment and Eucerin groups. In the phenytoin 1% group, the healing time was 16 days and in hydroalcoholic extracts of Burdock root groups of 20%, 40% and 60%, complete wound closure was observed in 16, 16 and 14 days, respectively. All the treated groups and the control group showed significant differences when compared with the negative control and control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the histological study of the group treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of Burdock root showed that symptoms and improvement of skin tissues had a better status.

Background

Wound healing is a process that occurs following skin lesions. Shortening healing time is of critical importance as it reduces the risk of infection, complications, and costs.

Conclusions

The crude hydroalcoholic extract of Burdock root was found to cause better outcomes in the healing process, acute inflammation, and fibrosis on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day postoperatively.

Objectives

In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats each weighting approximately 200 - 220 g were studied in six groups, each with 6 animals for 21 days. Hydroalcoholic extract of Burdock root was prepared through the maceration method. The animals underwent a 2 × 2 cm diameter resection of cutaneous fragment on the dorsum. The first group was kept without treatment as the control group, the second group (negative control) was treated with Eucerin, and the third group (positive control) was treated with ointment of phenytoin (1%). Eucerin based-ointments from hydroalcoholic extracts of Burdock root with concentrations of 20%, 40% and 60% of weight/weight were administered to the animals in the other three groups twice a day. The lesion diameter and programmed euthanasia were analyzed through a surgical specimen resected for histopathology.

Results

The healing process was completed in 21 days in both no treatment and Eucerin groups. In the phenytoin 1% group, the healing time was 16 days and in hydroalcoholic extracts of Burdock root groups of 20%, 40% and 60%, complete wound closure was observed in 16, 16 and 14 days, respectively. All the treated groups and the control group showed significant differences when compared with the negative control and control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the histological study of the group treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of Burdock root showed that symptoms and improvement of skin tissues had a better status.

Background

Wound healing is a process that occurs following skin lesions. Shortening healing time is of critical importance as it reduces the risk of infection, complications, and costs.

Burdock Root;Wound Healing;Rat Burdock Root;Wound Healing;Rat http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=43788 Fereshteh Ghorat Fereshteh Ghorat Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Mohammad Azizkhani Mohammad Azizkhani Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Shahriar Naji Shahriar Naji Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, IR Iran Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, IR Iran Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, IR Iran; Department of Biotechnology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Biotechnology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9361090113 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, IR Iran; Department of Biotechnology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Biotechnology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9361090113 Farzad Doostishoar Farzad Doostishoar Pharmacy Student, Kerman Medical Students Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Pharmacy Student, Kerman Medical Students Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.41813 Uterocutaneous Fistula Following Conservative Management of Placenta Increta: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature Uterocutaneous Fistula Following Conservative Management of Placenta Increta: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature case-report case-report Conclusions

This case was the first reported morbidity of fistula in the uterocutaneous pathway.

Introduction

This was a report of uterocutaneous fistula as a rare complication of expectant management of placenta increta, and a review of the literature.

Case Presentation

A 38- year- old pregnant woman in her third term of pregnancy was operated on in a secondary hospital in Arak (a city located in the center of Iran) in April 2015. As a result of placenta incereta, the attached placenta was left in the uterus. On the 38th day, she was referred to our tertiary care hospital due to intermittent fever and bleeding. More examinations by MRI and hystrosalpingography revealed uterocutaneous fistula. She was operated on again, and surgical findings indicated coexistent uterine necrosis and uterocutaneous fistula.

Conclusions

This case was the first reported morbidity of fistula in the uterocutaneous pathway.

Introduction

This was a report of uterocutaneous fistula as a rare complication of expectant management of placenta increta, and a review of the literature.

Case Presentation

A 38- year- old pregnant woman in her third term of pregnancy was operated on in a secondary hospital in Arak (a city located in the center of Iran) in April 2015. As a result of placenta incereta, the attached placenta was left in the uterus. On the 38th day, she was referred to our tertiary care hospital due to intermittent fever and bleeding. More examinations by MRI and hystrosalpingography revealed uterocutaneous fistula. She was operated on again, and surgical findings indicated coexistent uterine necrosis and uterocutaneous fistula.

Placenta Accreta;Fistula;Disease Management;Iran Placenta Accreta;Fistula;Disease Management;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=41813 Donya Khosravi Donya Khosravi Assistant of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Assistant of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maliheh Arab Maliheh Arab Professor of Gynecology-oncology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; PhD of Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; PhD, Professor of Gynecology-Oncology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Madani Street, Tehran, IR Iran. Fax: +98-21-77543634 Professor of Gynecology-oncology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; PhD of Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; PhD, Professor of Gynecology-Oncology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Madani Street, Tehran, IR Iran. Fax: +98-21-77543634 Behnaz Ghavami Behnaz Ghavami Shariati Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Shariati Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Shokrpour Maryam Shokrpour Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Samaneh Sheibani Samaneh Sheibani Assistant of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Assistant of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Samaneh Saraeian Samaneh Saraeian Assistant of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Assistant of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.44011 Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Relationship with Health Complaints in Elderly Iranians: A Multi-Site Community-Based Study Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Relationship with Health Complaints in Elderly Iranians: A Multi-Site Community-Based Study research-article research-article Conclusions

The prevalence of HTN was lower in elderly community-living Iranians than developed countries, yet, was still considerable. Nocturia and hyperlipidemia were the most common health complaints in Iranian elderly with HTN.

Results

Hypertension was seen in 48.5% of individuals. Awareness, treatment, and control of HTN were seen in 40.7%, 82.5%, and 30% of individuals, respectively. Elderly individuals with HTN had significantly more experienced visual disturbances (P = 0.03), fecal or urinary incontinence (P = 0.006), nocturia (P = 0.002), attacks of shortness of breath (P = 0.004), and hyperlipidaemia (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders such as ethnicity, nocturia (OR, 1.34; CI 95%, 1.02 - 1.75) and hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.5 - 2.51) remained significantly relevant to HTN.

Background

The prevalence of Hypertension (HTN) in developing countries might have a different pattern in different countries.

Objectives

This study aimed at investigating the current pattern of HTN and evaluating its relationship with health complaints in elderly Iranian individuals in 2012.

Methods

This cross sectional study used multistage sampling to investigate 1 350 Iranian elderly subjects (≥ 60 years) living in the community. Those elderly, who had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg and/or those who used antihypertensive drugs during the previous two weeks, were considered as HTN. A face-to-face interview was performed using a structured questionnaire, including demographic factors, awareness, treatment and control of HTN, and health complaints for each individual. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to detect the most important variables related to HTN.

Conclusions

The prevalence of HTN was lower in elderly community-living Iranians than developed countries, yet, was still considerable. Nocturia and hyperlipidemia were the most common health complaints in Iranian elderly with HTN.

Results

Hypertension was seen in 48.5% of individuals. Awareness, treatment, and control of HTN were seen in 40.7%, 82.5%, and 30% of individuals, respectively. Elderly individuals with HTN had significantly more experienced visual disturbances (P = 0.03), fecal or urinary incontinence (P = 0.006), nocturia (P = 0.002), attacks of shortness of breath (P = 0.004), and hyperlipidaemia (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders such as ethnicity, nocturia (OR, 1.34; CI 95%, 1.02 - 1.75) and hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.5 - 2.51) remained significantly relevant to HTN.

Background

The prevalence of Hypertension (HTN) in developing countries might have a different pattern in different countries.

Objectives

This study aimed at investigating the current pattern of HTN and evaluating its relationship with health complaints in elderly Iranian individuals in 2012.

Methods

This cross sectional study used multistage sampling to investigate 1 350 Iranian elderly subjects (≥ 60 years) living in the community. Those elderly, who had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg and/or those who used antihypertensive drugs during the previous two weeks, were considered as HTN. A face-to-face interview was performed using a structured questionnaire, including demographic factors, awareness, treatment and control of HTN, and health complaints for each individual. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to detect the most important variables related to HTN.

Prevalence;Hypertension;Health Complaints;Elderly;Iran Prevalence;Hypertension;Health Complaints;Elderly;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=44011 Parisa Taheri Tanjani Parisa Taheri Tanjani Department of Internal Medicine, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Internal Medicine, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Annette Dobson Annette Dobson School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia Mehran Babanejad Mehran Babanejad Cardiovascular Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Cardiovascular Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Hosein Karim Hosein Karim Cardiovascular Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; MD, Research Center of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8338395970 Cardiovascular Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; MD, Research Center of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8338395970 Farid Najafi Farid Najafi Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran