Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 5 29 gregorian 2017 5 29 18 8
en 27761270 10.5812/ircmj.29382 Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Profile in Individuals With Diabetes Compared With Non-Diabetic Subjects in North-East of Iran Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Profile in Individuals With Diabetes Compared With Non-Diabetic Subjects in North-East of Iran research-article research-article Background

Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors.

Objectives

The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups.

Patients and Methods

This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran). Data from the participants were collected during their first visit by primary care physicians. Statistical package for social science (version 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The chi-square or Fisher’s exact, student’s t or the Mann-Whitney U and correlation tests were used in the analysis.

Results

The age and gender of the participants were not different between the two groups (P = 0.1 and P = 0.4, respectively). The most common patterns of dyslipidemia in both groups were isolated dyslipidemia followed by combined dyslipidemia. Prevalence of dyslipidemia as a whole (one, two or three lipid profile abnormalities) in patients with diabetes and non-diabetic participants was 89.3% and 82.6%, respectively and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). Subjects with diabetes had higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002) and higher body mass index (P = 0.09) compared to non-diabetics. Moreover, they were more likely to have higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.01), triglycerides (P = 0.001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.009) and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.2).

Conclusions

Cardiovascular diseases risk factors are more common in patients with diabetes; however, non-diabetic individuals also had a high prevalence of risk factors in our region, predisposing them to diabetes. Therefore, further attention by the medical community is necessary to choose effective strategies for a more a aggressive approach to prevent and manage these risk factors.

Background

Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors.

Objectives

The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups.

Patients and Methods

This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran). Data from the participants were collected during their first visit by primary care physicians. Statistical package for social science (version 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The chi-square or Fisher’s exact, student’s t or the Mann-Whitney U and correlation tests were used in the analysis.

Results

The age and gender of the participants were not different between the two groups (P = 0.1 and P = 0.4, respectively). The most common patterns of dyslipidemia in both groups were isolated dyslipidemia followed by combined dyslipidemia. Prevalence of dyslipidemia as a whole (one, two or three lipid profile abnormalities) in patients with diabetes and non-diabetic participants was 89.3% and 82.6%, respectively and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). Subjects with diabetes had higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002) and higher body mass index (P = 0.09) compared to non-diabetics. Moreover, they were more likely to have higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.01), triglycerides (P = 0.001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.009) and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.2).

Conclusions

Cardiovascular diseases risk factors are more common in patients with diabetes; however, non-diabetic individuals also had a high prevalence of risk factors in our region, predisposing them to diabetes. Therefore, further attention by the medical community is necessary to choose effective strategies for a more a aggressive approach to prevent and manage these risk factors.

Cardiovascular Diseases;Risk Factors;Diabetes Mellitus;Dyslipidemias Cardiovascular Diseases;Risk Factors;Diabetes Mellitus;Dyslipidemias http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29382 Shabnam Niroumand Shabnam Niroumand Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Babak Eghbali Babak Eghbali Department of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Maryam Abrishami Maryam Abrishami Department of Health, State Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Health, State Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Arash Gholoobi Arash Gholoobi Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Hamid Reza Bahrami Taghanaki Hamid Reza Bahrami Taghanaki Department of Health, State Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences IR Iran Department of Health, State Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences IR Iran Mohammad Khajedaluee Mohammad Khajedaluee Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5138002386; +98-9153114424, Fax: +98-513882860 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5138002386; +98-9153114424, Fax: +98-513882860
en 27761268 10.5812/ircmj.19650 Promising New Wart Treatment: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial Promising New Wart Treatment: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

This method is recommended for the treatment of dermal warts, owing to the effectiveness, short duration of treatment, and low cost of topical treatment for dermal warts using HD tablets.

Background

Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells’ infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV).

Objectives

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts.

Patients and Methods

In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012. In the intervention group, outer layers of the dermal wart carved using scalpel and HD tablet set on it and covered with adhesive. In the second and third days, it was repeated again. All stages in the intervention group were similar to the placebo group. Placebo was prepared by a pharmacologist, which was similar to the HD tablet. In both groups, patients were examined one week and one month after taking the last tablet by the physician in terms of improvement or lack of improvement. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 using chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures.

Results

In the first week after the intervention, warts were changed in 93.3% of the cases; however, no changes were recorded in the control group. One month after follow-up, the mean was 0.4 ± 0.7 in the intervention group and 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control group (P = 0.0001). Based on ANOVA for repeated measures and t-test, the average number of warts, before, one week and one month after the intervention was statistically significant for both intervention (P = 0.009) and control groups (P = 0.0001).

Conclusions

This method is recommended for the treatment of dermal warts, owing to the effectiveness, short duration of treatment, and low cost of topical treatment for dermal warts using HD tablets.

Background

Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells’ infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV).

Objectives

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts.

Patients and Methods

In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012. In the intervention group, outer layers of the dermal wart carved using scalpel and HD tablet set on it and covered with adhesive. In the second and third days, it was repeated again. All stages in the intervention group were similar to the placebo group. Placebo was prepared by a pharmacologist, which was similar to the HD tablet. In both groups, patients were examined one week and one month after taking the last tablet by the physician in terms of improvement or lack of improvement. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 using chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures.

Results

In the first week after the intervention, warts were changed in 93.3% of the cases; however, no changes were recorded in the control group. One month after follow-up, the mean was 0.4 ± 0.7 in the intervention group and 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control group (P = 0.0001). Based on ANOVA for repeated measures and t-test, the average number of warts, before, one week and one month after the intervention was statistically significant for both intervention (P = 0.009) and control groups (P = 0.0001).

Warts;Estrogens;Papillomavirus Infections Warts;Estrogens;Papillomavirus Infections http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19650 Shokrollah Zandi Shokrollah Zandi Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran; Department of Neurosurgery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Deputy of Research, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. BOX: 66186-34683, Sanandaj, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128107205 Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran; Department of Neurosurgery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Deputy of Research, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. BOX: 66186-34683, Sanandaj, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128107205 Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh Payame Noor University, Saqez, IR Iran Payame Noor University, Saqez, IR Iran Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Fardin Gharibi Fardin Gharibi Deputy of Research, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Deputy of Research, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran
en 27781119 10.5812/ircmj.31955 The Effect of Orem’s Self-Care Model on Fatigue in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Single Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Study The Effect of Orem’s Self-Care Model on Fatigue in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Single Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Orem’s self-care model is significantly effective in reducing the fatigue of multiple sclerosis patients.

Objectives

To determining the effect of Orem’s self-care model on fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

Patients and Methods

This research involved a clinical trial. Sixty-three multiple sclerosis patients at the vice-chancellor in treatment affairs of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences were selected based on nonrandom sampling, but they were allocated to the two groups based on random allocation. In the intervention group, Orem’s model was applied during six sessions of 45 - 60 minutes in length, and the process continued for 1 month. The data were collected 1 week before and 7 weeks after the end of the intervention using the Orem’s self-care model-based assessment form and fatigue severity scale, the validity and reliability of which have been

Results

Before the intervention, 11.11% of the participants had a good knowledge of self-care. In addition, self-care willingness and skills were observed in 76.19% and 4.76% of participants, respectively. The mean difference in fatigue reduced significantly in the intervention group after the intervention (P < 0.05). After the intervention, a statistically significant difference was observed in the mean difference of fatigue between the two groups (P < 0.05).

Background

Orem’s self-care model is a nursing model that was introduced with the purpose of improving the self-care of individuals, especially patients suffering from chronic diseases.

Conclusions

Orem’s self-care model is significantly effective in reducing the fatigue of multiple sclerosis patients.

Objectives

To determining the effect of Orem’s self-care model on fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

Patients and Methods

This research involved a clinical trial. Sixty-three multiple sclerosis patients at the vice-chancellor in treatment affairs of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences were selected based on nonrandom sampling, but they were allocated to the two groups based on random allocation. In the intervention group, Orem’s model was applied during six sessions of 45 - 60 minutes in length, and the process continued for 1 month. The data were collected 1 week before and 7 weeks after the end of the intervention using the Orem’s self-care model-based assessment form and fatigue severity scale, the validity and reliability of which have been

Results

Before the intervention, 11.11% of the participants had a good knowledge of self-care. In addition, self-care willingness and skills were observed in 76.19% and 4.76% of participants, respectively. The mean difference in fatigue reduced significantly in the intervention group after the intervention (P < 0.05). After the intervention, a statistically significant difference was observed in the mean difference of fatigue between the two groups (P < 0.05).

Background

Orem’s self-care model is a nursing model that was introduced with the purpose of improving the self-care of individuals, especially patients suffering from chronic diseases.

Models;Nursing;Fatigue;Multiple Sclerosis Models;Nursing;Fatigue;Multiple Sclerosis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31955 Ardashir Afrasiabifar Ardashir Afrasiabifar School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran Zahra Mehri Zahra Mehri School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7433234115, Fax: +98-7433234115 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7433234115, Fax: +98-7433234115 Saied Javad Sadat Saied Javad Sadat School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran Hamid Reza Ghaffarian Shirazi Hamid Reza Ghaffarian Shirazi School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR Iran
en 27781121 10.5812/ircmj.34212 The Effect of Cumin cyminum L. Plus Lime Administration on Weight Loss and Metabolic Status in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial The Effect of <italic>Cumin cyminum</italic> L. Plus Lime Administration on Weight Loss and Metabolic Status in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial research-article research-article Background

Limited data are available regarding the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight subjects.

Objectives

The current study aimed to assess the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight.

Patients and Methods

This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 72 subjects with overweight, aged 18 - 50 years old. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: Group A received high-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (75 mg each, n = 24), group B low-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (25 mg each, n = 24) and group C placebos (n = 24) twice daily for eight weeks.

Results

After eight weeks of intervention, compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime resulted in significant weight loss (in the high-dose group: -2.1 ± 1.7 vs. in the low-dose group: -1.2 ± 1.5 and in the placebo group: + 0.2 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.001) and body mass index (-0.8 ± 0.6 vs. -0.5 ± 0.5 and +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, administration of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P < 0.001) and a significant rise in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+ 0.02 ± 0.02 vs. + 0.01 ± 0.02 and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively; P = 0.01). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (-14.1 ± 56.2 vs. +13.9 ± 36.8 and + 10.6 ± 25.1 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.03), total-cholesterol (-18.4 ± 28.6 vs. +8.6 ± 28.5 and -1.0 ± 24.8 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.004) and low density lipoproteins- (LDL)-cholesterol levels (-11.8 ± 20.7 vs. +6.5 ± 23.2 and -2.9 ± 20.4 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.01) was observed following the consumption of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo.

Conclusions

Results of the current study indicated that taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime for eight weeks among subjects with overweight had beneficial effects on weight, BMI, FPG, QUICKI, triglycerides, total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels.

Background

Limited data are available regarding the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight subjects.

Objectives

The current study aimed to assess the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight.

Patients and Methods

This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 72 subjects with overweight, aged 18 - 50 years old. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: Group A received high-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (75 mg each, n = 24), group B low-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (25 mg each, n = 24) and group C placebos (n = 24) twice daily for eight weeks.

Results

After eight weeks of intervention, compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime resulted in significant weight loss (in the high-dose group: -2.1 ± 1.7 vs. in the low-dose group: -1.2 ± 1.5 and in the placebo group: + 0.2 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.001) and body mass index (-0.8 ± 0.6 vs. -0.5 ± 0.5 and +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, administration of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P < 0.001) and a significant rise in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+ 0.02 ± 0.02 vs. + 0.01 ± 0.02 and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively; P = 0.01). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (-14.1 ± 56.2 vs. +13.9 ± 36.8 and + 10.6 ± 25.1 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.03), total-cholesterol (-18.4 ± 28.6 vs. +8.6 ± 28.5 and -1.0 ± 24.8 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.004) and low density lipoproteins- (LDL)-cholesterol levels (-11.8 ± 20.7 vs. +6.5 ± 23.2 and -2.9 ± 20.4 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.01) was observed following the consumption of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo.

Conclusions

Results of the current study indicated that taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime for eight weeks among subjects with overweight had beneficial effects on weight, BMI, FPG, QUICKI, triglycerides, total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels.

Lim;Overweight;Insulin Resistance;Cuminum cyminum L Lim;Overweight;Insulin Resistance;Cuminum cyminum L http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34212 Mohsen Taghizadeh Mohsen Taghizadeh Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh Barij Medicinal Plants Research Center, Kashan, IR Iran Barij Medicinal Plants Research Center, Kashan, IR Iran Fatemeh Abedi Fatemeh Abedi Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Nasrin Sharifi Nasrin Sharifi Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Fatemeh Karamali Fatemeh Karamali Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zohreh Fakhrieh Kashan Zohreh Fakhrieh Kashan Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Zatollah Asemi Zatollah Asemi Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-31-55463378, Fax: +98-31-55463377 Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-31-55463378, Fax: +98-31-55463377
en 27781110 10.5812/ircmj.23827 Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common? Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common? research-article research-article Conclusions

Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits.

Patients and Methods

A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years.

Results

Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child.

Background

Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents.

Objectives

We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children.

Conclusions

Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits.

Patients and Methods

A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years.

Results

Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child.

Background

Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents.

Objectives

We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children.

Fever phobia;Anxiety;Social Class;Antipyretics;Febrile Seizure Fever phobia;Anxiety;Social Class;Antipyretics;Febrile Seizure http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23827 Suzan Gunduz Suzan Gunduz Department of Pediatrics, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey Esma Usak Esma Usak Health Services Vocational School, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey; Health Services Vocational School, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-5078165690, Fax: +90-3125062833 Health Services Vocational School, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey; Health Services Vocational School, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-5078165690, Fax: +90-3125062833 Tulin Koksal Tulin Koksal Ankara Child Health and Disease Hematology and Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Ankara Child Health and Disease Hematology and Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Metin Canbal Metin Canbal Department of Pediatrics, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey
en 27781124 10.5812/ircmj35086 Systemic Manifestation of Rotavirus Infection in Children: A Report of Three Cases Systemic Manifestation of Rotavirus Infection in Children: A Report of Three Cases case-report case-report Conclusions

This report aimed to increase awareness of the occurrence of extra-intestinal systemic manifestations of rotavirus infection. Although such cases may be rare, they still suggest that that rotavirus is a systemic viral infection.

Case Presentations

We report three pediatric cases of rotavirus infection: one accompanied by encephalopathy and two with elevated hepatic transaminase activity. The patients were admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus maternity and children’s health and diseases training and research hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from 2012 - 2014. The presented patients’ aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (1765-2614 IU L-1) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (1448-3558 IU L-1) levels are, to date, the highest reported levels associated with rotavirus infections, and suggest that the rotavirus can cause severe hepatic transaminase elevation.

Introduction

Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Although the clinical complaints associated with rotavirus are generally gastrointestinal, including vomiting and diarrhea, data suggest that it can also cause symptoms that extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

Conclusions

This report aimed to increase awareness of the occurrence of extra-intestinal systemic manifestations of rotavirus infection. Although such cases may be rare, they still suggest that that rotavirus is a systemic viral infection.

Case Presentations

We report three pediatric cases of rotavirus infection: one accompanied by encephalopathy and two with elevated hepatic transaminase activity. The patients were admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus maternity and children’s health and diseases training and research hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from 2012 - 2014. The presented patients’ aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (1765-2614 IU L-1) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (1448-3558 IU L-1) levels are, to date, the highest reported levels associated with rotavirus infections, and suggest that the rotavirus can cause severe hepatic transaminase elevation.

Introduction

Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Although the clinical complaints associated with rotavirus are generally gastrointestinal, including vomiting and diarrhea, data suggest that it can also cause symptoms that extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

Rotavirus Infection;Systemic Manifestation;Children;Infant Rotavirus Infection;Systemic Manifestation;Children;Infant http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35086 Meltem Akcaboy Meltem Akcaboy Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-3123056000, Fax: +90-3123170353 Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-3123056000, Fax: +90-3123170353 Melahat Melek Oguz Melahat Melek Oguz Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Esma Altınel Acoglu Esma Altınel Acoglu Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Mehtap Acar Mehtap Acar Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Pelin Zorlu Pelin Zorlu Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Ferda Ozbay Hosnut Ferda Ozbay Hosnut Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Saliha Senel Saliha Senel Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
en 27781120 10.5812/ircmj.33467 Effective Factors on Health-Promoting Lifestyle Among Iranian Chemical Veterans in 2014 Based on Health Promotion Model: A Path Analysis Effective Factors on Health-Promoting Lifestyle Among Iranian Chemical Veterans in 2014 Based on Health Promotion Model: A Path Analysis research-article research-article Conclusions

Perceived social support is the most important factor that influences health-promoting behaviors. Increasing social support by enhancing self-efficacy and decreasing perceived barriers can improve health-promoting behaviors among veterans.

Background

Health-promoting behaviors can enhance physical and mental health among individuals with disability, particularly veterans.

Objectives

The current study aimed to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of the factors of the Health Promotion Model (HPM) on health-promoting behaviors in chemical veterans from Ilam province in Iran.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. In this study, 239 moderate-to-severe chemical veterans from Illam province supported by the veterans’ affairs department of Ilam were evaluated via census sampling. Data including health-promoting behaviors, perceived self-efficacy, perceived barriers and benefits, perceived social support, and perceived health status were collected using standard questionnaires.

Results

The results show that the HPM is a poor predictor of the health-promoting lifestyles of chemical veterans (R2 = 15%). Social support (factor loading = 0.38) is the strongest predictor of health-promoting behaviors and it influences such behaviors directly, while perceived barriers (factor loading = -0.11) and perceived self-efficacy (factor loading = 0.02) indirectly predict behavior through social support.

Conclusions

Perceived social support is the most important factor that influences health-promoting behaviors. Increasing social support by enhancing self-efficacy and decreasing perceived barriers can improve health-promoting behaviors among veterans.

Background

Health-promoting behaviors can enhance physical and mental health among individuals with disability, particularly veterans.

Objectives

The current study aimed to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of the factors of the Health Promotion Model (HPM) on health-promoting behaviors in chemical veterans from Ilam province in Iran.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. In this study, 239 moderate-to-severe chemical veterans from Illam province supported by the veterans’ affairs department of Ilam were evaluated via census sampling. Data including health-promoting behaviors, perceived self-efficacy, perceived barriers and benefits, perceived social support, and perceived health status were collected using standard questionnaires.

Results

The results show that the HPM is a poor predictor of the health-promoting lifestyles of chemical veterans (R2 = 15%). Social support (factor loading = 0.38) is the strongest predictor of health-promoting behaviors and it influences such behaviors directly, while perceived barriers (factor loading = -0.11) and perceived self-efficacy (factor loading = 0.02) indirectly predict behavior through social support.

Health Behavior;Health Promotion Model;Chemical Veteran;Path Analysis;Iran Health Behavior;Health Promotion Model;Chemical Veteran;Path Analysis;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=33467 Roghayeh Chenary Roghayeh Chenary Department of Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Department of Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Azita Noroozi Azita Noroozi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran; The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran; The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Sedighe Sadat Tavafian Sedighe Sadat Tavafian Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Maliheh Saeed Firoozabadi Maliheh Saeed Firoozabadi The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran
en 27781114 10.5812/ircmj.30297 Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Trimethyltin Chloride Neurotoxicity in Experimental Model of Injury in Dentate Gyrus of Hippocampus: A Histopathological and Behavioral Study Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Trimethyltin Chloride Neurotoxicity in Experimental Model of Injury in Dentate Gyrus of Hippocampus: A Histopathological and Behavioral Study research-article research-article Conclusions

The results of the present study indicate that Coenzyme Q10 diminished neuronal necrosis and improved learning memory. Part of its beneficial effect is due to its potential to discount oxidative stress.

Results

This study revealed that the body weight scale was found to be significantly higher in the CoQ10 group (21.39 ± 2.70), compared to the TMT group (19.39 ± 2.74) (P < 0.05). In the TMT group, the animals showed body a weight loss that was significantly lower than that of the control group (22.33 ± 3.06) (P < 0.05). Our results showed that CoQ10 provided protection against MWM deficits. Furthermore, TMT impaired the ability of mice to locate the hidden platform, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Microscopic studies showed that TMT caused histopathological changes in the dentate gyrus and increased the number of necrotic neurons (476 ± 78.51), compared to the control group (208 ± 40.84) (P < 0.001). But, CoQ10 significantly attenuated (31 9 ± 60.08) the density of necrotic neurons compared to TMT (P < 0.05).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate both histopathologic and behavioral whether Coenzyme Q10 is protective against trimethyltin chloride (TMT) induced hippocampal damage.

Materials and Methods

This was an experimental study. Thirty-six Balb/c mice were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group; 2) sham group of mice that received a 100 µL intraperitoneal injection (IP) of sesame oil; 3) TMT group of mice that received a single 2.5 mg/kg/day IP injection of TMT; and 4) TMT + CoQ10 group of mice that received a 10 mg/kg IP injection of CoQ10. Body weight and Morris water maze (MWM) responses were investigated. In addition, the dentate gyrus neurons of the hippocampus were evaluated histopathologically by light and electron microscopes.

Background

Coenzyme Q10 has antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects. CoQ10 supplementation is known to have neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.

Conclusions

The results of the present study indicate that Coenzyme Q10 diminished neuronal necrosis and improved learning memory. Part of its beneficial effect is due to its potential to discount oxidative stress.

Results

This study revealed that the body weight scale was found to be significantly higher in the CoQ10 group (21.39 ± 2.70), compared to the TMT group (19.39 ± 2.74) (P < 0.05). In the TMT group, the animals showed body a weight loss that was significantly lower than that of the control group (22.33 ± 3.06) (P < 0.05). Our results showed that CoQ10 provided protection against MWM deficits. Furthermore, TMT impaired the ability of mice to locate the hidden platform, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Microscopic studies showed that TMT caused histopathological changes in the dentate gyrus and increased the number of necrotic neurons (476 ± 78.51), compared to the control group (208 ± 40.84) (P < 0.001). But, CoQ10 significantly attenuated (31 9 ± 60.08) the density of necrotic neurons compared to TMT (P < 0.05).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate both histopathologic and behavioral whether Coenzyme Q10 is protective against trimethyltin chloride (TMT) induced hippocampal damage.

Materials and Methods

This was an experimental study. Thirty-six Balb/c mice were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group; 2) sham group of mice that received a 100 µL intraperitoneal injection (IP) of sesame oil; 3) TMT group of mice that received a single 2.5 mg/kg/day IP injection of TMT; and 4) TMT + CoQ10 group of mice that received a 10 mg/kg IP injection of CoQ10. Body weight and Morris water maze (MWM) responses were investigated. In addition, the dentate gyrus neurons of the hippocampus were evaluated histopathologically by light and electron microscopes.

Background

Coenzyme Q10 has antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects. CoQ10 supplementation is known to have neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.

Trimethyltin Chloride;CoQ10;Dentate Gyrus;Learning and Memory Trimethyltin Chloride;CoQ10;Dentate Gyrus;Learning and Memory http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30297 Mohammad Hassan Sakhaie Mohammad Hassan Sakhaie Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mansoureh Soleimani Mansoureh Soleimani Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Vahid Pirhajati Vahid Pirhajati Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sara Soleimani Asl Sara Soleimani Asl Neurophysiology Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Zahra Madjd Zahra Madjd Oncopathology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Oncopathology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Mehdizadeh Mehdi Mehdizadeh Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Corresponding Author: Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182944569, E-mail: Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Corresponding Author: Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182944569, E-mail:
en 27781122 10.5812/ircmj.34270 The Effect of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on the Anxiety Levels of Iranian Women on the First Postpartum Day The Effect of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on the Anxiety Levels of Iranian Women on the First Postpartum Day research-article research-article Objectives

To determine the effectiveness of slow-stroke back massage on the anxiety levels of primiparous mothers in the first days after delivery.

Materials and Methods

This single-blind controlled clinical trial consisted of 100 primiparous mothers with normal deliveries. The mothers were randomly allocated to interventional (n = 50) or control (n = 50) groups using binary blocks. Both groups were followed up just before, immediately after, and the morning after the intervention. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and Spielberger’s state anxiety inventory (STAI) questionnaire.

Results

The mean age of the mothers was 22 years. There were no significant between-group differences in age (P = 0.333), education (P = 0.427), and medication during labor and the postpartum period (P = 0.412). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean anxiety scores of the experimental (6.66 ± 35.48) and control groups (9.05 ± 37.42) before the intervention (P = 0.268). Immediately after the massage and the next morning, there was a significant between-group difference in the anxiety scores (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

The findings demonstrate that slow-stroke back massage is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective method to reduce the anxiety levels of primiparous women during the first postpartum day.

Background

Anxiety disorder is common during the postpartum period. Back massage relaxation techniques are one of the most important nonpharmacological interventions to prevent and control postpartum-related anxiety.

Objectives

To determine the effectiveness of slow-stroke back massage on the anxiety levels of primiparous mothers in the first days after delivery.

Materials and Methods

This single-blind controlled clinical trial consisted of 100 primiparous mothers with normal deliveries. The mothers were randomly allocated to interventional (n = 50) or control (n = 50) groups using binary blocks. Both groups were followed up just before, immediately after, and the morning after the intervention. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and Spielberger’s state anxiety inventory (STAI) questionnaire.

Results

The mean age of the mothers was 22 years. There were no significant between-group differences in age (P = 0.333), education (P = 0.427), and medication during labor and the postpartum period (P = 0.412). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean anxiety scores of the experimental (6.66 ± 35.48) and control groups (9.05 ± 37.42) before the intervention (P = 0.268). Immediately after the massage and the next morning, there was a significant between-group difference in the anxiety scores (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

The findings demonstrate that slow-stroke back massage is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective method to reduce the anxiety levels of primiparous women during the first postpartum day.

Background

Anxiety disorder is common during the postpartum period. Back massage relaxation techniques are one of the most important nonpharmacological interventions to prevent and control postpartum-related anxiety.

Anxiety;Postpartum;Massage Anxiety;Postpartum;Massage http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34270 Fereshteh Jahdi Fereshteh Jahdi Nursing and Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nursing and Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Mehrabadi Maryam Mehrabadi Nursing and Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nursing and Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Forough Mortazavi Forough Mortazavi Education Development Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Education Development Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran Hamid Haghani Hamid Haghani Medical Management & Information School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Medical Management & Information School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27781117 10.5812/ircmj.31099 Determinants of Tobacco and Hookah Smoking in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study Determinants of Tobacco and Hookah Smoking in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study research-article research-article Objectives

The current study aimed to assess the determinants of tobacco smoking and hookah smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.

Patients and Methods

This study was conducted as part of the fourth cross-sectional survey of a national school-based program. Using a cluster random sampling method, a validated questionnaire was completed anonymously by 14,880 students who were aged 6 - 18 years and living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran.

Results

The final study group consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents (participation rate of 90.6%), of whom 49.2% were girls and 75.6% were urban residents. The mean age was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-reports of the students, 2.6% (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current tobacco smokers, 5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) were ever tobacco smokers, and 1.8% (2.49% of boys and 1.14% of girls) were current hookah smokers. Based on a multiple logistic regression (MLR) model, the following factors increased the risk of current smoking: age, number of days spent with friends per week, hookah smoking or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, hookah smoking by other members of the family, and screen time. The age, number of days spent with friends, hookah or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, and screen time increased the risk of hookah smoking. Female gender and living in rural areas decreased the risk of current tobacco and hookah smoking.

Conclusions

Preventive measures against tobacco use should be underscored for Iranian families. The preparation of strategies on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle should be considered a health priority.

Background

The consumption of tobacco through a hookah is growing in popularity, especially among children and adolescents, but little is known about the determinants of hookah smoking.

Objectives

The current study aimed to assess the determinants of tobacco smoking and hookah smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.

Patients and Methods

This study was conducted as part of the fourth cross-sectional survey of a national school-based program. Using a cluster random sampling method, a validated questionnaire was completed anonymously by 14,880 students who were aged 6 - 18 years and living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran.

Results

The final study group consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents (participation rate of 90.6%), of whom 49.2% were girls and 75.6% were urban residents. The mean age was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-reports of the students, 2.6% (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current tobacco smokers, 5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) were ever tobacco smokers, and 1.8% (2.49% of boys and 1.14% of girls) were current hookah smokers. Based on a multiple logistic regression (MLR) model, the following factors increased the risk of current smoking: age, number of days spent with friends per week, hookah smoking or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, hookah smoking by other members of the family, and screen time. The age, number of days spent with friends, hookah or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, and screen time increased the risk of hookah smoking. Female gender and living in rural areas decreased the risk of current tobacco and hookah smoking.

Conclusions

Preventive measures against tobacco use should be underscored for Iranian families. The preparation of strategies on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle should be considered a health priority.

Background

The consumption of tobacco through a hookah is growing in popularity, especially among children and adolescents, but little is known about the determinants of hookah smoking.

Smoking;Hookah;Children;Adolescents;Iran Smoking;Hookah;Children;Adolescents;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31099 Roya Kelishadi Roya Kelishadi Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Ramin Heshmat Ramin Heshmat Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Armindokht Shahsanai Armindokht Shahsanai Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Shirin Djalalinia Shirin Djalalinia Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Development of Research and Technology Center, Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Development of Research and Technology Center, Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh Department of Pediatrics, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mojtaba Keikha Mojtaba Keikha Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Gelayol Ardalan Gelayol Ardalan Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Fereshteh Najafi Fereshteh Najafi Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maliheh Khoramdad Maliheh Khoramdad Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hamid Asayesh Hamid Asayesh Department of Medical Emergency, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran Department of Medical Emergency, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran Mostafa Qorbani Mostafa Qorbani Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Dietary Supplements and Probiotics Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran; Dietary Supplements and Probiotics Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Dietary Supplements and Probiotics Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran; Dietary Supplements and Probiotics Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran
en 27781112 10.5812/ircmj.26130 Nutritional Education Needs in Relation to Ramadan Fasting and Its Complications in Tehran, Iran Nutritional Education Needs in Relation to Ramadan Fasting and Its Complications in Tehran, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Despite the relatively high level of knowledge in the context of the general principles of a diet to prevent Ramadan-related complications, practical training in regard to the amounts of nutrients associated with Ramadan-related complications is both necessary and recommended.

Background

Ramadan fasting is associated with some lifestyle changes. A lack of nutritional needs knowledge or the improper performance of fasting, particularly in relation to time, type and amount of food intake, can cause disorders such as indigestion, bloating, constipation, headaches and other clinical problems.

Objectives

To investigate the general knowledge regarding dietary factors associated with Ramadan fasting and its related complications.

Patients and Methods

This prospective, non-interventional, observational study was conducted from April to July, 2012 to coincide with the month before and the month of Ramadan. The initial participants were 600 fasting and 588 non-fasting people (aged 18 - 65 years, BMI 18.5 - 40 kg/m2) chosen by random cluster sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire of Ramadan fasting nutritional knowledge was developed and validated in a pilot study. The Likert scale was used two weeks before Ramadan and during the third and fourth weeks of Ramadan to estimate Ramadan-related complications. Seven-day, 24 - hour food recalls were used to assess food intakes.

Results

The lowest level of general knowledge was identified in the context of foods associated with hunger (22.1%) and hypoglycemia (24.8%) and the highest level of general knowledge was identified in reference to unsuitable foods for Sahar (91.4%). During Ramadan, all attributed complications increased in fasting subjects (P < 0.001). High calorie, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes in the Ramadan diet were associated with some gastrointestinal and sleep complications (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Despite the relatively high level of knowledge in the context of the general principles of a diet to prevent Ramadan-related complications, practical training in regard to the amounts of nutrients associated with Ramadan-related complications is both necessary and recommended.

Background

Ramadan fasting is associated with some lifestyle changes. A lack of nutritional needs knowledge or the improper performance of fasting, particularly in relation to time, type and amount of food intake, can cause disorders such as indigestion, bloating, constipation, headaches and other clinical problems.

Objectives

To investigate the general knowledge regarding dietary factors associated with Ramadan fasting and its related complications.

Patients and Methods

This prospective, non-interventional, observational study was conducted from April to July, 2012 to coincide with the month before and the month of Ramadan. The initial participants were 600 fasting and 588 non-fasting people (aged 18 - 65 years, BMI 18.5 - 40 kg/m2) chosen by random cluster sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire of Ramadan fasting nutritional knowledge was developed and validated in a pilot study. The Likert scale was used two weeks before Ramadan and during the third and fourth weeks of Ramadan to estimate Ramadan-related complications. Seven-day, 24 - hour food recalls were used to assess food intakes.

Results

The lowest level of general knowledge was identified in the context of foods associated with hunger (22.1%) and hypoglycemia (24.8%) and the highest level of general knowledge was identified in reference to unsuitable foods for Sahar (91.4%). During Ramadan, all attributed complications increased in fasting subjects (P < 0.001). High calorie, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes in the Ramadan diet were associated with some gastrointestinal and sleep complications (P < 0.05).

Ramadan;Fasting;Education;Diet;Adverse Effects Ramadan;Fasting;Education;Diet;Adverse Effects http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26130 Zhaleh Shadman Zhaleh Shadman Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdieh Akhoundan Mahdieh Akhoundan Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nooshin Poorsoltan Nooshin Poorsoltan Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Fax: +98-2184902477 Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Fax: +98-2184902477 Bagher Larijani Bagher Larijani Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Camelia Akhgar Zhand Camelia Akhgar Zhand Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mozhdeh Soleymanzadeh Mozhdeh Soleymanzadeh Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zahra Alsadat Seyed Rohani Zahra Alsadat Seyed Rohani Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zahra Jamshidi Zahra Jamshidi Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27781115 10.5812/ircmj.30608 Unexpected Rupture of a Giant Lobulated Thrombotic Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm and Emergency Surgical Treatment With Thrombectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Unexpected Rupture of a Giant Lobulated Thrombotic Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm and Emergency Surgical Treatment With Thrombectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature case-report case-report Conclusions

We believe that it would be more appropriate to plan for combined treatment with surgical and endovascular approaches before the emergency condition could occur.

Introduction

The treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms is one of the most challenging cerebrovascular problems of neurosurgery. We report the rupture of a giant, lobulated, and almost completely thrombosed middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm that is the ninth such report in the literature. We also investigated additional solutions used in the treatment of this patient.

Case Presentation

A 58-year-old man had been admitted with headache 8 years previously (in 2005), and a giant MCA aneurysm was detected. Two separate endovascular interventions were performed, and both failed. The patient began to live with the giant aneurysm. As there was a large thrombosis filling the aneurysm lumen during the previous endovascular procedures, the aneurysm was not expected to rupture. However, a rupture eventually occurred, in 2013. Even if an aneurysm is very large, lobulated, old, and almost completely thrombosed, it can suddenly bleed. During surgery on this patient, we observed severe cerebral vasospasm caused by a giant thrombosed aneurysmal rupture. Despite the complications, surgery is a life-saving treatment for this emergency when other strategies are not possible. Thrombectomy and clipping are approaches that require a great deal of courage for the neurosurgeon, in terms of entering the risky area within the aneurysm.

Conclusions

We believe that it would be more appropriate to plan for combined treatment with surgical and endovascular approaches before the emergency condition could occur.

Introduction

The treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms is one of the most challenging cerebrovascular problems of neurosurgery. We report the rupture of a giant, lobulated, and almost completely thrombosed middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm that is the ninth such report in the literature. We also investigated additional solutions used in the treatment of this patient.

Case Presentation

A 58-year-old man had been admitted with headache 8 years previously (in 2005), and a giant MCA aneurysm was detected. Two separate endovascular interventions were performed, and both failed. The patient began to live with the giant aneurysm. As there was a large thrombosis filling the aneurysm lumen during the previous endovascular procedures, the aneurysm was not expected to rupture. However, a rupture eventually occurred, in 2013. Even if an aneurysm is very large, lobulated, old, and almost completely thrombosed, it can suddenly bleed. During surgery on this patient, we observed severe cerebral vasospasm caused by a giant thrombosed aneurysmal rupture. Despite the complications, surgery is a life-saving treatment for this emergency when other strategies are not possible. Thrombectomy and clipping are approaches that require a great deal of courage for the neurosurgeon, in terms of entering the risky area within the aneurysm.

Cerebral Giant Aneurysm;Combined Treatments;Lobulated Aneurysm;Middle Cerebral Artery;Thrombectomy;Thrombosed Aneurysm Cerebral Giant Aneurysm;Combined Treatments;Lobulated Aneurysm;Middle Cerebral Artery;Thrombectomy;Thrombosed Aneurysm http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30608 Vaner Koksal Vaner Koksal Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, Recep Tayip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey; Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, Recep Tayip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, Recep Tayip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey; Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, Recep Tayip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey Selim Kayaci Selim Kayaci Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, Recep Tayip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, Recep Tayip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey
en 27781116 10.5812/ircmj.30913 Case Report of a Patient Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis with Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis Superimposed With Calciphylaxis Case Report of a Patient Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis with Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis Superimposed With Calciphylaxis case-report case-report Conclusions

We suggest avoiding the use of tamoxifen for EPS in patients with superimposed calciphylaxis.

Introduction

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but devastating complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Tamoxifen has been generally well-tolerated, even without randomized controlled trials.

Case Presentation

Herein, we report a case of a patient undergoing 12 years of PD who developed EPS and calciphylaxis simultaneously. We also provide a comprehensive discussion about the association between EPS and calciphylaxis. Moreover, although tamoxifen is used in EPS due to its inhibition of fibroblast-transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) production, it may worsen the calciphylaxis due to a hypercoagulable state.

Conclusions

We suggest avoiding the use of tamoxifen for EPS in patients with superimposed calciphylaxis.

Introduction

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but devastating complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Tamoxifen has been generally well-tolerated, even without randomized controlled trials.

Case Presentation

Herein, we report a case of a patient undergoing 12 years of PD who developed EPS and calciphylaxis simultaneously. We also provide a comprehensive discussion about the association between EPS and calciphylaxis. Moreover, although tamoxifen is used in EPS due to its inhibition of fibroblast-transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) production, it may worsen the calciphylaxis due to a hypercoagulable state.

Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis;Tamoxifen;Calciphylaxis Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis;Tamoxifen;Calciphylaxis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30913 Jun Li Tsai Jun Li Tsai Department of Family Medicine, Cheng Ching General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Department of Family Medicine, Cheng Ching General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Ming Ju Wu Ming Ju Wu Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Cheng Hsu Chen Cheng Hsu Chen Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Shang Feng Tsai Shang Feng Tsai Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan; MD, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 160, Section 3, Chung-Kang Road, Taichung, 407, Taiwan. Tel: +886-423592525, Fax: +886-423594980 Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan; MD, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 160, Section 3, Chung-Kang Road, Taichung, 407, Taiwan. Tel: +886-423592525, Fax: +886-423594980
en 28058114 10.5812/ircmj.29166 Protective Effects of Co-Enzyme Q10 on Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Damage and Its Correlation With Behavioral, Biochemical, and Pathological Factors Protective Effects of Co-Enzyme Q10 on Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Damage and Its Correlation With Behavioral, Biochemical, and Pathological Factors research-article research-article Conclusions

Overall, CoQ10 was determined to have positive effects on liver injury and its related behavioral and biochemical changes.

Results

The serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), and NH4 show significant increases (P < 0.05). The groups treated with CoQ10 were shown to have significantly lower clinical grade of encephalopathy (P = 0.001), higher locomotor activity (P = 0.000), and lower levels of depression (P = 0.000). Furthermore, it was also shown that CoQ10 treatment may lead to significant decreases in scores of centrilobular necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, vacuolization, and liver necrosis (P < 0.05).

Background

Acute liver damage may be followed by biochemical, behavioral, and pathological alterations, which can result in serious complications and even death.

Objectives

In this experimental study we determined whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a common supplementary medicine known to have protective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects in cells, has any protective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver damage and its related neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study forty-eight Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12): C1 was the control group; C2 received a single-dose of TAA (350mg/kg; intraperitoneally) without any other treatment; E1 received TAA + 5 mg/kg CoQ10 (intraperitoneally); and E2 received TAA + 10 mg/kg CoQ10. After sacrificing the rats, liver enzymes and plasma-ammonia (NH4) were measured and histopathological analyses of the livers were carried out. Elevated-plus-maze, open-field, and forced-swimming tests were also performed to investigate behavioral correlations.

Conclusions

Overall, CoQ10 was determined to have positive effects on liver injury and its related behavioral and biochemical changes.

Results

The serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), and NH4 show significant increases (P < 0.05). The groups treated with CoQ10 were shown to have significantly lower clinical grade of encephalopathy (P = 0.001), higher locomotor activity (P = 0.000), and lower levels of depression (P = 0.000). Furthermore, it was also shown that CoQ10 treatment may lead to significant decreases in scores of centrilobular necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, vacuolization, and liver necrosis (P < 0.05).

Background

Acute liver damage may be followed by biochemical, behavioral, and pathological alterations, which can result in serious complications and even death.

Objectives

In this experimental study we determined whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a common supplementary medicine known to have protective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects in cells, has any protective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver damage and its related neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study forty-eight Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12): C1 was the control group; C2 received a single-dose of TAA (350mg/kg; intraperitoneally) without any other treatment; E1 received TAA + 5 mg/kg CoQ10 (intraperitoneally); and E2 received TAA + 10 mg/kg CoQ10. After sacrificing the rats, liver enzymes and plasma-ammonia (NH4) were measured and histopathological analyses of the livers were carried out. Elevated-plus-maze, open-field, and forced-swimming tests were also performed to investigate behavioral correlations.

Coenzyme Q10;Thioacetamide;Acute liver Failure;Behavioral Symptoms;Hyperammonemia Coenzyme Q10;Thioacetamide;Acute liver Failure;Behavioral Symptoms;Hyperammonemia http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29166 Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Fereshteh Bagheri Fereshteh Bagheri Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Yasaman Emami Yasaman Emami Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Elmira Esmaeilzadeh Elmira Esmaeilzadeh Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Negar Azarpira Negar Azarpira Organ Transplant Research Center, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Organ Transplant Research Center, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Nazila Hassanabadi Nazila Hassanabadi Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Marzieh Keshtkar Marzieh Keshtkar International Branch, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Kish, IR Iran International Branch, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Kish, IR Iran Mojtaba Farjam Mojtaba Farjam Department Of Pharmacology, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department Of Pharmacology, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi Center of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Center of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Ali Noorafshan Ali Noorafshan Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9173397040, Fax: +98-7136262034 Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9173397040, Fax: +98-7136262034
en 27781123 10.5812/ircmj.34961 Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis: A Case Report Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis: A Case Report case-report case-report Introduction

Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition that can result in high mortality and morbidity rates if not treated immediately. CST may be aseptic or septic. Less common primary sites of infection include the tonsils, soft palate, middle ear, and orbit. Reported cases of middle ear infection are very rare, and response to treatment is poor.

Conclusions

Findings of laboratory tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Clinical-based medical care led to successful management of the patient with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics that prevented serious complications.

Case Presentation

The present study is a case report of acute otitis media which led to septic cavernous sinus thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman in Bojnord city, North Khorasan, Iran.

Introduction

Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition that can result in high mortality and morbidity rates if not treated immediately. CST may be aseptic or septic. Less common primary sites of infection include the tonsils, soft palate, middle ear, and orbit. Reported cases of middle ear infection are very rare, and response to treatment is poor.

Conclusions

Findings of laboratory tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Clinical-based medical care led to successful management of the patient with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics that prevented serious complications.

Case Presentation

The present study is a case report of acute otitis media which led to septic cavernous sinus thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman in Bojnord city, North Khorasan, Iran.

Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis;Otitis Media;MRI Brain;Intravenous Antibiotics Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis;Otitis Media;MRI Brain;Intravenous Antibiotics http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34961 Mahdieh Arian Mahdieh Arian Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran Azadeh Kamali Azadeh Kamali Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5832296909 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5832296909 Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran Parisa Arashnia Parisa Arashnia Imam Reza Hospital, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran Imam Reza Hospital, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran
en 27781113 10.5812/ircmj.30104 Familial Aggregation of Metabolic Syndrome With Different Socio-Behavioral Characteristics: The Fourth Phase of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study Familial Aggregation of Metabolic Syndrome With Different Socio-Behavioral Characteristics: The Fourth Phase of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study research-article research-article Background

Since genetic and most environmental factors shape the context of families, some studies have been initiated to investigate the role of familial relationships in metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Objectives

To estimate the familial aggregation of MetS and its components by identifying both case and control probands among Tehranian adults with different socio-behavioral and reproductive characteristics.

Patients and Methods

This case-controlled/family-based study was conducted on 1,777 families (635 case probands) who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Socio-demographic and reproductive information including levels of education, marital status, occupation status, age at menarche, number of abortions, number of children, and lifestyle habits such as smoking, physical activity and regular diet were obtained from the TLGS data bank. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. To estimate the regression co-efficient for familial aggregation and environmental factors, the generalized estimation equation method was used.

Results

The risk of having MetS among family members for case versus control probands was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.68 - 2.84), which, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, educational level, marital status, occupation, age at menarche and energy, soft drink and starchy vegetable intake, increased to 2.31 (95% CI: 1.81 - 2.94; P < 0.05). Compared to control probands, the risk of having MetS components increased significantly from OR = 1.28 for both high waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) to OR = 1.72 for high triglycerides in cases. Familial aggregation inherited from the father was significantly observed in all MetS components, from adjusted OR = 1.63 for hyperglycemia to adjusted OR = 2.69 for high WC, except for low HDL, after controlling for potential confounders.

Conclusions

Considering spouses and siblings, there was a higher risk for MetS components among families whose fathers and offspring had MetS components, implying the pivotal role of genetic inheritance in the incidence of the syndrome and its components.

Background

Since genetic and most environmental factors shape the context of families, some studies have been initiated to investigate the role of familial relationships in metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Objectives

To estimate the familial aggregation of MetS and its components by identifying both case and control probands among Tehranian adults with different socio-behavioral and reproductive characteristics.

Patients and Methods

This case-controlled/family-based study was conducted on 1,777 families (635 case probands) who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Socio-demographic and reproductive information including levels of education, marital status, occupation status, age at menarche, number of abortions, number of children, and lifestyle habits such as smoking, physical activity and regular diet were obtained from the TLGS data bank. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. To estimate the regression co-efficient for familial aggregation and environmental factors, the generalized estimation equation method was used.

Results

The risk of having MetS among family members for case versus control probands was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.68 - 2.84), which, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, educational level, marital status, occupation, age at menarche and energy, soft drink and starchy vegetable intake, increased to 2.31 (95% CI: 1.81 - 2.94; P < 0.05). Compared to control probands, the risk of having MetS components increased significantly from OR = 1.28 for both high waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) to OR = 1.72 for high triglycerides in cases. Familial aggregation inherited from the father was significantly observed in all MetS components, from adjusted OR = 1.63 for hyperglycemia to adjusted OR = 2.69 for high WC, except for low HDL, after controlling for potential confounders.

Conclusions

Considering spouses and siblings, there was a higher risk for MetS components among families whose fathers and offspring had MetS components, implying the pivotal role of genetic inheritance in the incidence of the syndrome and its components.

Metabolic Syndrome;Familial Aggregation;Socio-Behavior Metabolic Syndrome;Familial Aggregation;Socio-Behavior http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30104 Maryam Zarkesh Maryam Zarkesh Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Golaleh Asghari Golaleh Asghari Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Parisa Amiri Parisa Amiri Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health and Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health and Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 19395-4763, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-212409309, Fax: +98-212402463 Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health and Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health and Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 19395-4763, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-212409309, Fax: +98-212402463 Nima Hosseinzadeh Nima Hosseinzadeh Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Hedayati Mehdi Hedayati Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Arash Ghanbarian Arash Ghanbarian Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27781111 10.5812/ircmj.24384 Comparison of Hydrogel Produced by Radiation as Applied at the Research Center (Yazd Branch) With MaxGel and Routine Dressing for Second-Degree Burn Repair in Yazd Burn Hospital Comparison of Hydrogel Produced by Radiation as Applied at the Research Center (Yazd Branch) With MaxGel and Routine Dressing for Second-Degree Burn Repair in Yazd Burn Hospital research-article research-article Materials and Methods

In this study, 90 patients with second-degree burn injuries who were admitted to the Yazd Burn hospital were randomly divided into three equal groups. In the negative control group, the wounds were covered with sterile vaseline gauze followed by double sterile dry gauze and ultimately bandaged. In the test group, the wounds were covered by an Iranian hydrogel sheet (Irgel) instead of vaseline gauze, while in the positive control group, the wounds were covered by MaxGel instead of Irgel. At each visit (every other day), each dressing was renewed by its respective method and the wound area, pain score, and body temperature were recorded. At the beginning and at the end of the first and second week, five milliliters of venous blood were taken from all patients to evaluate hematologic parameters such as peripheral blood cell count, liver function, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine.

Results

Before the intervention, the extent of the burns and pain sensations were quite similar among the different groups, but at the second week, the burn areas and pain scores for the Irgel group were significantly less than those of the normal control and the positive control groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Based on our findings, both gels assist in the process of burn wound healing and pain reduction more effectively as compared with routine dressing. However, Irgel had better effects on wound healing and pain relief than MaxGel, which indicates a better quality of Irgel for this particular kind of treatment.

Objectives

We have already confirmed the safety and efficacy of Irgel use on mice (1, 2), so this study was conducted in order to further evaluate its effectiveness on human burn wounds, and to compare its efficacy with MaxGel, another hydrogel. A randomized clinical trial study was conducted to compare the efficacy of hydrogel produced by the radiation application research center (Yazd Branch) with MaxGel and routine dressing on burn repair in the Yazd Burn hospital.

Background

Recently, the radiation application research center for the atomic energy organization of Yazd (Iran) has developed a hydrogel dressing which was evaluated for quality and safety in 2008. Its efficacy for assisting in the wound healing process was approved for animal use, and its use has proven to be more effective than a related Syrian material.

Materials and Methods

In this study, 90 patients with second-degree burn injuries who were admitted to the Yazd Burn hospital were randomly divided into three equal groups. In the negative control group, the wounds were covered with sterile vaseline gauze followed by double sterile dry gauze and ultimately bandaged. In the test group, the wounds were covered by an Iranian hydrogel sheet (Irgel) instead of vaseline gauze, while in the positive control group, the wounds were covered by MaxGel instead of Irgel. At each visit (every other day), each dressing was renewed by its respective method and the wound area, pain score, and body temperature were recorded. At the beginning and at the end of the first and second week, five milliliters of venous blood were taken from all patients to evaluate hematologic parameters such as peripheral blood cell count, liver function, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine.

Results

Before the intervention, the extent of the burns and pain sensations were quite similar among the different groups, but at the second week, the burn areas and pain scores for the Irgel group were significantly less than those of the normal control and the positive control groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Based on our findings, both gels assist in the process of burn wound healing and pain reduction more effectively as compared with routine dressing. However, Irgel had better effects on wound healing and pain relief than MaxGel, which indicates a better quality of Irgel for this particular kind of treatment.

Objectives

We have already confirmed the safety and efficacy of Irgel use on mice (1, 2), so this study was conducted in order to further evaluate its effectiveness on human burn wounds, and to compare its efficacy with MaxGel, another hydrogel. A randomized clinical trial study was conducted to compare the efficacy of hydrogel produced by the radiation application research center (Yazd Branch) with MaxGel and routine dressing on burn repair in the Yazd Burn hospital.

Background

Recently, the radiation application research center for the atomic energy organization of Yazd (Iran) has developed a hydrogel dressing which was evaluated for quality and safety in 2008. Its efficacy for assisting in the wound healing process was approved for animal use, and its use has proven to be more effective than a related Syrian material.

Hydrogel;Burn;Iranian Gel;MaxGel Hydrogel;Burn;Iranian Gel;MaxGel http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24384 Mohammad Taghi Noorbala Mohammad Taghi Noorbala Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3515229290, Fax: +98-3515234080 Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3515229290, Fax: +98-3515234080 Mohammad Noorbala Mohammad Noorbala Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Mohammad Hossein Dashti-Rahmatabadi Mohammad Hossein Dashti-Rahmatabadi Physiology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciencse, Yazd, IR Iran Physiology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciencse, Yazd, IR Iran Mahdi Noorbala Mahdi Noorbala Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Roghaye Noorbala Roghaye Noorbala Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Behare Mozaffary Behare Mozaffary Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran
en 27781118 10.5812/ircmj.31254 Optimal Glycemic and Hemoglobin A1c Thresholds for Diagnosing Diabetes Based on Prevalence of Retinopathy in an Iranian Population Optimal Glycemic and Hemoglobin A1c Thresholds for Diagnosing Diabetes Based on Prevalence of Retinopathy in an Iranian Population research-article research-article Background

The use of glycemic thresholds for diabetes diagnosis is controversial. However, no information is available regarding glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) thresholds for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population.

Objectives

The main purpose of the current investigation was to examine the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels with diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to determine the relevant cut-off levels in an Iranian population.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional, population-based study was performed during 2012-2013 in Urmia, the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran. The subjects were 3,010 Iranians aged 40-81 years. The FPG levels were determined using the glucose oxidase method whereas, the HbA1c values were measured using a standardized assay by high performance liquid chromatography. DR was evaluated by an examination of the fundus photograph of each eye. The photographs were graded according to the international clinical diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale by photograph graders who were masked to the clinical information.

Results

Of the subjects, 59 had DR. The prevalence of DR increased steeply between the ninth and the tenth deciles for both variables. The ROC curve analysis showed overall glycemic thresholds for DR of 6.5 mmol/L (117 mg/dL) for FPG and 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) for HbA1c. The sensitivities and specificities were 78.0% and 87.1% for FPG and 89.8% and 89.5% for HbA1c, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves indicated that HbA1c was a stronger discriminator of retinopathy: the area under curve was 0.880 for FPG and 0.946 for HbA1c P < 0.001). However, the thresholds for detecting DR for the two measures showed no significant differences after excluding individuals receiving anti-hyperglycemic medication.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the HbA1c and FPG thresholds for detecting diabetes in the Iranian population are lower than the current diagnostic criteria.

Background

The use of glycemic thresholds for diabetes diagnosis is controversial. However, no information is available regarding glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) thresholds for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population.

