Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 5 24 gregorian 2017 5 24 18 6
en 27621918 10.5812/ircmj.24562 Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children case-report case-report Conclusions

Although it is a rare entity, EC should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dysuria, hematuria and any kind of acquired voiding dysfunction, including frequency, pollakiuria and incontinence.

Case Presentation

We present a 17-year-old male patient, who was continent night and day in his childhood, and was admitted to our clinic for complaints of hematuria and nocturnal enuresis for the past six months. His history and physical examination were unremarkable, and routine hematological and biochemical tests were normal. Cystoscopy revealed a 4 × 3 cm erythematous, polypoidal, solid lesion on the bladder dome. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed transitional epithelium with stromal edema, where diffuse, dense infiltration of lamina propria by eosinophils and lymphocytes was also seen. According to these findings, a histopathological diagnosis of EC was made, and the patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistamines. His symptoms dramatically improved and nocturnal enuresis also recovered after treatment.

Introduction

Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory condition, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of all layers of the bladder wall, which mimics bladder tumors. EC may present with symptoms such as increased urination frequency, dysuria, gross/microscopic hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention.

Conclusions

Although it is a rare entity, EC should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dysuria, hematuria and any kind of acquired voiding dysfunction, including frequency, pollakiuria and incontinence.

Case Presentation

We present a 17-year-old male patient, who was continent night and day in his childhood, and was admitted to our clinic for complaints of hematuria and nocturnal enuresis for the past six months. His history and physical examination were unremarkable, and routine hematological and biochemical tests were normal. Cystoscopy revealed a 4 × 3 cm erythematous, polypoidal, solid lesion on the bladder dome. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed transitional epithelium with stromal edema, where diffuse, dense infiltration of lamina propria by eosinophils and lymphocytes was also seen. According to these findings, a histopathological diagnosis of EC was made, and the patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistamines. His symptoms dramatically improved and nocturnal enuresis also recovered after treatment.

Introduction

Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory condition, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of all layers of the bladder wall, which mimics bladder tumors. EC may present with symptoms such as increased urination frequency, dysuria, gross/microscopic hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention.

Eosinophilic Cystitis;Bladder Tumor;Hematuria;Enuresis Eosinophilic Cystitis;Bladder Tumor;Hematuria;Enuresis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24562 Ozcan Kilic Ozcan Kilic Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Murat Akand Murat Akand Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5327438333, Fax: +90-3322412184 Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5327438333, Fax: +90-3322412184 Murat Gul Murat Gul Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Pinar Karabagli Pinar Karabagli Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Serdar Goktas Serdar Goktas Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey
en 27621917 10.5812/ircmj.24407 Spontaneous Nephrocutaneous Fistula With Tuberculous Autonephrectomy: A Case Report of a Delayed Diagnosis Spontaneous Nephrocutaneous Fistula With Tuberculous Autonephrectomy: A Case Report of a Delayed Diagnosis case-report case-report Conclusions

Urogenital TB is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs. In the case of a nonfunctioning kidney without an obvious cause and a chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula, the possibility of associated renal TB should be kept in mind, especially in immunocompromised patients or in places where TB is a common health problem.

Introduction

Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare manifestation of renal disease that can occur due to various etiologies, such as renal calculus, chronic pyelonephritis, stricture of the ureteropelvic junction, and renal tuberculosis (TB). An autonephrectomy with a nephrocutaneous fistula due to renal tuberculosis can be diagnosed quite late if it is not suspected.

Case Presentation

We report a case of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula with tuberculous autonephrectomy. A 40-year-old white male with recurrent flank pain and intermittent purulent drainage from his right flank region for the previous 14 years was admitted to our outpatient clinic. Fistulography and computerized tomography demonstrated a 51 × 60 mm area with a soft-tissue appearance that implied autonephrectomy of the right kidney, and a fistula tract with a 9 mm diameter between the skin and the retroperitoneal space. The patient was successfully treated with nephroureterectomy and excision of the fistulous tract, followed by antituberculous treatment. The pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed chronic atrophic pyelonephritis, calcifications, and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation suggestive of TB.

Conclusions

Urogenital TB is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs. In the case of a nonfunctioning kidney without an obvious cause and a chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula, the possibility of associated renal TB should be kept in mind, especially in immunocompromised patients or in places where TB is a common health problem.

Introduction

Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare manifestation of renal disease that can occur due to various etiologies, such as renal calculus, chronic pyelonephritis, stricture of the ureteropelvic junction, and renal tuberculosis (TB). An autonephrectomy with a nephrocutaneous fistula due to renal tuberculosis can be diagnosed quite late if it is not suspected.

Case Presentation

We report a case of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula with tuberculous autonephrectomy. A 40-year-old white male with recurrent flank pain and intermittent purulent drainage from his right flank region for the previous 14 years was admitted to our outpatient clinic. Fistulography and computerized tomography demonstrated a 51 × 60 mm area with a soft-tissue appearance that implied autonephrectomy of the right kidney, and a fistula tract with a 9 mm diameter between the skin and the retroperitoneal space. The patient was successfully treated with nephroureterectomy and excision of the fistulous tract, followed by antituberculous treatment. The pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed chronic atrophic pyelonephritis, calcifications, and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation suggestive of TB.

Autonephrectomy;Nephrocutaneous Fistula;Tuberculosis;Chronic Infection Autonephrectomy;Nephrocutaneous Fistula;Tuberculosis;Chronic Infection http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24407 Murat Akand Murat Akand Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, 42075 Selcuklu, Konya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5327438333, Fax: +90-3322412184 Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, 42075 Selcuklu, Konya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5327438333, Fax: +90-3322412184 Ozcan Kilic Ozcan Kilic Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Mustafa Kucur Mustafa Kucur Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Mehmet Kaynar Mehmet Kaynar Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Serdar Goktas Serdar Goktas Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey
en 27621913 10.5812/ircmj.23864 The Effect of Information About Gynecological Examination on the Anxiety Level of Women Applying to Gynecology Clinics: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study The Effect of Information About Gynecological Examination on the Anxiety Level of Women Applying to Gynecology Clinics: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Providing brief written information about the gynecological examination procedure and the clinic’s working discipline is not sufficient to lower the anxiety of women applying for a gynecological examination.

Materials and Methods

In this randomized prospective study, the women applying for a gynecological examination were randomly allocated into control, intervention 1, and intervention 2 groups. Power analysis indicated that in order to achieve a one-point decrease from the previous anxiety score of 43.85 ± 5.41 at one side alpha 0.05 with a power of 80%, at least 79 women were needed in each group. Four medical school students interviewed 75 women (25 in control, 25 in intervention 1, and 25 in intervention 2). The data were collected using the demographic, social, and economic data form, and the Turkish version of the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The women in the intervention 1 and 2 groups were instructed to read a paper that contained brief information about the gynecological examination procedure and the profits obtained from forests, respectively. All participants, including the women in the control group, filled the STAI by themselves. The three groups were compared appropriately.

Background

Crowded hospital outpatient clinics and endless waiting lines that make patients feel overlooked tend to exaggerate patients’ anxiety levels. In addition, fear of pain, shyness, religious and traditional thoughts, women’s sexual role in society, and previous information and experience also contribute to people’s anxiety levels with regard to gynecologic examination.

Results

The demographics pertaining to age, gravidity and parity, miscarriage, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy, offspring number, place of residence, working status, education level and previous experience of gynecological examination did not differ among the groups (P > 0.05). According to the STAI scores, all groups had mild state (control: 40.20 ± 10.53, intervention 1: 42.00 ± 11.98, and intervention 2: 39.53 ± 10.32) and severe continuous (control: 46.78 ± 8.65, Intervention 1: 47.25 ± 9.57, and intervention 2: 46.60 ± 9.72) anxiety levels. However, both state and continuous anxiety scores were not significantly different in all groups (P > 0.05).

Objectives

We aimed to analyze the effect of specific information about gynecologic examination on anxiety levels of women applying to gynecology clinics.

Conclusions

Providing brief written information about the gynecological examination procedure and the clinic’s working discipline is not sufficient to lower the anxiety of women applying for a gynecological examination.

Materials and Methods

In this randomized prospective study, the women applying for a gynecological examination were randomly allocated into control, intervention 1, and intervention 2 groups. Power analysis indicated that in order to achieve a one-point decrease from the previous anxiety score of 43.85 ± 5.41 at one side alpha 0.05 with a power of 80%, at least 79 women were needed in each group. Four medical school students interviewed 75 women (25 in control, 25 in intervention 1, and 25 in intervention 2). The data were collected using the demographic, social, and economic data form, and the Turkish version of the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The women in the intervention 1 and 2 groups were instructed to read a paper that contained brief information about the gynecological examination procedure and the profits obtained from forests, respectively. All participants, including the women in the control group, filled the STAI by themselves. The three groups were compared appropriately.

Background

Crowded hospital outpatient clinics and endless waiting lines that make patients feel overlooked tend to exaggerate patients’ anxiety levels. In addition, fear of pain, shyness, religious and traditional thoughts, women’s sexual role in society, and previous information and experience also contribute to people’s anxiety levels with regard to gynecologic examination.

Results

The demographics pertaining to age, gravidity and parity, miscarriage, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy, offspring number, place of residence, working status, education level and previous experience of gynecological examination did not differ among the groups (P > 0.05). According to the STAI scores, all groups had mild state (control: 40.20 ± 10.53, intervention 1: 42.00 ± 11.98, and intervention 2: 39.53 ± 10.32) and severe continuous (control: 46.78 ± 8.65, Intervention 1: 47.25 ± 9.57, and intervention 2: 46.60 ± 9.72) anxiety levels. However, both state and continuous anxiety scores were not significantly different in all groups (P > 0.05).

Objectives

We aimed to analyze the effect of specific information about gynecologic examination on anxiety levels of women applying to gynecology clinics.

Anxiety Disorders;Comparative Study;Gynecological Examination;Hospitals;Obstetrics and Gynecology Department;Outpatients Anxiety Disorders;Comparative Study;Gynecological Examination;Hospitals;Obstetrics and Gynecology Department;Outpatients http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23864 Kahraman Ulker Kahraman Ulker Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Faculty, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Faculty, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey Yuksel Kivrak Yuksel Kivrak Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey; Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey. Tel: +90-4742251150, Fax: +90-4742251193 Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey; Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey. Tel: +90-4742251150, Fax: +90-4742251193
en 27621926 10.5812/ircmj.25665 Information and Communication Needs of Parents in Infant End-of-Life: A Qualitative Study Information and Communication Needs of Parents in Infant End-of-Life: A Qualitative Study research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results, parents need accurate information about the health and the death of their neonates in the NICU. They also need to communicate with healthcare professionals and their babies. Communication is regarded as a channel for obtaining information. Therefore, the healthcare team needs to address these families’ needs and attempt to fulfill their requirements in neonatal end-of-life and bereavement in the NICU.

Results

Data analysis revealed two main themes: information and communication. For information, there were two subthemes (true information about the infant’s health and true information about the infant’s death), and communication needs also developed two subthemes (communication with healthcare professionals and communication with the infant before, during and after the infant’s death).

Materials and Methods

A qualitative content analysis method was used for this study. Data were collected through single semi-structured interviews with 24 participants. Sampling was conducted based on the purposive sampling method in five NICU environments in Iran. All interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim.

Background

Hospitalization of a neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful event for parents. They need specific information and communication to alleviate their stress, but these parental needs are not met by NICU staff. Exploration of these needs can help health professionals to provide better healthcare services.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore the information and communication needs of families in neonatal end-of-life and bereavement in the NICU.

Conclusions

According to the results, parents need accurate information about the health and the death of their neonates in the NICU. They also need to communicate with healthcare professionals and their babies. Communication is regarded as a channel for obtaining information. Therefore, the healthcare team needs to address these families’ needs and attempt to fulfill their requirements in neonatal end-of-life and bereavement in the NICU.

Results

Data analysis revealed two main themes: information and communication. For information, there were two subthemes (true information about the infant’s health and true information about the infant’s death), and communication needs also developed two subthemes (communication with healthcare professionals and communication with the infant before, during and after the infant’s death).

Materials and Methods

A qualitative content analysis method was used for this study. Data were collected through single semi-structured interviews with 24 participants. Sampling was conducted based on the purposive sampling method in five NICU environments in Iran. All interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim.

Background

Hospitalization of a neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful event for parents. They need specific information and communication to alleviate their stress, but these parental needs are not met by NICU staff. Exploration of these needs can help health professionals to provide better healthcare services.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore the information and communication needs of families in neonatal end-of-life and bereavement in the NICU.

Intensive Care Units;Neonatal;Access to Information;Bereavement;End-of-Life Care;Infant Death Intensive Care Units;Neonatal;Access to Information;Bereavement;End-of-Life Care;Infant Death http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25665 Narges Sadeghi Narges Sadeghi Students Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran Students Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran Marzieh Hasanpour Marzieh Hasanpour School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122785528; +98-2161054413 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122785528; +98-2161054413 Mohamad Heidarzadeh Mohamad Heidarzadeh School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Deputy of Neonatal Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Deputy of Neonatal Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621919 10.5812/ircmj.24610 Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency case-report case-report Conclusions

Demyelinating disease, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and hereditary optic neuropathy could cause optic neuropathy. Normal CBC parameters and the absence of clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency could not rule out its diagnosis. Careful physical examinations and history-taking with a classical approach led us to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

Introduction

Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy.

Case Presentation

In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed optic disc edema with telangiectasia in the right eye, while the left eye had optic disc atrophy. We ruled out nearly all possible and common causes of optic neuropathy, and vitamin B12 deficiency was finally diagnosed. After treatment with vitamin B12, the patient improved.

Conclusions

Demyelinating disease, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and hereditary optic neuropathy could cause optic neuropathy. Normal CBC parameters and the absence of clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency could not rule out its diagnosis. Careful physical examinations and history-taking with a classical approach led us to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

Introduction

Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy.

Case Presentation

In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed optic disc edema with telangiectasia in the right eye, while the left eye had optic disc atrophy. We ruled out nearly all possible and common causes of optic neuropathy, and vitamin B12 deficiency was finally diagnosed. After treatment with vitamin B12, the patient improved.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency;Optic Nerve Disease;Foster-Kennedy Syndrome;Optic Neuropathy;Papilledema;Optic Neuritis Vitamin B12 Deficiency;Optic Nerve Disease;Foster-Kennedy Syndrome;Optic Neuropathy;Papilledema;Optic Neuritis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24610 Peyman Petramfar Peyman Petramfar Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Farideh Hosseinzadeh Farideh Hosseinzadeh Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran S. Saeed Mohammadi S. Saeed Mohammadi Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9364402630, Fax: +98-7733444844 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9364402630, Fax: +98-7733444844
en 27621929 10.5812/ircmj.26610 Bacterial Uropathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection and Their Resistance Patterns Among Children in Turkey Bacterial Uropathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection and Their Resistance Patterns Among Children in Turkey brief-report brief-report Background

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in infants and children, as well as adults.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the most common bacterial uropathogens, their susceptibility, and resistance to antibiotics in children with UTI.

Materials and Methods

This study included 7,365 urine samples sent from various departments to the Kars state hospital microbiology laboratory between January 2012 and May 2014. Bacterial isolation from clinical samples was made using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion, according to CLSI recommendations.

Conclusions

The identification of the most common microorganisms causing infectious diseases and regional resistance patterns is important in order to determine the antimicrobial policies and infection control guidelines of hospitals.

Results

Bacterial growth was obtained in 1,373 samples (18.5%). The percentage distributions of the isolates were as follows: Escherichia coli, 940 (68.5%); Proteus spp, 183 (13.3%); Staphylococcus spp, 85 (6.2%); Enterococcus spp, 65 (4.7%); Klebsiella, 62 (4.5%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 21 (1.5%); and other Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, 17 (1.2%). UTIs were more prevalent, after two years of age, among females than males (P < 0.001).

Background

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in infants and children, as well as adults.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the most common bacterial uropathogens, their susceptibility, and resistance to antibiotics in children with UTI.

Materials and Methods

This study included 7,365 urine samples sent from various departments to the Kars state hospital microbiology laboratory between January 2012 and May 2014. Bacterial isolation from clinical samples was made using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion, according to CLSI recommendations.

Conclusions

The identification of the most common microorganisms causing infectious diseases and regional resistance patterns is important in order to determine the antimicrobial policies and infection control guidelines of hospitals.

Results

Bacterial growth was obtained in 1,373 samples (18.5%). The percentage distributions of the isolates were as follows: Escherichia coli, 940 (68.5%); Proteus spp, 183 (13.3%); Staphylococcus spp, 85 (6.2%); Enterococcus spp, 65 (4.7%); Klebsiella, 62 (4.5%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 21 (1.5%); and other Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, 17 (1.2%). UTIs were more prevalent, after two years of age, among females than males (P < 0.001).

Uropathogens;Antibiotic;Resistance;Children Uropathogens;Antibiotic;Resistance;Children http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26610 Yunus Yilmaz Yunus Yilmaz Department of Pediatrics, Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital, Kars, Turkey; Department of Pediatrics, Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital, Kars, Turkey. Tel: +90-5069090995, Fax: +90-4742251430 Department of Pediatrics, Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital, Kars, Turkey; Department of Pediatrics, Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital, Kars, Turkey. Tel: +90-5069090995, Fax: +90-4742251430 Zuhal Tekkanat Tazegun Zuhal Tekkanat Tazegun Department of Microbiology, Kars Government Hospital, Kars, Turkey Department of Microbiology, Kars Government Hospital, Kars, Turkey Emsal Aydin Emsal Aydin Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital, Kars, Turkey Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital, Kars, Turkey Mahmut Dulger Mahmut Dulger Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Kars Government Hospital, Kars, Turkey Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Kars Government Hospital, Kars, Turkey
en 27621920 10.5812/ircmj.24620 Treatment of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypotension With Tea: A Case Report Treatment of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypotension With Tea: A Case Report case-report case-report Introduction

The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been increasingly diagnosed since its discovery through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a rare syndrome that is due to the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a tear in the dura and can occur at any age, even among adolescents, but is most frequently seen among females in late middle age.

Case Presentation

Here, we describe a 32-year-old woman with a two-month history of headaches and occasional nausea and vomiting (N/V). MRI without gadolinium was normal, but meningeal enhancement was seen in MRI with gadolinium. The lumbar puncture revealed a low opening pressure. Computed tomography myelography (CT myelography) showed no leakage; Therefore, idiopathic intracranial hypotension was diagnosed. Treatment was started using tea, and the patient’s headache got significantly better in about a day.

Conclusions

Conservative therapy, such as bed rest and caffeine treatment with eight cups of tea daily, yielded a significant improvement in our patient. Effectively, the patient constitutes a case of idiopathic intracranial hypotension due to undetectable CSF leakage or hyper-absorption, with good response to conservative management through tea-drinking. Further investigations with an appropriate sample size are needed in order to confirm this intervention in the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypotension.

Introduction

The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been increasingly diagnosed since its discovery through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a rare syndrome that is due to the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a tear in the dura and can occur at any age, even among adolescents, but is most frequently seen among females in late middle age.

Case Presentation

Here, we describe a 32-year-old woman with a two-month history of headaches and occasional nausea and vomiting (N/V). MRI without gadolinium was normal, but meningeal enhancement was seen in MRI with gadolinium. The lumbar puncture revealed a low opening pressure. Computed tomography myelography (CT myelography) showed no leakage; Therefore, idiopathic intracranial hypotension was diagnosed. Treatment was started using tea, and the patient’s headache got significantly better in about a day.

Conclusions

Conservative therapy, such as bed rest and caffeine treatment with eight cups of tea daily, yielded a significant improvement in our patient. Effectively, the patient constitutes a case of idiopathic intracranial hypotension due to undetectable CSF leakage or hyper-absorption, with good response to conservative management through tea-drinking. Further investigations with an appropriate sample size are needed in order to confirm this intervention in the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypotension.

Headache;Intracranial Hypotension;Tea;Caffeine;Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension Headache;Intracranial Hypotension;Tea;Caffeine;Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24620 Peyman Petramfar Peyman Petramfar Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran S. Saeed Mohammadi S. Saeed Mohammadi Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. E-mail:; Farideh Hosseinzadeh, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. E-mail:; Farideh Hosseinzadeh, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Farideh Hosseinzadeh Farideh Hosseinzadeh Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. E-mail:; Farideh Hosseinzadeh, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. E-mail:; Farideh Hosseinzadeh, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 27621932 10.5812/ircmj.27435 A Survey of Adherence to Guidelines to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Iranian Intensive Care Units A Survey of Adherence to Guidelines to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Iranian Intensive Care Units research-article research-article Conclusions

Evidence-based post-insertion recommended care practices were not consistently and uniformly implemented in the intensive care units. Establishment of a program for the surveillance of adherence to recommended guidelines is required for improving compliance by health professionals and the quality of preventive care.

Background

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are acquired by patients while receiving care. The highest incidence of HAIs has been documented in admissions to intensive care units. Adherence to evidence-based practices is the most important step for preventing HAIs.

Objectives

To determine the rate of adherence to evidence-based post-insertion recommended care practices after admission into the intensive care unit for the following devices: central line catheter, indwelling urinary catheter, and mechanical ventilator.

Patients and Methods

A structured observational cross-sectional research design was used. Data were collected using a checklist and a self-report questionnaire. The minimum sample size required for this study was 276 post-insertion care episodes, and 332 episodes were observed. The ANOVA test was used to identify any significant differences among the mean scores of the three devices.

Results

Overall observed adherence rates were 18.3%, 59.1%, and 43.1% for central line catheters, indwelling urinary catheter, and mechanical ventilator, respectively. Of the observed episodes of device care, only in 9.4% of the episodes was regular oral care performed for patients on mechanical ventilators and only in 19.3% of the episodes were indwelling urinary catheters properly secure after insertion. More so, in none (0.0%) of the episodes was the central line catheter hub disinfected before being accessed.

Conclusions

Evidence-based post-insertion recommended care practices were not consistently and uniformly implemented in the intensive care units. Establishment of a program for the surveillance of adherence to recommended guidelines is required for improving compliance by health professionals and the quality of preventive care.

Background

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are acquired by patients while receiving care. The highest incidence of HAIs has been documented in admissions to intensive care units. Adherence to evidence-based practices is the most important step for preventing HAIs.

Objectives

To determine the rate of adherence to evidence-based post-insertion recommended care practices after admission into the intensive care unit for the following devices: central line catheter, indwelling urinary catheter, and mechanical ventilator.

Patients and Methods

A structured observational cross-sectional research design was used. Data were collected using a checklist and a self-report questionnaire. The minimum sample size required for this study was 276 post-insertion care episodes, and 332 episodes were observed. The ANOVA test was used to identify any significant differences among the mean scores of the three devices.

Results

Overall observed adherence rates were 18.3%, 59.1%, and 43.1% for central line catheters, indwelling urinary catheter, and mechanical ventilator, respectively. Of the observed episodes of device care, only in 9.4% of the episodes was regular oral care performed for patients on mechanical ventilators and only in 19.3% of the episodes were indwelling urinary catheters properly secure after insertion. More so, in none (0.0%) of the episodes was the central line catheter hub disinfected before being accessed.

Catheter-Related Infections;Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia;Evidence-Based Practice;Clinical Practice Guideline Catheter-Related Infections;Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia;Evidence-Based Practice;Clinical Practice Guideline http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27435 Mahmood Shamshiri Mahmood Shamshiri Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IR Iran Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IR Iran Boudouin Fuh Suh Boudouin Fuh Suh Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences-International Campus, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences-International Campus, Tehran, IR Iran Nooredin Mohammadi Nooredin Mohammadi Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Reza Nabi Amjad Reza Nabi Amjad Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; epartment of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. BOX: 14197-33171, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; epartment of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. BOX: 14197-33171, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621931 10.5812/ircmj.27352 Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of Needs Based Biopsychosocial Distress Instrument for Cancer Patients (CANDI) Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of Needs Based Biopsychosocial Distress Instrument for Cancer Patients (CANDI) research-article research-article Patients and Methods

The study was performed with the participation of 172 cancer patients aged 18 and over. Factor analysis (principal components analysis) was used to assess construct validity. Criterion validities were tested by computing Spearman correlation between CANDI and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS), and brief symptom inventory (BSI) (convergent validity) and quality of life scales (FACT-G) (divergent validity). Test-retest reliabilities and internal consistencies were measured with intraclass correlation (ICC) and Cronbach-α.

Objectives

The aim of this research was to determine the reliability and validity of the CANDI scale in the Turkish language.

Conclusions

CANDI is a valid and reliable scale in cancer patients with a three-factor structure (emotional, physical and social) in the Turkish language.

Results

A three-factor solution (emotional, physical and social) was found with factor analysis. Internal reliability (α = 0.94) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) were significantly high. Correlations between CANDI and HADS (rs = 0.67), and BSI (rs = 0.69) and FACT-G (rs = -0.76) were moderate and significant in the expected direction.

Background

Needs based biopsychosocial distress instrument for cancer patients (CANDI) is a scale based on needs arising due to the effects of cancer.

Patients and Methods

The study was performed with the participation of 172 cancer patients aged 18 and over. Factor analysis (principal components analysis) was used to assess construct validity. Criterion validities were tested by computing Spearman correlation between CANDI and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS), and brief symptom inventory (BSI) (convergent validity) and quality of life scales (FACT-G) (divergent validity). Test-retest reliabilities and internal consistencies were measured with intraclass correlation (ICC) and Cronbach-α.

Objectives

The aim of this research was to determine the reliability and validity of the CANDI scale in the Turkish language.

Conclusions

CANDI is a valid and reliable scale in cancer patients with a three-factor structure (emotional, physical and social) in the Turkish language.

Results

A three-factor solution (emotional, physical and social) was found with factor analysis. Internal reliability (α = 0.94) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) were significantly high. Correlations between CANDI and HADS (rs = 0.67), and BSI (rs = 0.69) and FACT-G (rs = -0.76) were moderate and significant in the expected direction.

Background

Needs based biopsychosocial distress instrument for cancer patients (CANDI) is a scale based on needs arising due to the effects of cancer.

Cancer;Psychological Stress;Need;Validity;Reliability Cancer;Psychological Stress;Need;Validity;Reliability http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27352 Nazim Ercument Beyhun Nazim Ercument Beyhun Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey; Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey. Tel: +90-5386650288, Fax: +90-4623775456 Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey; Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey. Tel: +90-5386650288, Fax: +90-4623775456 Gamze Can Gamze Can Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Ahmet Tiryaki Ahmet Tiryaki Department of Psychiatry, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Psychiatry, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Serdar Karakullukcu Serdar Karakullukcu Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Bekir Bulut Bekir Bulut Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Sehbal Yesilbas Sehbal Yesilbas Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Halil Kavgaci Halil Kavgaci Department of Internal Medicine/Medical Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Internal Medicine/Medical Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Murat Topbas Murat Topbas Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey
en 27621915 10.5812/ircmj.24288 Spiritual Health in Nursing From the Viewpoint of Islam Spiritual Health in Nursing From the Viewpoint of Islam review-article review-article Conclusions

Islam has a unique perspective on spiritual health as it encompasses all aspects of human beings. Thus, it is necessary to carefully study the difference between the Islamic concept of spiritual health and that of other religions and ideologies to design suitable and useful nursing care for Iranian patients that satisfy their spiritual needs.

Results

The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed.

Context

In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients.

Evidence Acquisition

The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

Conclusions

Islam has a unique perspective on spiritual health as it encompasses all aspects of human beings. Thus, it is necessary to carefully study the difference between the Islamic concept of spiritual health and that of other religions and ideologies to design suitable and useful nursing care for Iranian patients that satisfy their spiritual needs.

Results

The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed.

Context

In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients.

Evidence Acquisition

The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

Hybrid Model;Spiritual Health;Islam;Nursing Care Hybrid Model;Spiritual Health;Islam;Nursing Care http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24288 Abbas Heydari Abbas Heydari Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Fatemeh Khorashadizadeh Fatemeh Khorashadizadeh Assistant Professor, Deparment of Nursing, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran; PhD in Nursing, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Deparment of Nursing, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9153867734, Fax: +98-5138591511 Assistant Professor, Deparment of Nursing, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran; PhD in Nursing, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Deparment of Nursing, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9153867734, Fax: +98-5138591511 Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi Department of Mental Health and Management, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Mental Health and Management, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Seyed Reza Mazlom Seyed Reza Mazlom Department of Medical Surgical, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Medical Surgical, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mahdi Ebrahimi Mahdi Ebrahimi Department of Islamic Studies, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Islamic Studies, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 27621935 10.5812/ircmj.34810 Hypoalbuminemia and Malnutrition Associated With Cow’s Milk Allergy: A Case Report Hypoalbuminemia and Malnutrition Associated With Cow’s Milk Allergy: A Case Report case-report case-report Introduction

Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. Symptoms usually involve the skin and the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Gastrointestinal tract manifestations of cow’s milk allergy are nonspecific, and are the only type that can be diagnosed in all age groups. Here, we report a rare case of cow's milk allergy in an infant with hypoalbuminemia and malnutrition.

Conclusions

On rare occasions, cow’s milk allergy presents with hypoalbuminemia. When diagnosis is delayed, this allergy may impair the growth and quality of life and may even be life-threatening.

Case Presentation

A nine-month-old girl was admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus maternity and children’s health and diseases training and research hospital, Ankara, Turkey, in September 2013, for weakness and swelling of the legs that had endured for two days. She had bilateral pretibial pitting (+2) edema. Laboratory data revealed albumin at 1.7 g/dL; serum Na, K, urea, creatinin, and alanine-aspartate aminotransferase levels were normal. Her urinary analysis did not reveal proteinuria. Stool samples were normal, and stool steatocrite was negative. Anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies were negative. Cow’s milk allergy was diagnosed due to cow’s milk-specific IgE and skin prick test results.

Introduction

Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. Symptoms usually involve the skin and the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Gastrointestinal tract manifestations of cow’s milk allergy are nonspecific, and are the only type that can be diagnosed in all age groups. Here, we report a rare case of cow's milk allergy in an infant with hypoalbuminemia and malnutrition.

Conclusions

On rare occasions, cow’s milk allergy presents with hypoalbuminemia. When diagnosis is delayed, this allergy may impair the growth and quality of life and may even be life-threatening.

Case Presentation

A nine-month-old girl was admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus maternity and children’s health and diseases training and research hospital, Ankara, Turkey, in September 2013, for weakness and swelling of the legs that had endured for two days. She had bilateral pretibial pitting (+2) edema. Laboratory data revealed albumin at 1.7 g/dL; serum Na, K, urea, creatinin, and alanine-aspartate aminotransferase levels were normal. Her urinary analysis did not reveal proteinuria. Stool samples were normal, and stool steatocrite was negative. Anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies were negative. Cow’s milk allergy was diagnosed due to cow’s milk-specific IgE and skin prick test results.

Cow’s Milk Allergy;Malnutrition;Hypoalbuminemia;Infant Cow’s Milk Allergy;Malnutrition;Hypoalbuminemia;Infant http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34810 Esma Altinel Acoglu Esma Altinel Acoglu Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-3123056000, Fax: +90-3123170353 Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-3123056000, Fax: +90-3123170353 Meltem Akcaboy Meltem Akcaboy Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Melahat Melek Oguz Melahat Melek Oguz Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Mustafa Kilic Mustafa Kilic Department of Metabolism, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Metabolism, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Pelin Zorlu Pelin Zorlu Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Saliha Senel Saliha Senel Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
en 27621925 10.5812/ircmj.25604 Pericardial Effusion in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report Pericardial Effusion in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

Pericardial effusion was a rare finding in this case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pericardial effusion in Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which is an unusual presentation, should be considered when the patient experiences respiratory distress.

Introduction

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of histiocytes in multiple organs. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involves bones, skin, lung and other organs.

Case Presentation

This study describes a seven-month-old Iranian girl who presented with skin rash and cervical lymphadenopathy. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was suspected when it was associated with anemia, splenomegaly and lytic bone lesions. A skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. During hospitalization, the patient looked ill with respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed a ground glass view, and echocardiography showed moderate pericardial effusion.

Conclusions

Pericardial effusion was a rare finding in this case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pericardial effusion in Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which is an unusual presentation, should be considered when the patient experiences respiratory distress.

Introduction

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of histiocytes in multiple organs. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involves bones, skin, lung and other organs.

Case Presentation

This study describes a seven-month-old Iranian girl who presented with skin rash and cervical lymphadenopathy. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was suspected when it was associated with anemia, splenomegaly and lytic bone lesions. A skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. During hospitalization, the patient looked ill with respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed a ground glass view, and echocardiography showed moderate pericardial effusion.

Histiocytosis;Langerhans Cell;Pericardial Effusion;Infant Histiocytosis;Langerhans Cell;Pericardial Effusion;Infant http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25604 Narges Gholami Narges Gholami Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2155419005, Fax: +98-2155417547 Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2155419005, Fax: +98-2155417547
en 27621930 10.5812/ircmj.26900 The Future of Ethics in Medicine The Future of Ethics in Medicine discussion discussion Ethics;Fertilization;Reproduction Ethics;Fertilization;Reproduction http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26900 Malika Raza Malika Raza Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan Hasnain Abbas Dharamshi Hasnain Abbas Dharamshi Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan; Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. Tel: +92-3312729129 Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan; Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. Tel: +92-3312729129 Syed Zohaib Ahsan Syed Zohaib Ahsan Sindh Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan Sindh Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan Zehra Naqvi Zehra Naqvi Sindh Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan Sindh Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan Tahira Naqvi Tahira Naqvi Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan Ali Abbas Mohsin Ali Ali Abbas Mohsin Ali Sindh Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan Sindh Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan Jamaluddin Malik Abbas Jamaluddin Malik Abbas Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
en 27621936 10.5812/ircmj.34971 Domestic Violence Among Iranian Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Domestic Violence Among Iranian Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis review-article review-article Conclusions

The results of the study showed a high prevalence of domestic violence in Iran, which requires the adoption of appropriate measures and the initiation of effective interventions by the legal authorities. These measures and interventions should aim to determine the causes of domestic violence and to develop ways of controlling and reducing this destructive phenomenon.

Results

Based on the 31 articles, which represent a sample size of 15,514 persons, we estimated the prevalence of domestic violence to be 66% (CI 95%: 55 - 77). The geographical classification showed that the prevalence of domestic violence was 70% (CI 95%: 57 - 84) in the east of the country, 70% in the south (CI 95%: 32 - 100), 75% in the west (CI 95%: 56 - 94), 62% in the north (CI 95%: 37 - 86), and 59% in the center (CI 95%: 44 - 74).

Evidence Acquisition

A total of 31 articles published between 2000 and 2014 in Iranian and international databases (MagIran, IranMedex, SID, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Pre Quest, and Scopus) were examined. The data collected from the articles were analyzed through a meta-analysis using a random effects model. The heterogeneity of the articles was examined using the I2 index, and the analyses were performed with STATA software version 11.2.

Context

Violence against women, or domestic violence, is both a physical and mental health issue that is rampant in many societies. It undermines the personal health of those involved by inflicting physical, sexual, and psychological damage. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in Iranian society.

Conclusions

The results of the study showed a high prevalence of domestic violence in Iran, which requires the adoption of appropriate measures and the initiation of effective interventions by the legal authorities. These measures and interventions should aim to determine the causes of domestic violence and to develop ways of controlling and reducing this destructive phenomenon.

Results

Based on the 31 articles, which represent a sample size of 15,514 persons, we estimated the prevalence of domestic violence to be 66% (CI 95%: 55 - 77). The geographical classification showed that the prevalence of domestic violence was 70% (CI 95%: 57 - 84) in the east of the country, 70% in the south (CI 95%: 32 - 100), 75% in the west (CI 95%: 56 - 94), 62% in the north (CI 95%: 37 - 86), and 59% in the center (CI 95%: 44 - 74).

Evidence Acquisition

A total of 31 articles published between 2000 and 2014 in Iranian and international databases (MagIran, IranMedex, SID, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Pre Quest, and Scopus) were examined. The data collected from the articles were analyzed through a meta-analysis using a random effects model. The heterogeneity of the articles was examined using the I2 index, and the analyses were performed with STATA software version 11.2.

Context

Violence against women, or domestic violence, is both a physical and mental health issue that is rampant in many societies. It undermines the personal health of those involved by inflicting physical, sexual, and psychological damage. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in Iranian society.

Domestic Violence;Women;Meta-Analysis Domestic Violence;Women;Meta-Analysis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34971 Hamideh Hajnasiri Hamideh Hajnasiri Faculty Member of Nursing & Midwifery School, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Faculty Member of Nursing & Midwifery School, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Kourosh Sayehmiri Kourosh Sayehmiri Psychological Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran; Psychological Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +098-9183410782, Fax: +98-84132240404 Psychological Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran; Psychological Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +098-9183410782, Fax: +98-84132240404 Farnoosh Moafi Farnoosh Moafi Faculty Member of Nursing & Midwifery School, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Faculty Member of Nursing & Midwifery School, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mohammad Farajzadeh Mohammad Farajzadeh Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran
en 27621921 10.5812/ircmj.24675 Haplotype Analysis of Hemochromatosis Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Case Control Study Haplotype Analysis of Hemochromatosis Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Case Control Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Polymorphism in the hemochromatosis gene may confer some degree of risk for HCV infection, and individuals carrying the H and C alleles may be susceptible to this disease; however, a larger sample of HCV patients and healthy individuals may be necessary to further illustrate the role of these polymorphisms in HCV.

Patients and Methods

HFE gene polymorphisms were examined in a total of 69 HCV patients and 69 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Haplotype and diplotype analyses were performed using PHASE software.

Results

In a recessive analysis model of the His63Asp (H63D) locus (HH vs. HD + DD), the HH genotype was more common in patients compared to controls (adjusted P = 0.012; OR = 6.42 [95% CI: 1.51 - 27.33]). Also, in a recessive analysis model of the Cys282Tyr (C282Y) locus (CC vs. CY + YY), the CC genotype was more frequent in patients compared to controls (adjusted P = 0.03; OR = 5.06 [95% CI: 1.13 - 22.06]). In addition, there was a significant association between the HC haplotype and the HCDC diplotype and HCV infection.

Background

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with elevated serum iron markers. Polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis (HFE) genes are responsible for iron accumulation in most cases of hemochromatosis, and may play a role in HCV infection.

Objectives

We aimed to assess the prevalence of HFE gene polymorphisms in a group of Iranian HCV-infected patients, and to explore the association of these polymorphisms with HCV infection.

Conclusions

Polymorphism in the hemochromatosis gene may confer some degree of risk for HCV infection, and individuals carrying the H and C alleles may be susceptible to this disease; however, a larger sample of HCV patients and healthy individuals may be necessary to further illustrate the role of these polymorphisms in HCV.

Patients and Methods

HFE gene polymorphisms were examined in a total of 69 HCV patients and 69 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Haplotype and diplotype analyses were performed using PHASE software.

Results

In a recessive analysis model of the His63Asp (H63D) locus (HH vs. HD + DD), the HH genotype was more common in patients compared to controls (adjusted P = 0.012; OR = 6.42 [95% CI: 1.51 - 27.33]). Also, in a recessive analysis model of the Cys282Tyr (C282Y) locus (CC vs. CY + YY), the CC genotype was more frequent in patients compared to controls (adjusted P = 0.03; OR = 5.06 [95% CI: 1.13 - 22.06]). In addition, there was a significant association between the HC haplotype and the HCDC diplotype and HCV infection.

Background

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with elevated serum iron markers. Polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis (HFE) genes are responsible for iron accumulation in most cases of hemochromatosis, and may play a role in HCV infection.

Objectives

We aimed to assess the prevalence of HFE gene polymorphisms in a group of Iranian HCV-infected patients, and to explore the association of these polymorphisms with HCV infection.

Hepatitis C Virus;Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Polymorphisms;Prognosis Hepatitis C Virus;Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Polymorphisms;Prognosis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24675 Sina Gerayli Sina Gerayli Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7, Canada Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7, Canada Alireza Pasdar Alireza Pasdar Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Division of Applied Medicine, Medical School, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Division of Applied Medicine, Medical School, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK Mohammad Taghi Shakeri Mohammad Taghi Shakeri Department of Biostatistics, Public Health School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Public Health School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Samaneh Sepahi Samaneh Sepahi Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Seyed Mousalreza Hoseini Seyed Mousalreza Hoseini Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mitra Ahadi Mitra Ahadi Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Sina Rostami Sina Rostami Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran; The Influenza Centre, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran; The Influenza Centre, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway Zahra Meshkat Zahra Meshkat Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5138012453, Fax: +98-5138002960 Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5138012453, Fax: +98-5138002960
en 27621938 10.5812/ircmj.35805 Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in Hypertensive Patients Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in Hypertensive Patients research-article research-article Conclusions

Based on our findings, it is crucial to implement well-designed educational programs to improve hypertension self-care behaviors.

Background

An assessment of an individual’s hypertension self-care behavior may provide clinicians and practitioners with important information regarding how to better control hypertension.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors of hypertensive patients.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in a sample of 1836 patients of both genders who had been diagnosed with hypertension in urban and rural health centers in the Kohgiluyeh Boyerahmad Province in southern Iran. They were randomly selected and were invited to participate in the study. Self-care activities were measured using the H-hypertension self-care activity level effects.

Results

The mean age of the respondents was 63 (range: 30 - 92), and 36.1% reported adherence to the recommended levels of medication; 24.5% followed the physical activity level guidelines. Less than half (39.2%) met the criteria for practices related to weight management, and adherence to low-salt diet recommendations was also low (12.3%). Overall, 86.7% were nonsmokers, and 100% abstained from alcohol. The results of a logistic regression indicated that gender was significantly associated with adherence to physical activity (OR = 0.716) and non-smoking (OR = 1.503) recommendations; that is, women were more likely to take part in physical activity than men. There was also a significant association between age and adherence to both a low-salt diet (OR = 1.497) and medication (OR = 1.435).

Conclusions

Based on our findings, it is crucial to implement well-designed educational programs to improve hypertension self-care behaviors.

Background

An assessment of an individual’s hypertension self-care behavior may provide clinicians and practitioners with important information regarding how to better control hypertension.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors of hypertensive patients.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in a sample of 1836 patients of both genders who had been diagnosed with hypertension in urban and rural health centers in the Kohgiluyeh Boyerahmad Province in southern Iran. They were randomly selected and were invited to participate in the study. Self-care activities were measured using the H-hypertension self-care activity level effects.

Results

The mean age of the respondents was 63 (range: 30 - 92), and 36.1% reported adherence to the recommended levels of medication; 24.5% followed the physical activity level guidelines. Less than half (39.2%) met the criteria for practices related to weight management, and adherence to low-salt diet recommendations was also low (12.3%). Overall, 86.7% were nonsmokers, and 100% abstained from alcohol. The results of a logistic regression indicated that gender was significantly associated with adherence to physical activity (OR = 0.716) and non-smoking (OR = 1.503) recommendations; that is, women were more likely to take part in physical activity than men. There was also a significant association between age and adherence to both a low-salt diet (OR = 1.497) and medication (OR = 1.435).

Self-Care;Hypertension;Behavior;Patient Self-Care;Hypertension;Behavior;Patient http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35805 Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Reza Chaman Reza Chaman Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Erfan Sadeghi Erfan Sadeghi Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Ahmad Ali Eslami Ahmad Ali Eslami Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922710 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922710
en 27621916 10.5812/ircmj.24373 Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods research-article research-article Conclusions

Some results of the correlation coefficients are not the same with visualization. The reason may be due to the small number of data.

Materials and Methods

In the foundation-application study, we constructed two-way gene networks using nonparametric methods, such as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Blomqvist’s measure, and compared them with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We surveyed six genes of venous thrombosis disease, made a matrix entry representing the score for the corresponding gene pair, and obtained two-way interactions using Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Blomqvist’s coefficient. Finally, these methods were compared with Cytoscape, based on BIND, and Gene Ontology, based on molecular function visual methods; R software version 3.2 and Bioconductor were used to perform these methods.

Results

Based on the Pearson and Spearman correlations, the results were the same and were confirmed by Cytoscape and GO visual methods; however, Blomqvist’s coefficient was not confirmed by visual methods.

Background

Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in constructing a Gene Co-expression Network is to score all pairs of gene vectors. The second step is to select a score threshold and connect all gene pairs whose scores exceed this value.

Conclusions

Some results of the correlation coefficients are not the same with visualization. The reason may be due to the small number of data.

Materials and Methods

In the foundation-application study, we constructed two-way gene networks using nonparametric methods, such as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Blomqvist’s measure, and compared them with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We surveyed six genes of venous thrombosis disease, made a matrix entry representing the score for the corresponding gene pair, and obtained two-way interactions using Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Blomqvist’s coefficient. Finally, these methods were compared with Cytoscape, based on BIND, and Gene Ontology, based on molecular function visual methods; R software version 3.2 and Bioconductor were used to perform these methods.

Results

Based on the Pearson and Spearman correlations, the results were the same and were confirmed by Cytoscape and GO visual methods; however, Blomqvist’s coefficient was not confirmed by visual methods.

Background

Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in constructing a Gene Co-expression Network is to score all pairs of gene vectors. The second step is to select a score threshold and connect all gene pairs whose scores exceed this value.

Gene Expression;Gene Regulatory Networks;Gene Ontology;Molecular Structure;Nonparametric Gene Expression;Gene Regulatory Networks;Gene Ontology;Molecular Structure;Nonparametric http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24373 Hamid Alavi Majd Hamid Alavi Majd Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Atefeh Talebi Atefeh Talebi Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedial Sciences, Students’ Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedial Sciences, Students’ Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122707347, Fax: +98-2122721150 Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedial Sciences, Students’ Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedial Sciences, Students’ Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122707347, Fax: +98-2122721150 Kambiz Gilany Kambiz Gilany Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Nasibeh Khayyer Nasibeh Khayyer Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621923 10.5812/ircmj.25008 Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population research-article research-article Background

Physical activity is an important component of health in old age that provides personal independence, physical ability, and quality of life.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate physical activity and associated factors among the elderly population in Kashan, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was 400 elderly people (aged more than 60 years) living in Kashan, Iran in 2014. The subjects randomly selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from healthcare centers in three regions of Kashan. The sample size differed by gender and residence type. Each participant’s demographic characteristics and level of physical activity were recorded in a questionnaire, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Pearson correlations, and ordinal regression were used in the data analysis. The significance level for all the tests was P < 0.05.

Results

237 (59.2%) of the subjects were female. The average age of the study population was 67.6 ± 6.8 years. Their average physical activity energy consumption was 326.21 ± 364.84 according to the metabolic equivalent of hours per week. 20 subjects (5%) reported no physical activity. 320 (80%) and 59 (14.8%) subjects had low and moderate physical activity levels, respectively. Only 1 subject (0.2%) had extreme levels of physical activity. Men (n = 43, 26.4%) were more likely to be moderately or extremely physically active than women were (n = 17, 7.2%). There was a significant relationship between physical activity and sex (P < 0.0001), marital status (P < 0.0001), educational status (P < 0.002), current occupation (P < 0.0001), and personal independence (P < 0.00001). Of course, effective predictive variations included age (P = 0.034), gender (P = 0.001), marital status (P = 0.033), independent status (P = 0), and local environment (P =0.001).

Conclusions

The study revealed low physical activity in the elderly population in Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly.

Background

Physical activity is an important component of health in old age that provides personal independence, physical ability, and quality of life.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate physical activity and associated factors among the elderly population in Kashan, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was 400 elderly people (aged more than 60 years) living in Kashan, Iran in 2014. The subjects randomly selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from healthcare centers in three regions of Kashan. The sample size differed by gender and residence type. Each participant’s demographic characteristics and level of physical activity were recorded in a questionnaire, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Pearson correlations, and ordinal regression were used in the data analysis. The significance level for all the tests was P < 0.05.

Results

237 (59.2%) of the subjects were female. The average age of the study population was 67.6 ± 6.8 years. Their average physical activity energy consumption was 326.21 ± 364.84 according to the metabolic equivalent of hours per week. 20 subjects (5%) reported no physical activity. 320 (80%) and 59 (14.8%) subjects had low and moderate physical activity levels, respectively. Only 1 subject (0.2%) had extreme levels of physical activity. Men (n = 43, 26.4%) were more likely to be moderately or extremely physically active than women were (n = 17, 7.2%). There was a significant relationship between physical activity and sex (P < 0.0001), marital status (P < 0.0001), educational status (P < 0.002), current occupation (P < 0.0001), and personal independence (P < 0.00001). Of course, effective predictive variations included age (P = 0.034), gender (P = 0.001), marital status (P = 0.033), independent status (P = 0), and local environment (P =0.001).

Conclusions

The study revealed low physical activity in the elderly population in Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly.

Physical Activity;Aging;Lifestyle Physical Activity;Aging;Lifestyle http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25008 Ali Sadrollahi Ali Sadrollahi Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Masoumeh Hosseinian Masoumeh Hosseinian Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3615575058 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3615575058 Negin Masoudi Alavi Negin Masoudi Alavi Trauma Nursing Research Center, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Nursing Research Center, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Zahra Khalili Zahra Khalili Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Sophia Esalatmanesh Sophia Esalatmanesh Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621934 10.5812/ircmj.34314 Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff.

Results

A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress.

Background

In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases.

Objectives

Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki’s physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire).

Conclusions

According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff.

Results

A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress.

Background

In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases.

Objectives

Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki’s physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire).

Job Stress;Path Analysis;General Health;Physical Activity;Personality Type;Job Satisfaction;Depression Job Stress;Path Analysis;General Health;Physical Activity;Personality Type;Job Satisfaction;Depression http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34314 Esfandiar Azad-Marzabadi Esfandiar Azad-Marzabadi Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883578, Fax: +98-2182883578 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883578, Fax: +98-2182883578 Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621914 10.5812/ircmj.23992 Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia <italic>Campylobacter jejuni</italic> Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia case-report case-report Introduction

Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni.

Conclusions

C. jejuni should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients. In cases where the BACTEC result is positive in aerobic conditions but the organism cannot be isolated, an anaerobic culture medium is suggested, especially in immunocompromised patients.

Case Presentation

We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin.

Introduction

Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni.

Conclusions

C. jejuni should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients. In cases where the BACTEC result is positive in aerobic conditions but the organism cannot be isolated, an anaerobic culture medium is suggested, especially in immunocompromised patients.

Case Presentation

We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL);Bacteremia;Campylobacter jejuni Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL);Bacteremia;Campylobacter jejuni http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23992 Mojtaba Anvarinejad Mojtaba Anvarinejad Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Maneli Amin Shahidi Maneli Amin Shahidi Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Gholam Reza Pouladfar Gholam Reza Pouladfar Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Dehyadegari Mohammad Ali Dehyadegari Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Jalal Mardaneh Jalal Mardaneh Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5157220578 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5157220578
en 27621928 10.5812/ircmj.26523 The Relationship Between Depression and Metabolic Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study The Relationship Between Depression and Metabolic Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study review-article review-article Conclusions

There is a relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome.

Results

Seventeen studies were analyzed with a sample size of 31880 people. Analysis by the type of studies showed that the relationship between the two variables in cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.51, CI 95% = 1.36 - 1.68) and cohort studies (OR = 1.6, CI 95% = 1.23 - 2.08) was significant. In general, the heterogeneity test results among the studies was not significant (P for heterogeneity = 0.08, I2 = 39.8%).

Context

Several studies have been conducted on the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome, which have had conflicting results. The purpose of this study was a meta-analysis of studies that have examined the relationship between these two variables.

Evidence Acquisition

This meta-analysis systematically reviewed the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome. Scientific databases including IranMedex, SID, Magiran, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched and 17 articles were extracted from 2000 to 2014. Selected studies data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects model. Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I2. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 12.1.

Conclusions

There is a relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome.

Results

Seventeen studies were analyzed with a sample size of 31880 people. Analysis by the type of studies showed that the relationship between the two variables in cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.51, CI 95% = 1.36 - 1.68) and cohort studies (OR = 1.6, CI 95% = 1.23 - 2.08) was significant. In general, the heterogeneity test results among the studies was not significant (P for heterogeneity = 0.08, I2 = 39.8%).

Context

Several studies have been conducted on the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome, which have had conflicting results. The purpose of this study was a meta-analysis of studies that have examined the relationship between these two variables.

Evidence Acquisition

This meta-analysis systematically reviewed the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome. Scientific databases including IranMedex, SID, Magiran, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched and 17 articles were extracted from 2000 to 2014. Selected studies data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects model. Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I2. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 12.1.

Meta-Analysis;Depression;Metabolic Syndrome Meta-Analysis;Depression;Metabolic Syndrome http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26523 Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh MSc in Nursing, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran MSc in Nursing, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Naser Parizad Naser Parizad Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Kourosh Sayehmiri Kourosh Sayehmiri Department of Biostatistics, Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran; Department of Biostatistics, Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9183410782, Fax: +98-84132240404 Department of Biostatistics, Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran; Department of Biostatistics, Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9183410782, Fax: +98-84132240404
en 27621927 10.5812/ircmj.25760 Food Reduction in Avicenna’s View and Related Principles in Classical Medicine Food Reduction in Avicenna’s View and Related Principles in Classical Medicine review-article review-article Context

Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) is a rich and valuable school of thought that believes medications are not the only effective approach for the treatment of diseases but that nutrition is also important.

Evidence Acquisition

Our study includes two parts; the first is a book review of the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (10th and 11th centuries), in which we focus on finding and understanding Avicenna’s point of view. In the second part, we searched for “food reduction” as a key word from 2000 to 2015 in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, and the Iranian search database Iranmedex for principles of food reduction in classical medicine.

Conclusions

Today, a variety of basic and clinical research has shown that food reduction or calorie restriction to a standard level can effectively prevent and treat a variety of diseases such as neoplasms, diabetes, and kidney disease. Practical principles explained by traditional Iranian medicine, in particular Avicenna, could open important and quite uncomplicated strategies for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

Results

The main methods of treatment in traditional medicine include changes in lifestyle, especially diet, the use of medications, and the use of manipulation methods. For diet, the individual may be prohibited from eating or food amounts may be decreased or increased. Centuries ago, Avicenna was making use of methods of food reduction as an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of diseases. According to him, food reduction, to the extent that it does not cause energy loss helps to cure disease. Avicenna has proposed food reduction as an aid to treating a variety of ailments such as headaches and reflux.

Context

Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) is a rich and valuable school of thought that believes medications are not the only effective approach for the treatment of diseases but that nutrition is also important.

Evidence Acquisition

Our study includes two parts; the first is a book review of the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (10th and 11th centuries), in which we focus on finding and understanding Avicenna’s point of view. In the second part, we searched for “food reduction” as a key word from 2000 to 2015 in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, and the Iranian search database Iranmedex for principles of food reduction in classical medicine.

Conclusions

Today, a variety of basic and clinical research has shown that food reduction or calorie restriction to a standard level can effectively prevent and treat a variety of diseases such as neoplasms, diabetes, and kidney disease. Practical principles explained by traditional Iranian medicine, in particular Avicenna, could open important and quite uncomplicated strategies for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

Results

The main methods of treatment in traditional medicine include changes in lifestyle, especially diet, the use of medications, and the use of manipulation methods. For diet, the individual may be prohibited from eating or food amounts may be decreased or increased. Centuries ago, Avicenna was making use of methods of food reduction as an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of diseases. According to him, food reduction, to the extent that it does not cause energy loss helps to cure disease. Avicenna has proposed food reduction as an aid to treating a variety of ailments such as headaches and reflux.

Avicenna;Traditional;Medicine;Iran Avicenna;Traditional;Medicine;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25760 Aisan Nozad Aisan Nozad Traditional Iranian Medicine Department, Medicine Faculty, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Traditional Iranian Medicine Department, Medicine Faculty, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Naseri Mohsen Naseri Clinical Trial Research Center for Traditional Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Clinical Trial Research Center for Traditional Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Mir Bahram Safari Mir Bahram Safari Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Azam Abd Al Ahadi Azam Abd Al Ahadi School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farzaneh Ghaffari Farzaneh Ghaffari School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Traditional Medicine & School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143418085, Fax: +98-2166464321 School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Traditional Medicine & School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143418085, Fax: +98-2166464321
en 27621924 10.5812/ircmj.25588 Effects of Acellular Amniotic Membrane Matrix and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Improving Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats Effects of Acellular Amniotic Membrane Matrix and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Improving Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

Our findings showed that the treatment of flaps with BM-MSC and AAM transplantations significantly promoted flap survival compared to a control group. The viability of the flap was improved by combining BM-MSCs with AAM matrix scaffolds.

Materials and Methods

BM-MSCs and AAMs were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue in the flap area. On the 7th postoperative day, the surviving flap areas were measured using digital imaging software, and the flap tissue was collected for evaluation. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: group 1 received an AAM injection; group 2 underwent BM-MSC transplantation; group 3 received both AAM injection + BM-MSC transplantation; and group 4 was the control group, receiving only saline.

Results

The survival area in the AAM/BM-MSC group was significantly higher than in the control group (18.49 ± 1.58 versus 7.51 ± 2.42, P < 0.05). The biomechanical assessment showed no significant differences between the experimental groups and the control group (P > 0.05), and there was no correlation with flap survival.

Background

The necrotic skin flap represents a great challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bioscaffolds, acellular amniotic membranes (AAMs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on random skin flap (RSF) survival in rats by applying a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold as a supportive component for the growth and proliferation of BM-MSCs on RSFs. AAM matrix scaffolds were created by incubating AMs in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 0.05% at 37°C, and cell scrapers were used.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of AAM as a scaffold in TE, and combined with transplanted BM-MSCs, on the survival of RSFs and on the biomechanical parameters of the incision-wound flap margins 7 days after flap elevation.

Conclusions

Our findings showed that the treatment of flaps with BM-MSC and AAM transplantations significantly promoted flap survival compared to a control group. The viability of the flap was improved by combining BM-MSCs with AAM matrix scaffolds.

Materials and Methods

BM-MSCs and AAMs were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue in the flap area. On the 7th postoperative day, the surviving flap areas were measured using digital imaging software, and the flap tissue was collected for evaluation. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: group 1 received an AAM injection; group 2 underwent BM-MSC transplantation; group 3 received both AAM injection + BM-MSC transplantation; and group 4 was the control group, receiving only saline.

Results

The survival area in the AAM/BM-MSC group was significantly higher than in the control group (18.49 ± 1.58 versus 7.51 ± 2.42, P < 0.05). The biomechanical assessment showed no significant differences between the experimental groups and the control group (P > 0.05), and there was no correlation with flap survival.

Background

The necrotic skin flap represents a great challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bioscaffolds, acellular amniotic membranes (AAMs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on random skin flap (RSF) survival in rats by applying a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold as a supportive component for the growth and proliferation of BM-MSCs on RSFs. AAM matrix scaffolds were created by incubating AMs in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 0.05% at 37°C, and cell scrapers were used.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of AAM as a scaffold in TE, and combined with transplanted BM-MSCs, on the survival of RSFs and on the biomechanical parameters of the incision-wound flap margins 7 days after flap elevation.

Amnion;Surgical Flaps;Mesenchymal Stromal Cells;Bone Marrow;Rats Amnion;Surgical Flaps;Mesenchymal Stromal Cells;Bone Marrow;Rats http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25588 Farzaneh Chehelcheraghi Farzaneh Chehelcheraghi Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2126127236 Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2126127236 Hossein Eimani Hossein Eimani Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Seyed Homayoonsadraie Seyed Homayoonsadraie Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Giti Torkaman Giti Torkaman Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Abdollah Amini Abdollah Amini Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hamid Alavi Majd Hamid Alavi Majd Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hashem Shemshadi Hashem Shemshadi Department of Speech Therapy, University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Speech Therapy, University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621922 10.5812/ircmj.24847 The Effect of Empathy Training on the Empathic Skills of Nurses The Effect of Empathy Training on the Empathic Skills of Nurses research-article research-article Conclusions

In the light of these findings, it is recommended that communication skills should be widely included in in-service training programs; similar studies should be conducted on broader control groups formed through randomization; and a comparison should be made between the findings.

Patients and Methods

This study was conducted as an experimental design. The research sample consisted of 48 nurses working at the pediatric clinics of Farabi hospital of Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey (N = 83). Two groups, an experimental group (group 1) and a control group (group 2) were determined after questionnaires were supplied to all nurses in the study sample. At first, it was intended to select these groups using a random method. However, since this may have meant that the experimental and control groups were formed from nurses working in the same service, the two groups were selected from different services to avoid possible interaction between them. The nurses in the Group 1 were provided with empathy training through group and creative drama techniques. Pre-tests and post-tests were conducted on both groups. Data was collected via a questionnaire designed around the topic “empathic skill scale-ESS”, developed by Dokmen. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was employed to assess whether the measurable data was suitable for normal distribution. Data was presented as numbers and percentage distributions, as mean ± standard deviation and Chi-square, and as student t tests and paired t tests. The level of significance was accepted as P < 0.05.

Background

The profound impact of empathy training on quality nursing care has been recognized. Studies have shown that there has been little improvement in nurses’ communication skills, and that they should work to enhance this area. Relevant training will lead to an improvement in nurses’ empathic skills, which in turn, will enable them to understand their patients better, establish positive interpersonal relationships with them, and boost their professional satisfaction.

Results

The nurses in the experimental group had a mean score of 146.7 ± 38.8 and 169.5 ± 22.1 in the ESS pre-test and post-test, respectively. Although the nurses in the control group had a pre-test mean score of 133.7 ± 37.1, which increased to 135.1 ± 51.7 after the training, no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.886). A comparison of the groups indicated that they scored similarly in the pre-test. However, the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group in the post-test (P = 0.270 and P = 0.015, respectively).

Objectives

To reveal the effect of empathy training on the empathic skills of nurses.

Conclusions

In the light of these findings, it is recommended that communication skills should be widely included in in-service training programs; similar studies should be conducted on broader control groups formed through randomization; and a comparison should be made between the findings.

Patients and Methods

This study was conducted as an experimental design. The research sample consisted of 48 nurses working at the pediatric clinics of Farabi hospital of Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey (N = 83). Two groups, an experimental group (group 1) and a control group (group 2) were determined after questionnaires were supplied to all nurses in the study sample. At first, it was intended to select these groups using a random method. However, since this may have meant that the experimental and control groups were formed from nurses working in the same service, the two groups were selected from different services to avoid possible interaction between them. The nurses in the Group 1 were provided with empathy training through group and creative drama techniques. Pre-tests and post-tests were conducted on both groups. Data was collected via a questionnaire designed around the topic “empathic skill scale-ESS”, developed by Dokmen. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was employed to assess whether the measurable data was suitable for normal distribution. Data was presented as numbers and percentage distributions, as mean ± standard deviation and Chi-square, and as student t tests and paired t tests. The level of significance was accepted as P < 0.05.

Background

The profound impact of empathy training on quality nursing care has been recognized. Studies have shown that there has been little improvement in nurses’ communication skills, and that they should work to enhance this area. Relevant training will lead to an improvement in nurses’ empathic skills, which in turn, will enable them to understand their patients better, establish positive interpersonal relationships with them, and boost their professional satisfaction.

Results

The nurses in the experimental group had a mean score of 146.7 ± 38.8 and 169.5 ± 22.1 in the ESS pre-test and post-test, respectively. Although the nurses in the control group had a pre-test mean score of 133.7 ± 37.1, which increased to 135.1 ± 51.7 after the training, no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.886). A comparison of the groups indicated that they scored similarly in the pre-test. However, the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group in the post-test (P = 0.270 and P = 0.015, respectively).

Objectives

To reveal the effect of empathy training on the empathic skills of nurses.

Empathy;Nursing Care;Communication;Interpersonal Skills Empathy;Nursing Care;Communication;Interpersonal Skills http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24847 Ilknur Kahriman Ilknur Kahriman Faculty of Health Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey; Faculty of Health Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Eczacilik Fakulte Binasi, Universite Binasi, Farabi Cad 61080 Trabzon, Turkey. Tel: +90-4622300476, Fax: +90-4622300475 Faculty of Health Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey; Faculty of Health Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Eczacilik Fakulte Binasi, Universite Binasi, Farabi Cad 61080 Trabzon, Turkey. Tel: +90-4622300476, Fax: +90-4622300475 Nesrin Nural Nesrin Nural Faculty of Health Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Faculty of Health Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Umit Arslan Umit Arslan Pre-School Education Division, Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Pre-School Education Division, Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Murat Topbas Murat Topbas Department of Public Health, Farabi Hospital, Medicine Faculty, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Farabi Hospital, Medicine Faculty, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Gamze Can Gamze Can Department of Public Health, Farabi Hospital, Medicine Faculty, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Department of Public Health, Farabi Hospital, Medicine Faculty, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey Suheyla Kasim Suheyla Kasim The Top Management of Nursing, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey The Top Management of Nursing, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
en 27621937 10.5812/ircmj.35387 A Case-Control Study of the Relationship Between SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA Gene Cluster Polymorphism and Coronary Artery Disease in the Han Chinese Population A Case-Control Study of the Relationship Between <italic>SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA</italic> Gene Cluster Polymorphism and Coronary Artery Disease in the Han Chinese Population research-article research-article Conclusions

Rs9364559 in the LPA gene may contribute to the risk of CAD in the Han Chinese population; haplotypes which contain rs9346816-G were all associated with an increased risk of CAD in this study.

Background

Mutations in the solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3), lipoprotein (a)-like 2 (LPAL2), and the lipoprotein (a) (LPA) gene cluster, which encodes apolipoprotein (a) [apo (a)] of the lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] lipoprotein particle, have been suggested to contribute to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the precise variants of this gene cluster have not yet been identified in Chinese populations.

Results

The frequency of the minor allele G (34.8%) in rs9364559 was significantly higher in the CAD patients than in the healthy controls (29.4%) (P = 0.006). There was genotypic association between rs9364559 and CAD (P = 0.022), and these results still remained significant after adjustment for the conventional CAD risk factors through forward logistic regression analysis (P = 0.020, P = 0.019). Haplotype analyses from different blocks indicated that 11 haplotypes were associated with the risk of CAD. Seven haplotypes were associated with a reduced risk of CAD, whereas four haplotypes were associated with an increased risk of CAD.

Objectives

We sought to investigate the association between SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster polymorphisms and the risk of CAD in the Han Chinese population.

Patients and Methods

We recruited 551 CAD patients and 544 healthy controls for this case-control study. Four SNPs (rs9346816, rs2221750, rs3127596, and rs9364559) were genotyped in real time using the MassARRAY system (Sequenom; USA) in the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster. All subjects were Chinese and of Han descent, and were recruited from the First Hospital of Jilin University based on convenience sampling from June 2009 to September 2012.

Conclusions

Rs9364559 in the LPA gene may contribute to the risk of CAD in the Han Chinese population; haplotypes which contain rs9346816-G were all associated with an increased risk of CAD in this study.

Background

Mutations in the solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3), lipoprotein (a)-like 2 (LPAL2), and the lipoprotein (a) (LPA) gene cluster, which encodes apolipoprotein (a) [apo (a)] of the lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] lipoprotein particle, have been suggested to contribute to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the precise variants of this gene cluster have not yet been identified in Chinese populations.

Results

The frequency of the minor allele G (34.8%) in rs9364559 was significantly higher in the CAD patients than in the healthy controls (29.4%) (P = 0.006). There was genotypic association between rs9364559 and CAD (P = 0.022), and these results still remained significant after adjustment for the conventional CAD risk factors through forward logistic regression analysis (P = 0.020, P = 0.019). Haplotype analyses from different blocks indicated that 11 haplotypes were associated with the risk of CAD. Seven haplotypes were associated with a reduced risk of CAD, whereas four haplotypes were associated with an increased risk of CAD.

Objectives

We sought to investigate the association between SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster polymorphisms and the risk of CAD in the Han Chinese population.

Patients and Methods

We recruited 551 CAD patients and 544 healthy controls for this case-control study. Four SNPs (rs9346816, rs2221750, rs3127596, and rs9364559) were genotyped in real time using the MassARRAY system (Sequenom; USA) in the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster. All subjects were Chinese and of Han descent, and were recruited from the First Hospital of Jilin University based on convenience sampling from June 2009 to September 2012.

Coronary Artery Disease;Lipoprotein (a);Polymorphism;Genetic Association Studies Coronary Artery Disease;Lipoprotein (a);Polymorphism;Genetic Association Studies http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35387 Zi-Kai Song Zi-Kai Song Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Hong-Yan Cao Hong-Yan Cao Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Hai-Di Wu Hai-Di Wu Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Li-Ting Zhou Li-Ting Zhou Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, China Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, China Ling Qin Ling Qin Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China; Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Tel: +86-15843073203; Fax: +86-043184841049 Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China; Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Tel: +86-15843073203; Fax: +86-043184841049
en 27621939 10.5812/ircmj.37331 Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application research-article research-article Conclusions

Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to the magnitude of lipid peroxidation than protein oxidation.

Results

Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics.

Background

One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet.

Objectives

The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology.

Materials and Methods

This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically.

Conclusions

Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to the magnitude of lipid peroxidation than protein oxidation.

Results

Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics.

Background

One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet.

Objectives

The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology.

Materials and Methods

This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically.

Contrast Media;Lipid Peroxidation;Nephropathy;Oxidative Stress;Oxidation Protein Contrast Media;Lipid Peroxidation;Nephropathy;Oxidative Stress;Oxidation Protein http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37331 Gungor Sitar Gungor Sitar Okmeydani Research and Educational Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Okmeydani Research and Educational Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Mehmet Kucuk Mehmet Kucuk Okmeydani Research and Educational Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Nephrology, Okmeydani Research and Educational Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Okmeydani Research and Educational Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Nephrology, Okmeydani Research and Educational Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Mustafa Erinc Sitar Mustafa Erinc Sitar Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur Yasar Ozgur Yasar Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Seval Aydin Seval Aydin Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Karolin Yanar Karolin Yanar Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Ufuk Cakatay Ufuk Cakatay Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Nur Buyukpınarbasili Nur Buyukpınarbasili Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey
en 27621933 10.5812/ircmj.28271 Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin, and Characterization of the Elicited Anti-Flagellin Antibody Cloning, Expression, and Purification of <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> Flagellin, and Characterization of the Elicited Anti-Flagellin Antibody research-article research-article Conclusions

The r-B-flagellin carried antigenic epitopes just like the native flagellin, while the polyclonal antibody raised against it exhibited functional activity.

Results

The polyclonal antibodies raised against this r-B-flagellin inhibited the motility of the homologous PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, which significantly decreased the invasion of the PAO1 strain into the A549 cells and also enhanced the opsonophagocytosis of this strain. However, our polyclonal antibody showed little effect on the heterologous PAK strain.

Materials and Methods

In the current experimental study, the r-B-flagellin gene was isolated from the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain by PCR. It was cloned into the pET-28a vector and then transformed into the E. coli BL21 strain. Next, r-B-flagellin was overexpressed and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose-affinity chromatography, followed by on-column resolubilization. Polyclonal antisera against the recombinant flagellin were raised in rabbits, and the functional activity of the anti-r-B-flagellin antibody was determined by in vitro assays.

Background

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. The single polar flagellum is an important factor in both virulence and colonization.

Objectives

As flagellin is the major component of the flagellar filament, the main aims of the present study are to identify, clone, express, and purify the recombinant type B flagellin (r-B-flagellin) of P. aeruginosa, as well as to evaluate the functional activity of the rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against this r-B-flagellin.

Conclusions

The r-B-flagellin carried antigenic epitopes just like the native flagellin, while the polyclonal antibody raised against it exhibited functional activity.

Results

The polyclonal antibodies raised against this r-B-flagellin inhibited the motility of the homologous PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, which significantly decreased the invasion of the PAO1 strain into the A549 cells and also enhanced the opsonophagocytosis of this strain. However, our polyclonal antibody showed little effect on the heterologous PAK strain.

Materials and Methods

In the current experimental study, the r-B-flagellin gene was isolated from the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain by PCR. It was cloned into the pET-28a vector and then transformed into the E. coli BL21 strain. Next, r-B-flagellin was overexpressed and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose-affinity chromatography, followed by on-column resolubilization. Polyclonal antisera against the recombinant flagellin were raised in rabbits, and the functional activity of the anti-r-B-flagellin antibody was determined by in vitro assays.

Background

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. The single polar flagellum is an important factor in both virulence and colonization.

Objectives

As flagellin is the major component of the flagellar filament, the main aims of the present study are to identify, clone, express, and purify the recombinant type B flagellin (r-B-flagellin) of P. aeruginosa, as well as to evaluate the functional activity of the rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against this r-B-flagellin.

Polyclonal Antibody;Recombinant Flagellin;Pseudomonas aeruginosa Polyclonal Antibody;Recombinant Flagellin;Pseudomonas aeruginosa http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28271 Bahador Behrouz Bahador Behrouz Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nour Amirmozafari Nour Amirmozafari Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188058649 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188058649 Nima Khoramabadi Nima Khoramabadi Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Mahboobeh Bahroudi Mahboobeh Bahroudi Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Parisa Legaee Parisa Legaee Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Mahdavi Mehdi Mahdavi Department of Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran
en 27621940 10.5812/ircmj.38903 Generalized Ligamentous Laxity: An Important Predisposing Factor for Shoulder Injuries in Athletes Generalized Ligamentous Laxity: An Important Predisposing Factor for Shoulder Injuries in Athletes brief-report brief-report Conclusions

Generalized ligamentous laxity is an important predisposing factor for acute and chronic shoulder injuries in athletes. Prescreening programs for beginners and rehabilitation shoulder programs for sports athletes at high risk are strongly recommended.

Results

Group A (with ligamentous laxity) consisted of 43 participants (36.4%) and group B (without ligamentous laxity) consisted of 75 participants (63.6%). The athletes in group A had more shoulder pain (P = 0.016), chronic shoulder injuries (P = 0.032), and shoulder instability (P = 0.004), and less functionality (P = 0.030) than those in group B. If fracture were not considered an acute injury in both groups, the athletes with generalized ligamentous laxity would have had more acute shoulder injuries.

Background

Generalized ligamentous laxity is defined as an increased range of joint motion compared to that of the general population. It is a predisposing factor for sports injuries, especially in the lower extremities. Nevertheless, there is little evidence about the relationship between generalized ligamentous laxity and sports injuries in the upper extremities.

Objectives

To evaluate the relationship of generalized ligamentous laxity with acute and chronic shoulder injuries in athletes.

Patients and Methods

Our study comprised 118 volunteer athletes with a history of at least six months of sports activities and a shoulder injury in the three years prior to participation in our study. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with or without generalized ligamentous laxity. Acute and chronic shoulder injuries, shoulder pain, shoulder instability, and functional status assessed via the QuickDASH measure were determined and compared between the two groups. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Conclusions

Generalized ligamentous laxity is an important predisposing factor for acute and chronic shoulder injuries in athletes. Prescreening programs for beginners and rehabilitation shoulder programs for sports athletes at high risk are strongly recommended.

Results

Group A (with ligamentous laxity) consisted of 43 participants (36.4%) and group B (without ligamentous laxity) consisted of 75 participants (63.6%). The athletes in group A had more shoulder pain (P = 0.016), chronic shoulder injuries (P = 0.032), and shoulder instability (P = 0.004), and less functionality (P = 0.030) than those in group B. If fracture were not considered an acute injury in both groups, the athletes with generalized ligamentous laxity would have had more acute shoulder injuries.

Background

Generalized ligamentous laxity is defined as an increased range of joint motion compared to that of the general population. It is a predisposing factor for sports injuries, especially in the lower extremities. Nevertheless, there is little evidence about the relationship between generalized ligamentous laxity and sports injuries in the upper extremities.

Objectives

To evaluate the relationship of generalized ligamentous laxity with acute and chronic shoulder injuries in athletes.

Patients and Methods

Our study comprised 118 volunteer athletes with a history of at least six months of sports activities and a shoulder injury in the three years prior to participation in our study. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with or without generalized ligamentous laxity. Acute and chronic shoulder injuries, shoulder pain, shoulder instability, and functional status assessed via the QuickDASH measure were determined and compared between the two groups. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Ligamentous Laxity;Shoulder;Athletic Injuries Ligamentous Laxity;Shoulder;Athletic Injuries http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38903 Hossein Saremi Hossein Saremi Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Alireza Yavarikia Alireza Yavarikia Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138218541; +98-9183136215, Fax: +98-8112561515 Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138218541; +98-9183136215, Fax: +98-8112561515 Nasibeh Jafari Nasibeh Jafari Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Pathology, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd Branch, Borujerd, IR Iran Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Pathology, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd Branch, Borujerd, IR Iran