Objectives

The main purpose of the current investigation was to examine the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels with diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to determine the relevant cut-off levels in an Iranian population.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional, population-based study was performed during 2012-2013 in Urmia, the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran. The subjects were 3,010 Iranians aged 40-81 years. The FPG levels were determined using the glucose oxidase method whereas, the HbA1c values were measured using a standardized assay by high performance liquid chromatography. DR was evaluated by an examination of the fundus photograph of each eye. The photographs were graded according to the international clinical diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale by photograph graders who were masked to the clinical information.

Results

Of the subjects, 59 had DR. The prevalence of DR increased steeply between the ninth and the tenth deciles for both variables. The ROC curve analysis showed overall glycemic thresholds for DR of 6.5 mmol/L (117 mg/dL) for FPG and 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) for HbA1c. The sensitivities and specificities were 78.0% and 87.1% for FPG and 89.8% and 89.5% for HbA1c, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves indicated that HbA1c was a stronger discriminator of retinopathy: the area under curve was 0.880 for FPG and 0.946 for HbA1c P < 0.001). However, the thresholds for detecting DR for the two measures showed no significant differences after excluding individuals receiving anti-hyperglycemic medication.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the HbA1c and FPG thresholds for detecting diabetes in the Iranian population are lower than the current diagnostic criteria.

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR);Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c);Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG);Diagnostic Criteria Diabetic Retinopathy (DR);Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c);Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG);Diagnostic Criteria http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31254 Naser Samadi Aidenloo Naser Samadi Aidenloo Department of Ophthalmology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Ophthalmology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Alireza Mehdizadeh Alireza Mehdizadeh Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran; Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143407326, Fax: +98-4433469935 Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran; Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143407326, Fax: +98-4433469935 Neda Valizadeh Neda Valizadeh Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Mohammad Abbaszadeh Mohammad Abbaszadeh Department of Ophthalmology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Ophthalmology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Siavash Qarequran Siavash Qarequran Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Endocrinology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Hamidreza Khalkhali Hamidreza Khalkhali Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran
en 27761269 10.5812/ircmj.24836 Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of <italic>Salvia chloroleuca</italic> Aerial Extracts research-article research-article Objectives

This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca.

Materials and Methods

Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Results

The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively.

Conclusions

The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study indicated that S. chloroleuca could be an important dietary source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity.

Background

Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country.

Objectives

This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca.

Materials and Methods

Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Results

The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively.

Conclusions

The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study indicated that S. chloroleuca could be an important dietary source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity.

Background

Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country.

Lamiaceae;Phytochemical;Antioxidant;Flavonoid;Sterol;Salvia chloroleuca Lamiaceae;Phytochemical;Antioxidant;Flavonoid;Sterol;Salvia chloroleuca http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24836 Iraj Salimikia Iraj Salimikia Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ahmad Reza Gohari Ahmad Reza Gohari Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2164122330 Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2164122330 Mehrnoosh Salek Mehrnoosh Salek Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran
en 27800175 10.5812/ircmj.26065 Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia: Reporting a Case With Mild Manifestations and Different Echocardiography Features Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia: Reporting a Case With Mild Manifestations and Different Echocardiography Features case-report case-report Conclusions

Patients faced with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia should be monitored by echocardiography because of this disease’s possible progressive trend to life-threatening consequences.

Introduction

Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia is an unusual type of cardiomyopathy that presents with different clinical manifestations according to the age of the disease, ranging from no symptoms in children to congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, or even malignant tachycardia in adults. To our knowledge, only a few cases of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia have been reported in Asian adults.

Case Presentation

Herein, we described an adult case of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia referred to our heart center in Isfahan, Iran in 2015 with a complaint of mild dyspnea with the absence of obvious fatty tissue in the heart’s apex and an absence of any shunt, which are common findings in patients with this phenomenon.

Conclusions

Patients faced with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia should be monitored by echocardiography because of this disease’s possible progressive trend to life-threatening consequences.

Introduction

Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia is an unusual type of cardiomyopathy that presents with different clinical manifestations according to the age of the disease, ranging from no symptoms in children to congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, or even malignant tachycardia in adults. To our knowledge, only a few cases of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia have been reported in Asian adults.

Case Presentation

Herein, we described an adult case of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia referred to our heart center in Isfahan, Iran in 2015 with a complaint of mild dyspnea with the absence of obvious fatty tissue in the heart’s apex and an absence of any shunt, which are common findings in patients with this phenomenon.

Electrocardiography;Echocardiography;Ventricle Hypoplasia Electrocardiography;Echocardiography;Ventricle Hypoplasia http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26065 Ahmad Mirdamadi Ahmad Mirdamadi Islamic Azad university, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran; Islamic Azad university, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran Islamic Azad university, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran; Islamic Azad university, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran Samira Ashrafi Samira Ashrafi Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 27795838 10.5812/ircmj.38045 Relationship Between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Scores and Subclinical Cardiac Problems Relationship Between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Scores and Subclinical Cardiac Problems brief-report brief-report Background

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective-tissue disease involving multiple organs and systems. Some evidence has demonstrated that disease activity could be associated with increased risk of organ damage.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the association between systemic lupus erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores and subclinical cardiac involvement.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 SLE patients (88% female; mean age: 31.2 ± 8.2 years) from 2011 to 2013 in Mashhad, Iran. The patients had no clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac problems or risk factors for cardiovascular disease and were selected consecutively. All patients underwent complete echocardiographic examinations (using two dimensional (2D) tissue Doppler and 2D speckle tracking). Disease activity was evaluated by using the SLEDAI.

Results

Patients with higher SLEDAI scores had higher pulmonary artery pressure rates (r = 0.34; P = 0.024; 95% CI (0.086 to 0.595)) and SLE durations (r = 0.43; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.165 to 0.664). The correlation between disease duration and left ventricular mass was also significant (r = 0.43; P = 0.009; 95% CI (0.172 to 0.681)), even after adjusting for age (r = 0.405; P = 0.016). There was no correlation between SLEDAI scores or disease duration and the left/right ventricle systolic function parameters. This was true while assessing the right ventricle’s diastolic function. A statistically significant correlation was found between mitral E/E’ as an index of left ventricle diastolic impairment and the SLEDAI scores (r = 0.33; P = 0.037; 95% CI (0.074 to 0.574)) along with disease duration (r = 0.45; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.130 to 0.662); adjusted for age: r = 0.478; P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Echocardiography is a useful noninvasive technique for screening subclinical heart problems in SLE patients. Although disease activity in general should suggest a closer follow-up, regular scanning would enable earlier detection of cardiovascular involvement and should not be confined to cases with higher SLEDAI indices or longer disease durations.

Background

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective-tissue disease involving multiple organs and systems. Some evidence has demonstrated that disease activity could be associated with increased risk of organ damage.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the association between systemic lupus erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores and subclinical cardiac involvement.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 SLE patients (88% female; mean age: 31.2 ± 8.2 years) from 2011 to 2013 in Mashhad, Iran. The patients had no clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac problems or risk factors for cardiovascular disease and were selected consecutively. All patients underwent complete echocardiographic examinations (using two dimensional (2D) tissue Doppler and 2D speckle tracking). Disease activity was evaluated by using the SLEDAI.

Results

Patients with higher SLEDAI scores had higher pulmonary artery pressure rates (r = 0.34; P = 0.024; 95% CI (0.086 to 0.595)) and SLE durations (r = 0.43; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.165 to 0.664). The correlation between disease duration and left ventricular mass was also significant (r = 0.43; P = 0.009; 95% CI (0.172 to 0.681)), even after adjusting for age (r = 0.405; P = 0.016). There was no correlation between SLEDAI scores or disease duration and the left/right ventricle systolic function parameters. This was true while assessing the right ventricle’s diastolic function. A statistically significant correlation was found between mitral E/E’ as an index of left ventricle diastolic impairment and the SLEDAI scores (r = 0.33; P = 0.037; 95% CI (0.074 to 0.574)) along with disease duration (r = 0.45; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.130 to 0.662); adjusted for age: r = 0.478; P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Echocardiography is a useful noninvasive technique for screening subclinical heart problems in SLE patients. Although disease activity in general should suggest a closer follow-up, regular scanning would enable earlier detection of cardiovascular involvement and should not be confined to cases with higher SLEDAI indices or longer disease durations.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus;Ventricular Dysfunction;Echocardiography;Cardiac Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus;Ventricular Dysfunction;Echocardiography;Cardiac Disease http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38045 Zahra Mirfeizi Zahra Mirfeizi Associate Professor of Rheumatology, Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Associate Professor of Rheumatology, Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Hoorak Poorzand Hoorak Poorzand Assistant Professor of Cardiology, Echocardiologist, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Echocardiologist, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5138544504 Assistant Professor of Cardiology, Echocardiologist, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Echocardiologist, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5138544504 Aida Javanbakht Aida Javanbakht School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohammad Khajedaluee Mohammad Khajedaluee Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 27795837 10.5812/ircmj.37918 Effects of Low-dose Selenium on the Inflammatory Response in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Clinical Trial Effects of Low-dose Selenium on the Inflammatory Response in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Clinical Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

This study revealed that the administration of 600 μg of intravenous Se immediately before induction of anesthesia was safe, but when compared to a placebo, no predominant clinical effects or modifications in the systemic inflammatory response induced by on-pump CABG were observed.

Results

Data from a total of 81 patients were analyzed: group S (n = 41) and group C (n = 40). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to baseline characteristics. In both groups, CPB caused markedly increased IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP plasma concentrations compared with baseline (P = 0.0001). However, the pattern of changes was not significantly different between group S (P = 0.068) and group C (P = 0.26). The IL-6 and TNF-α change trends were significant in each group (P=0.0001). However, comparing the two groups showed no significant difference. With regard to IL-6, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the time-points of T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056), and the same was found for TNF-α at T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056). With regard to CRP, the trend of the changes was significant in each group (P = 0.0001). However, comparing two groups showed a borderline significant difference between them at T1 (P = 0.039), but not at T2 (P = 0.075) or T3 (P = 0.11).

Objectives

To determine whether 600 µg of intravenous Se administration before induction of anesthesia for CABG surgery could attenuate inflammatory reactions in an Iranian population.

Methods

This randomized triple-blind clinical trial took place in the department of cardiac surgery of an academic hospital affiliated with Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) from May 2015 to September 2015. Eighty-eight eligible patients scheduled for elective on-pump CABG surgery were divided into two groups using randomized fixed quadripartite blocks. They received either an intravenous bolus of 600 µg Se before induction of anesthesia, or normal saline as a placebo. We had four measurement time-points: just before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately after the end of CPB (T1), 24 hours after surgery (T2), and 48 hours after surgery (T3). Interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Background

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) triggers an inflammatory reaction, leading to the development of myocardial damage and dysfunction. It is suggested that selenium (Se), an essential trace element, has a protective role against oxidative stress. Decreased intraoperative Se levels might be an independent predictive factor for postoperative multiorgan failure. In spite of its proposed advantages, however, the optimal timing and dosage are not well known.

Conclusions

This study revealed that the administration of 600 μg of intravenous Se immediately before induction of anesthesia was safe, but when compared to a placebo, no predominant clinical effects or modifications in the systemic inflammatory response induced by on-pump CABG were observed.

Results

Data from a total of 81 patients were analyzed: group S (n = 41) and group C (n = 40). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to baseline characteristics. In both groups, CPB caused markedly increased IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP plasma concentrations compared with baseline (P = 0.0001). However, the pattern of changes was not significantly different between group S (P = 0.068) and group C (P = 0.26). The IL-6 and TNF-α change trends were significant in each group (P=0.0001). However, comparing the two groups showed no significant difference. With regard to IL-6, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the time-points of T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056), and the same was found for TNF-α at T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056). With regard to CRP, the trend of the changes was significant in each group (P = 0.0001). However, comparing two groups showed a borderline significant difference between them at T1 (P = 0.039), but not at T2 (P = 0.075) or T3 (P = 0.11).

Objectives

To determine whether 600 µg of intravenous Se administration before induction of anesthesia for CABG surgery could attenuate inflammatory reactions in an Iranian population.

Methods

This randomized triple-blind clinical trial took place in the department of cardiac surgery of an academic hospital affiliated with Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) from May 2015 to September 2015. Eighty-eight eligible patients scheduled for elective on-pump CABG surgery were divided into two groups using randomized fixed quadripartite blocks. They received either an intravenous bolus of 600 µg Se before induction of anesthesia, or normal saline as a placebo. We had four measurement time-points: just before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately after the end of CPB (T1), 24 hours after surgery (T2), and 48 hours after surgery (T3). Interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Background

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) triggers an inflammatory reaction, leading to the development of myocardial damage and dysfunction. It is suggested that selenium (Se), an essential trace element, has a protective role against oxidative stress. Decreased intraoperative Se levels might be an independent predictive factor for postoperative multiorgan failure. In spite of its proposed advantages, however, the optimal timing and dosage are not well known.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft;Selenium;Inflammatory Response;CRP;IL-6;TNF-α Coronary Artery Bypass Graft;Selenium;Inflammatory Response;CRP;IL-6;TNF-α http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37918 Abbas Sedighinejad Abbas Sedighinejad MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Vali Imantalab Vali Imantalab MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran; Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9111316138 MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran; Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9111316138 Ali Mirmansouri Ali Mirmansouri MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Ali Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi Ali Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Fellowship of Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Gholamreza Kanani Gholamreza Kanani MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardaic Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardaic Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Nassir Nassiri Sheikhani Nassir Nassiri Sheikhani MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardaic Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardaic Surgery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran Zahra Atrkarroushan Zahra Atrkarroushan PhD, Assistant Professor of Biostatistic, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran PhD, Assistant Professor of Biostatistic, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran Gelareh Biazar Gelareh Biazar MD, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran MD, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran
en 27781125 10.5812/ircmj.38198 Torsion of a Giant Pedunculated Hemangioma of the Liver Presenting With Acute Abdomen: A Case Report Torsion of a Giant Pedunculated Hemangioma of the Liver Presenting With Acute Abdomen: A Case Report case-report case-report Introduction

Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most cases are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. A hemangioma can rarely be pedunculated; as a result, it may undergo torsion and infarction, which can make it symptomatic.

Case Presentation

We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a giant pedunculated hepatic hemangioma around its vascular stalk.

Conclusions

Pedunculated hemangioma of the liver is an uncommon benign tumor, a rare differential diagnosis for a mass located in the upper abdomen. All incidentally detected pedunculated hemangiomas must be surgically managed, as these have a tendency to become torsioned, and there is also a risk of malignancy or rupture.

Introduction

Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most cases are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. A hemangioma can rarely be pedunculated; as a result, it may undergo torsion and infarction, which can make it symptomatic.

Case Presentation

We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a giant pedunculated hepatic hemangioma around its vascular stalk.

Conclusions

Pedunculated hemangioma of the liver is an uncommon benign tumor, a rare differential diagnosis for a mass located in the upper abdomen. All incidentally detected pedunculated hemangiomas must be surgically managed, as these have a tendency to become torsioned, and there is also a risk of malignancy or rupture.

Torsion;Pedunculated;Hemangioma;Acute Abdomen Torsion;Pedunculated;Hemangioma;Acute Abdomen http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38198 Aliasghar Darzi Aliasghar Darzi Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Hassan Taheri Hassan Taheri Department of Gastroenterology, Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Department of Gastroenterology, Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Sekineh Kamali Ahangar Sekineh Kamali Ahangar Clinical Research Department, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Clinical Research Department, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Alameh Mirzapour Shafiei Alameh Mirzapour Shafiei Babol University Of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Babol University Of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Yasser Asghari Yasser Asghari Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran; Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1132256285, Fax: +98-1132256285 Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran; Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1132256285, Fax: +98-1132256285
en 27795839 10.5812/ircmj.38374 Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2010: Case Report Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2010: Case Report case-report case-report Introduction

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe infectious disease that is not endemic in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Case Presentation

We report two cases of confirmed CCHF diagnosed in Dubai, UAE, during Hajj season 2010. Both patients presented with an acute history of high-grade fever, skin rash, and hematemesis.

Conclusions

In spite of maximal supportive measures and intravenous ribavirin therapy, both patients died within a few days from start of illness. More than 250 health care workers came into variable degrees of contact with the index cases, and none of them developed signs or symptoms suggestive of acquiring the illness. Health care workers from nonendemic regions should be aware of zoonotic hemorrhagic fevers imported via infected cattle and ticks and be able to diagnose and properly manage suspected cases in a timely manner. In addition, proper infection-control measures should be undertaken to prevent nosocomial spread of infection.

Introduction

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe infectious disease that is not endemic in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Case Presentation

We report two cases of confirmed CCHF diagnosed in Dubai, UAE, during Hajj season 2010. Both patients presented with an acute history of high-grade fever, skin rash, and hematemesis.

Conclusions

In spite of maximal supportive measures and intravenous ribavirin therapy, both patients died within a few days from start of illness. More than 250 health care workers came into variable degrees of contact with the index cases, and none of them developed signs or symptoms suggestive of acquiring the illness. Health care workers from nonendemic regions should be aware of zoonotic hemorrhagic fevers imported via infected cattle and ticks and be able to diagnose and properly manage suspected cases in a timely manner. In addition, proper infection-control measures should be undertaken to prevent nosocomial spread of infection.

CCHF;UAE;Health Care Workers;Infection Control CCHF;UAE;Health Care Workers;Infection Control http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38374 Laila Mohamed AL Dabal Laila Mohamed AL Dabal Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Mohmamed Reza Rahimi Shahmirzadi Mohmamed Reza Rahimi Shahmirzadi Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Samar Baderldin Samar Baderldin Virology laboratory, Dr. Sulaiman Faqih Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Virology laboratory, Dr. Sulaiman Faqih Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ali Abro Ali Abro Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Ali Zaki Ali Zaki Virology laboratory, Dr. Sulaiman Faqih Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Virology laboratory, Dr. Sulaiman Faqih Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Zulfa Dessi Zulfa Dessi Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Essa Al Eassa Essa Al Eassa Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Gulfaraz Khan Gulfaraz Khan Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Hassan Shuri Hassan Shuri Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Abid Mustafa Alwan Abid Mustafa Alwan Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Units, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates