Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 5 29 gregorian 2017 5 29 17 2
en 25838939 10.5812/ircmj.25269 Lifestyle of the Employees Working in Hamadan Public Sectors: Application of the Trans-Theoretical Model Lifestyle of the Employees Working in Hamadan Public Sectors: Application of the Trans-Theoretical Model research-article research-article Conclusions

Planning health education interventions for employees through effective approaches seems necessary.

Background

A healthy lifestyle is a valuable source to reduce the prevalence of health problems, and promoteehealth.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the lifestyle and obesity status of Hamadan public employees and their status based on the trans-theoretical model (TTM).

Patients and Methods

This analytical cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 on 1200 public employees in Hamadan city, Iran selected through proportional stratified random sampling. Data collection was performed using a three-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, The FANTASTIC lifestyle questionnaire, and the five-part algorithm. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 using linear regression, Chi-square, Fisher exact test, and ANOVA.

Results

The mean age of the employees was 38.12 ± 8.04 years. Most of the employees (61.7%) had favorable lifestyle. About half of the employees were at the preparation stage of TTM. Most of the employees were in a poor condition regarding the physical activity and healthy eating habits. In most of the evaluated items, females got higher scores than males. The associations between lifestyle and age, gender, work experience, income satisfaction, and marital status were significant. Moreover, the associations between obesity and work experience, marital status, number of offspring, and gender were significant (P < 0. 05). Significant predicting variables of obesity were age and work experience; they explained 31.2% variance of obesity (adjusted R2 = 0.312, R2 change = 0.01).

Conclusions

Planning health education interventions for employees through effective approaches seems necessary.

Background

A healthy lifestyle is a valuable source to reduce the prevalence of health problems, and promoteehealth.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the lifestyle and obesity status of Hamadan public employees and their status based on the trans-theoretical model (TTM).

Patients and Methods

This analytical cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 on 1200 public employees in Hamadan city, Iran selected through proportional stratified random sampling. Data collection was performed using a three-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, The FANTASTIC lifestyle questionnaire, and the five-part algorithm. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 using linear regression, Chi-square, Fisher exact test, and ANOVA.

Results

The mean age of the employees was 38.12 ± 8.04 years. Most of the employees (61.7%) had favorable lifestyle. About half of the employees were at the preparation stage of TTM. Most of the employees were in a poor condition regarding the physical activity and healthy eating habits. In most of the evaluated items, females got higher scores than males. The associations between lifestyle and age, gender, work experience, income satisfaction, and marital status were significant. Moreover, the associations between obesity and work experience, marital status, number of offspring, and gender were significant (P < 0. 05). Significant predicting variables of obesity were age and work experience; they explained 31.2% variance of obesity (adjusted R2 = 0.312, R2 change = 0.01).

Models, Theoretical;Life Style;Obesity;Physical Activity Models, Theoretical;Life Style;Obesity;Physical Activity http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25269 Jalal Abdi Jalal Abdi Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hassan Eftekhar Hassan Eftekhar Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188955888, Fax: +98-2188989129 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188955888, Fax: +98-2188989129 Mahmood Mahmoodi Mahmood Mahmoodi Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Davod Shojaeizade Davod Shojaeizade Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Roya Sadeghi Roya Sadeghi Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25793120 10.5812/ircmj.25074 Psychometric Properties of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale Among HIV-Infected Iranian Patients Psychometric Properties of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale Among HIV-Infected Iranian Patients research-article research-article Background

Self-efficacy is an important predicator of coping with stress.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale among HIV-infected Iranian patients.

Patients and Methods

Psychometric properties of the CSE scale were examined by using a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and twenty HIV-infected Iranian patients that had been referred to the Counseling of Behavioral Diseases Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2014 were selected through simple random sampling method. To determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n = 20) reviewed items of CSE scale. Reliability was estimated through the internal consistency (n = 30) and the conformity factor analysis was performed.

Results

Iranian version of the CSE scale contained 16 items, including 7 items on the “use of problem-focused coping” method, 5 items on “stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts”, and 4 items on “getting support from friends and family”. CVI and CVR scores were 0.79, 0.42 and more, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, 0.64 to 0.84) of 3 subscales were acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that comparative indices of the model, including CFI, IFI, GFI, RMSEA, and Chi-square (χ2/df) were 0.96, 0.95, 0.84, 0.83, and 1.82, respectively, which indicated a good fit for the data.

Conclusions

The Iranian version of the CSE scale is a valid instrument to measure the coping self-efficacy among people living with HIV in research and community settings in Iran.

Background

Self-efficacy is an important predicator of coping with stress.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale among HIV-infected Iranian patients.

Patients and Methods

Psychometric properties of the CSE scale were examined by using a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and twenty HIV-infected Iranian patients that had been referred to the Counseling of Behavioral Diseases Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2014 were selected through simple random sampling method. To determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n = 20) reviewed items of CSE scale. Reliability was estimated through the internal consistency (n = 30) and the conformity factor analysis was performed.

Results

Iranian version of the CSE scale contained 16 items, including 7 items on the “use of problem-focused coping” method, 5 items on “stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts”, and 4 items on “getting support from friends and family”. CVI and CVR scores were 0.79, 0.42 and more, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, 0.64 to 0.84) of 3 subscales were acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that comparative indices of the model, including CFI, IFI, GFI, RMSEA, and Chi-square (χ2/df) were 0.96, 0.95, 0.84, 0.83, and 1.82, respectively, which indicated a good fit for the data.

Conclusions

The Iranian version of the CSE scale is a valid instrument to measure the coping self-efficacy among people living with HIV in research and community settings in Iran.

Self-efficacy;HIV;Psychometric;Iran Self-efficacy;HIV;Psychometric;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25074 Maryam Mahmoudi Maryam Mahmoudi Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Davoud Shojaezadeh Davoud Shojaezadeh Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188989128, Fax: +98-2188989129 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188989128, Fax: +98-2188989129 Tahereh Dehdari Tahereh Dehdari Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ebrahim Hajizadeh Ebrahim Hajizadeh Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Hossein Taghdisi Mohammad Hossein Taghdisi Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Council Member of Center for Community Based Participatory Research Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Council Member of Center for Community Based Participatory Research Tehran, IR Iran Ladan Abbasian Ladan Abbasian Iranian Research Center of HIV/ AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High- Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Iranian Research Center of HIV/ AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High- Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdiyeh Roohi Mahdiyeh Roohi Department of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, IR Iran Department of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, IR Iran
en 25793119 10.5812/ircmj.24666 Demographic and Clinical Differences of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Suicide Attempts in The Emergency Department in the Eastern Region of Turkey Demographic and Clinical Differences of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Suicide Attempts in The Emergency Department in the Eastern Region of Turkey research-article research-article Background

Worldwide, suicide ranks among the three leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 years. An estimated 800000 people die by committing suicide annually.

Objectives

To better understand the association between aggressive suicidal attempt and non-aggressive suicidal attempt in patients with suicide attempt in the emergency department.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on suicide attempters of eastern region of Turkey between May 2008 and January 2012. Information of all adult suicide attempts was collected prospectively on a form. Suicide attempts were grouped as aggressive and non-aggressive attempts on a specially designed data-collection form. The aggressive suicide attempts contained violent suicide methods such as firearm, hanging, jumping, car exhaust or drowning.

Results

A total of 533 patients were included. Sixty-four of these patients admitted to ED with aggressive suicide attempt (12%). Non-aggressive suicide attempts were consulted to psychiatry more compared to aggressive ones (%73.6, n = 345 vs. %32.8, n = 21, P < 0.0001). Agitation in ED and being male increased aggressive suicide attempt risk by 3.5 (%95 CI: 1.6-7.6) and 3.2 times (%95 CI: 1.8-5.5), agitated patients in ED group and male group respectively. Patients with aggressive suicide attempt were statistically more frequent among these patients; patients with agitation, those hospitalized in intensive care or surgical services and those whose length of stay in the emergency department was less than one day (P < 0.05 for all). Patients with non-aggressive suicide attempt were statistically more frequent in these patients; patients complained of nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fatigue, those with confusion, those tending to sleep, those hospitalized in internal services or emergency ward and finally those whose length of stay in the emergency department was more than one day (P < 0.05 for all).

Conclusions

Patients with aggressive suicide attempt who have high risk of dying should be recognized and requested psychiatric consultation even if not in the emergency department.

Background

Worldwide, suicide ranks among the three leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 years. An estimated 800000 people die by committing suicide annually.

Objectives

To better understand the association between aggressive suicidal attempt and non-aggressive suicidal attempt in patients with suicide attempt in the emergency department.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on suicide attempters of eastern region of Turkey between May 2008 and January 2012. Information of all adult suicide attempts was collected prospectively on a form. Suicide attempts were grouped as aggressive and non-aggressive attempts on a specially designed data-collection form. The aggressive suicide attempts contained violent suicide methods such as firearm, hanging, jumping, car exhaust or drowning.

Results

A total of 533 patients were included. Sixty-four of these patients admitted to ED with aggressive suicide attempt (12%). Non-aggressive suicide attempts were consulted to psychiatry more compared to aggressive ones (%73.6, n = 345 vs. %32.8, n = 21, P < 0.0001). Agitation in ED and being male increased aggressive suicide attempt risk by 3.5 (%95 CI: 1.6-7.6) and 3.2 times (%95 CI: 1.8-5.5), agitated patients in ED group and male group respectively. Patients with aggressive suicide attempt were statistically more frequent among these patients; patients with agitation, those hospitalized in intensive care or surgical services and those whose length of stay in the emergency department was less than one day (P < 0.05 for all). Patients with non-aggressive suicide attempt were statistically more frequent in these patients; patients complained of nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fatigue, those with confusion, those tending to sleep, those hospitalized in internal services or emergency ward and finally those whose length of stay in the emergency department was more than one day (P < 0.05 for all).

Conclusions

Patients with aggressive suicide attempt who have high risk of dying should be recognized and requested psychiatric consultation even if not in the emergency department.

Violence;Suicide, Attempt;Suicide; Demography Violence;Suicide, Attempt;Suicide; Demography http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24666 Atif Bayramoglu Atif Bayramoglu Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey; Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Tel: +90-4423448407, Fax: +90-4422361301 Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey; Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Tel: +90-4423448407, Fax: +90-4422361301 Murat Saritemur Murat Saritemur Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey Sultan Tuna Akgol Gur Sultan Tuna Akgol Gur Department of Emergency Medicine, Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey Department of Emergency Medicine, Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey Mucahit Emet Mucahit Emet Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey Department of Emergency Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
en 25834742 10.5812/ircmj.21604 Stability of Renal Function in Spite of Low Glomerular Filtration Rate: A Case Report Stability of Renal Function in Spite of Low Glomerular Filtration Rate: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

Although our patient had CKD stage 4, but his condition has not deteriorated and remained constant and stable for several years only by control of blood pressure and usual treatment which prescribed for patients at this stage

Case Presentation

A 78-year-old man presented with stage 4 CKD for 7 years; the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and creatinine levels remained constant despite no change in his weight.

Introduction

Chronic renal dysfunction is a progressive and irreversible process in kidney function, which often resulted in chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic renal failure (CRF). Range of CKD is varying from proteinuria and renal failure to CRF.

Conclusions

Although our patient had CKD stage 4, but his condition has not deteriorated and remained constant and stable for several years only by control of blood pressure and usual treatment which prescribed for patients at this stage

Case Presentation

A 78-year-old man presented with stage 4 CKD for 7 years; the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and creatinine levels remained constant despite no change in his weight.

Introduction

Chronic renal dysfunction is a progressive and irreversible process in kidney function, which often resulted in chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic renal failure (CRF). Range of CKD is varying from proteinuria and renal failure to CRF.

Kidney;Glomerular Filtration Rate;Proteinuria Kidney;Glomerular Filtration Rate;Proteinuria http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21604 Mohammad Reza Tamadon Mohammad Reza Tamadon Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121315058, Fax: +98-2333437838 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121315058, Fax: +98-2333437838 Seyed Seifollah Beladi Mousavi Seyed Seifollah Beladi Mousavi Chronic Renal Failure Research Center, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Chronic Renal Failure Research Center, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 25838935 10.5812/ircmj.2145 Lessons Learnt From the Model of Instructional System for Training Community Health Workers in Rural Health Houses of Iran Lessons Learnt From the Model of Instructional System for Training Community Health Workers in Rural Health Houses of Iran rapid-communication rapid-communication Conclusions

Development of the job and task analysis to ensure providing the right training needs, applying more evidences through different studies for reforms, more decentralized equipped system with decision-making tools have been proposed for development.

Results

The results showed the specific method of student selection and clear objectives and standards of training related to the health needs of the community. Recruitment of native human resources, the relationship between training and performance are the characteristics, which have been made this system more efficient and responsive to the health system needs.

Materials and Methods

A descriptive study design was utilized for this analysis in six areas. These areas have been selected according to the expert opinions and experiences of the Center for Health Networks Management.

Objectives

The purpose of this article was to describe the model of training behvarzes as the community health workers who deliver health services to the health houses of Iran. This description included the specific method of recruiting these CHWs, strategies and methods of their training which is different from general academic education.

Background

Many experts believe that the “health houses” of Iran have had major effects in increasing health status of Iranian rural community. One of the factors, which was critical to this success is the employment of young women and men from rural communities who serve as multipurpose health workers. They participate in a two-year task-oriented training course.

Conclusions

Development of the job and task analysis to ensure providing the right training needs, applying more evidences through different studies for reforms, more decentralized equipped system with decision-making tools have been proposed for development.

Results

The results showed the specific method of student selection and clear objectives and standards of training related to the health needs of the community. Recruitment of native human resources, the relationship between training and performance are the characteristics, which have been made this system more efficient and responsive to the health system needs.

Materials and Methods

A descriptive study design was utilized for this analysis in six areas. These areas have been selected according to the expert opinions and experiences of the Center for Health Networks Management.

Objectives

The purpose of this article was to describe the model of training behvarzes as the community health workers who deliver health services to the health houses of Iran. This description included the specific method of recruiting these CHWs, strategies and methods of their training which is different from general academic education.

Background

Many experts believe that the “health houses” of Iran have had major effects in increasing health status of Iranian rural community. One of the factors, which was critical to this success is the employment of young women and men from rural communities who serve as multipurpose health workers. They participate in a two-year task-oriented training course.

Primary Health Care;Community Health Worker;Iran Primary Health Care;Community Health Worker;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=2145 Mohammadreza Rahbar Mohammadreza Rahbar Center for Health Networks Management, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran; Center for Health Networks Management, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123300140, Fax: +98-2166701812 Center for Health Networks Management, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran; Center for Health Networks Management, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123300140, Fax: +98-2166701812 Mina Ahmadi Mina Ahmadi Center for Health Networks Management, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran Center for Health Networks Management, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25793114 10.5812/ircmj.18269 How Well Establishment of Research Plans Can Improve Scientific Ranking of Medical Universities How Well Establishment of Research Plans Can Improve Scientific Ranking of Medical Universities research-article research-article Background

As a developing country, Iran has not had a substantial share in global science production activities; however, this country has recently been the forth country in the world regarding research output publications, and biomedical research has played a crucial role in achieving this honorable position.

Objectives

In this paper, we aimed to introduce the strategies employed at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences of Iran, to enhance scientific research output of this university.

Patients and Methods

The present study used the qualitative content analysis technique. The Research deputies and the head of research centers of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences were the research subjects. The main researcher conducted all the interviews. The participants were all authorities of the university. Sampling continued until data saturation. After speaking with 16 participants, the interviews yielded no new information, and no new categories or subcategories were added to the previous ones. Deep and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were used to collect data.

Results

Diplomacies employed to promote research, organizing educational classes, and foundation of infrastructural organizations for research and true surveillance of research programs were the main characteristics of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences research strategies.

Conclusions

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences is a military university of limited resources that has won several awards in the recent years, and has been categorized as one of the leading first ranked medical universities in Iran; a position quite higher than several other larger universities of the country. We recommend more enhanced strategies for other universities.

Background

As a developing country, Iran has not had a substantial share in global science production activities; however, this country has recently been the forth country in the world regarding research output publications, and biomedical research has played a crucial role in achieving this honorable position.

Objectives

In this paper, we aimed to introduce the strategies employed at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences of Iran, to enhance scientific research output of this university.

Patients and Methods

The present study used the qualitative content analysis technique. The Research deputies and the head of research centers of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences were the research subjects. The main researcher conducted all the interviews. The participants were all authorities of the university. Sampling continued until data saturation. After speaking with 16 participants, the interviews yielded no new information, and no new categories or subcategories were added to the previous ones. Deep and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were used to collect data.

Results

Diplomacies employed to promote research, organizing educational classes, and foundation of infrastructural organizations for research and true surveillance of research programs were the main characteristics of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences research strategies.

Conclusions

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences is a military university of limited resources that has won several awards in the recent years, and has been categorized as one of the leading first ranked medical universities in Iran; a position quite higher than several other larger universities of the country. We recommend more enhanced strategies for other universities.

Research;Education; Medical; Graduate;Science Research;Education; Medical; Graduate;Science http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18269 Seyed Hassan Saadat Seyed Hassan Saadat Behavioral Science Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behavioral Science Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Morteza Izadi Morteza Izadi Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Jafar Aslani Jafar Aslani Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mostafa Ghanei Mostafa Ghanei Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9361046670 Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9361046670
en 25834739 10.5812/ircmj.14078 Randomized, Clinical Trial on Diathermy and Scalpel Incisions in Elective General Surgery Randomized, Clinical Trial on Diathermy and Scalpel Incisions in Elective General Surgery research-article research-article Conclusions

Diathermy incision is a safe and expedient technique. It takes less time than scalpel incision and loss of blood is also lower during incision. Diathermy is associated with lesser post-operative pain and complications than the scalpel incision. Diathermy should be method of choice in general elective surgery.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine incisional time, blood loss during incision and postoperative wound complications and pain with both methods of skin incision.

Patients and Methods

A prospective, comparative and randomized study was conducted at different hospitals of Hyderabad and Nawabshah, Pakistan from 1st of December 2009 to 30th of November 2011. The study included patients of either sex above the age of five years with general surgical pathology who were to undergo surgery. these candidates were randomly put into two groups. In Group A patients incision was made with a scalpel and in group B with diathermy. Data was analyzed for age, sex, comorbid illness, incisional time, blood loss during incision making and postoperative pain and wound complications.

Results

A total of 283 patients completed the follow-up and were included in the final analysis. Group A comprised of 143 (50.53%) patients; 83 (58%) males and 60 (42%) females with a mean age of 36.03 years. Amongst the 140 patients of group B, there were 85 (60.7%) males and 55 (39.3%) females with a mean age of 36.52 years. Twenty-five (17.48%) patients of group A and 27 (19.28%) of group B had comorbid illnesses. Mean incision time was 8.9025-sec/cm2 for group A and 7.3057 sec/cm2 for group B patients. Mean blood loss during incision making was 1.8262 mL/cm2 and 1.1346 mL/cm2 for group A and B patients, respectively. Pain was 5.2957 for group A patients on day one and 3.1181 for group B patients. Pain score was 2.1049 and 1.6206 on day two and 0.8191 and 0.7192 on day five, for group A and B patients, respectively. Postoperative wound complications were noticed in 26 (18.18%) patients of group A and 22 (15.71%) patients of group B.

Background

Since a long time skin incisions have routinely been made with scalpels. Now a day there is a shift in trend from this method to electrosurgical skin incisions. However, fear of bad scars and improper wound healing has prevented its wide spread use. This Study aimed to compare both methods of skin incisions for different variables.

Conclusions

Diathermy incision is a safe and expedient technique. It takes less time than scalpel incision and loss of blood is also lower during incision. Diathermy is associated with lesser post-operative pain and complications than the scalpel incision. Diathermy should be method of choice in general elective surgery.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine incisional time, blood loss during incision and postoperative wound complications and pain with both methods of skin incision.

Patients and Methods

A prospective, comparative and randomized study was conducted at different hospitals of Hyderabad and Nawabshah, Pakistan from 1st of December 2009 to 30th of November 2011. The study included patients of either sex above the age of five years with general surgical pathology who were to undergo surgery. these candidates were randomly put into two groups. In Group A patients incision was made with a scalpel and in group B with diathermy. Data was analyzed for age, sex, comorbid illness, incisional time, blood loss during incision making and postoperative pain and wound complications.

Results

A total of 283 patients completed the follow-up and were included in the final analysis. Group A comprised of 143 (50.53%) patients; 83 (58%) males and 60 (42%) females with a mean age of 36.03 years. Amongst the 140 patients of group B, there were 85 (60.7%) males and 55 (39.3%) females with a mean age of 36.52 years. Twenty-five (17.48%) patients of group A and 27 (19.28%) of group B had comorbid illnesses. Mean incision time was 8.9025-sec/cm2 for group A and 7.3057 sec/cm2 for group B patients. Mean blood loss during incision making was 1.8262 mL/cm2 and 1.1346 mL/cm2 for group A and B patients, respectively. Pain was 5.2957 for group A patients on day one and 3.1181 for group B patients. Pain score was 2.1049 and 1.6206 on day two and 0.8191 and 0.7192 on day five, for group A and B patients, respectively. Postoperative wound complications were noticed in 26 (18.18%) patients of group A and 22 (15.71%) patients of group B.

Background

Since a long time skin incisions have routinely been made with scalpels. Now a day there is a shift in trend from this method to electrosurgical skin incisions. However, fear of bad scars and improper wound healing has prevented its wide spread use. This Study aimed to compare both methods of skin incisions for different variables.

Diathermy;Scalpel;Complications;Pain, Postoperative Diathermy;Scalpel;Complications;Pain, Postoperative http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=14078 Altaf Ahmed Talpur Altaf Ahmed Talpur Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan; Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Tel: +92-3002185479, +92-2134570819 Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan; Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Tel: +92-3002185479, +92-2134570819 Abdul Basir Khaskheli Abdul Basir Khaskheli Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan Nandlal Kella Nandlal Kella Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan Akmal Jamal Akmal Jamal Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
en 25838928 10.5812/ircmj.12271 Pregnancy Experiences of First-Time Fathers in Iran: A Qualitative Interview Study Pregnancy Experiences of First-Time Fathers in Iran: A Qualitative Interview Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Transition to fatherhood extends beyond only moderate mental and social changes, and may be influenced by cultural background and beliefs. Therefore, caregivers should be aware of fathers' changes and needs during pregnancy, and support them while taking into consideration their culture and beliefs.

Results

Through analysis of fathers’ experiences of their wives’ pregnancy, four categories, as well as associated subcategories, emerged. The categories include: “Emotional responses to pregnancy, Feeling of change, Accepting the reality and satisfaction, Developing identity as a father.” These categories describe the phenomenon of “Transition to fatherhood”.

Background

Fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, is an important role and responsibility. For accepting this role, one needs to be well-prepared. Awareness of father’s experiences of pregnancy can help us to develop plans for the promotion of the role of fatherhood.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore how first time fathers describe their experiences of pregnancy.

Patients and Methods

The data in this qualitative study were collected by individual open-ended interviews in five public health prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, during 2010 ‒ 2011. Participants were 26 Iranian and Moslem first-time fathers living in Tehran, whose partner was in the 32th to 40th week of her normal pregnancy. Qualitative content text analysis was used for analyzing interviews.

Conclusions

Transition to fatherhood extends beyond only moderate mental and social changes, and may be influenced by cultural background and beliefs. Therefore, caregivers should be aware of fathers' changes and needs during pregnancy, and support them while taking into consideration their culture and beliefs.

Results

Through analysis of fathers’ experiences of their wives’ pregnancy, four categories, as well as associated subcategories, emerged. The categories include: “Emotional responses to pregnancy, Feeling of change, Accepting the reality and satisfaction, Developing identity as a father.” These categories describe the phenomenon of “Transition to fatherhood”.

Background

Fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, is an important role and responsibility. For accepting this role, one needs to be well-prepared. Awareness of father’s experiences of pregnancy can help us to develop plans for the promotion of the role of fatherhood.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore how first time fathers describe their experiences of pregnancy.

Patients and Methods

The data in this qualitative study were collected by individual open-ended interviews in five public health prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, during 2010 ‒ 2011. Participants were 26 Iranian and Moslem first-time fathers living in Tehran, whose partner was in the 32th to 40th week of her normal pregnancy. Qualitative content text analysis was used for analyzing interviews.

Life Experiences;Fathers;Pregnancy;Iran;Qualitative Research Life Experiences;Fathers;Pregnancy;Iran;Qualitative Research http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12271 Shahnaz Golian Tehrani Shahnaz Golian Tehrani School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Shahin Bazzazian Shahin Bazzazian School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166927171; +98-9122979322 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166927171; +98-9122979322 Nahid Dehghan Nayeri Nahid Dehghan Nayeri Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25793118 10.5812/ircmj.23095 Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Polymorphisms and Bipolar Disorder in Iranian Population Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Polymorphisms and Bipolar Disorder in Iranian Population research-article research-article Conclusions

The obtained results confirm some previous studies regardinga gender specific association of MAOA gene with the bipolar disorder.

Results

Significant associations were observed regarding MAOA-CA (P = 0.016) and MAOA-VNTR (P = 0.004) polymorphisms in the bipolar females. There was no association between MAOA-RFLP and bipolar disorder.

Patients and Methods

This study is a case-control study, with convenient sampling. Three common polymorphisms, a CA microsatellite, a VNTR, and a RFLP were typed in 156 bipolar patients and 173 healthy controls. Patients were chosen from Imam Hossein General Hospital, Psychiatry Ward (Tehran/Iran). Controlsamples for this study consisted of 173 healthy individuals recruitedby convenient sampling. Allelic distributions of these polymorphisms were analyzed in bipolar and control groups to investigate any association with MAOA gene.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigatethe role of MAOA gene polymorphisms in the etiology of bipolar disorder in Iranian population.

Background

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mood disorder. Although genetic factors have important rolesin the etiology of bipolar disorder, no specific gene has been identified in relation to this disorder. Monoamine oxidase gene is suggested to be associated with bipolar disorder in many studies.

Conclusions

The obtained results confirm some previous studies regardinga gender specific association of MAOA gene with the bipolar disorder.

Results

Significant associations were observed regarding MAOA-CA (P = 0.016) and MAOA-VNTR (P = 0.004) polymorphisms in the bipolar females. There was no association between MAOA-RFLP and bipolar disorder.

Patients and Methods

This study is a case-control study, with convenient sampling. Three common polymorphisms, a CA microsatellite, a VNTR, and a RFLP were typed in 156 bipolar patients and 173 healthy controls. Patients were chosen from Imam Hossein General Hospital, Psychiatry Ward (Tehran/Iran). Controlsamples for this study consisted of 173 healthy individuals recruitedby convenient sampling. Allelic distributions of these polymorphisms were analyzed in bipolar and control groups to investigate any association with MAOA gene.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigatethe role of MAOA gene polymorphisms in the etiology of bipolar disorder in Iranian population.

Background

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mood disorder. Although genetic factors have important rolesin the etiology of bipolar disorder, no specific gene has been identified in relation to this disorder. Monoamine oxidase gene is suggested to be associated with bipolar disorder in many studies.

Bipolar Disorder;Genetic Association Studies;Genetics;Monoamine Oxidase;Iran Bipolar Disorder;Genetic Association Studies;Genetics;Monoamine Oxidase;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23095 Mohammad Reza Eslami Amirabadi Mohammad Reza Eslami Amirabadi Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sepideh Rajezi Esfahani Sepideh Rajezi Esfahani Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Rozita Davari-Ashtiani Rozita Davari-Ashtiani Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mojgan Khademi Mojgan Khademi Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Babak Emamalizadeh Babak Emamalizadeh Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Abolfazl Movafagh Abolfazl Movafagh Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Said Sadr Said Sadr Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fariba Arabgol Fariba Arabgol Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Darvish Hossein Darvish Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572, E-mail:; Hossein Darvish, Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572 Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572, E-mail:; Hossein Darvish, Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572 Katayoon Razjoyan Katayoon Razjoyan Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572, E-mail:; Hossein Darvish, Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572 Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572, E-mail:; Hossein Darvish, Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2123872572
en 25793112 10.5812/ircmj.10294 Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of the Smoking Prevalence in Mazandaran Province of Iran Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of the Smoking Prevalence in Mazandaran Province of Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Present study showed that the prevalence of Smoking in men is very high in this region of Iran. Therefore to prevent the problem it is necessary that educational and research centres and health providers make suitable policies and strategies .

Results

Mean (standard error) age of starting to smoke was 20.21 (0.6) years and females had started smoking 4 years later (P = 0.01). During the study, men smoked cigarettes more than women (total prevalence: 23.2%; 95% CI: 22.5-23.9 vs. 0.9%; 95% CI: 0.7-1.1 respectively). The pooled prevalence of the current smoking was estimated about 12.08 % (95% CI: 11.40-12.81).

Materials and Methods

This study was an IPD meta-analysis. The study data were part of the STEPS Study in Mazandaran province (northern Iran), conducted annually from 2005 to 2009. Sample size was 7759 subjects. Sampling method was census. Data entry was in Epi6 software and the analyses were with stata 11 software.

Background

Smoking is regarded as one of the main risk factors and additive to the global burden of diseases in the World.

Objectives

This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis aimed to estimate the smoking prevalence in Mazandaran province of Iran.

Conclusions

Present study showed that the prevalence of Smoking in men is very high in this region of Iran. Therefore to prevent the problem it is necessary that educational and research centres and health providers make suitable policies and strategies .

Results

Mean (standard error) age of starting to smoke was 20.21 (0.6) years and females had started smoking 4 years later (P = 0.01). During the study, men smoked cigarettes more than women (total prevalence: 23.2%; 95% CI: 22.5-23.9 vs. 0.9%; 95% CI: 0.7-1.1 respectively). The pooled prevalence of the current smoking was estimated about 12.08 % (95% CI: 11.40-12.81).

Materials and Methods

This study was an IPD meta-analysis. The study data were part of the STEPS Study in Mazandaran province (northern Iran), conducted annually from 2005 to 2009. Sample size was 7759 subjects. Sampling method was census. Data entry was in Epi6 software and the analyses were with stata 11 software.

Background

Smoking is regarded as one of the main risk factors and additive to the global burden of diseases in the World.

Objectives

This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis aimed to estimate the smoking prevalence in Mazandaran province of Iran.

Smoking;Cigarette;Iran;Prevalence Smoking;Cigarette;Iran;Prevalence http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10294 Mahmood Moosazadeh Mahmood Moosazadeh Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Mohammadreza Amiresmaili Mohammadreza Amiresmaili Research Center for Health Services Management, Institute of Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Research Center for Health Services Management, Institute of Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Mahdi Afshari Mahdi Afshari Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran; Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +989155420552 Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran; Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +989155420552
en 25793122 10.5812/ircmj.9588 Tourniquet in Surgery of the Limbs: A Review of History, Types and Complications Tourniquet in Surgery of the Limbs: A Review of History, Types and Complications review-article review-article Context

A tourniquet is a device that is used frequently in most orthopaedic surgeries but this routine device can lead to serious complications so we decided to review and declare it for safe instruction and use.

Evidence Acquisition

We searched the word “tourniquet” in PubMed and Google and reviewed all full text English articles and abstracts of non-English articles. In addition, we read all the reference pages of articles to find the new references.

Results

The use of tourniquet in orthopedic surgery can lead to serious but rare complications that can be prevented by its correct knowledge and use.

Conclusions

At present, there is not enough evidence to discontinue the routine uses of tourniquets.

Context

A tourniquet is a device that is used frequently in most orthopaedic surgeries but this routine device can lead to serious complications so we decided to review and declare it for safe instruction and use.

Evidence Acquisition

We searched the word “tourniquet” in PubMed and Google and reviewed all full text English articles and abstracts of non-English articles. In addition, we read all the reference pages of articles to find the new references.

Results

The use of tourniquet in orthopedic surgery can lead to serious but rare complications that can be prevented by its correct knowledge and use.

Conclusions

At present, there is not enough evidence to discontinue the routine uses of tourniquets.

Tourniquet;Orthopedic Surgeries;Limbs Tourniquet;Orthopedic Surgeries;Limbs http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9588 Alireza Saied Alireza Saied Department of Orthopedics, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Department of Orthopedics, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Alia Ayatollahi Mousavi Alia Ayatollahi Mousavi Department of Neuroscience, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Department of Neuroscience, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Fateme Arabnejad Fateme Arabnejad School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Afshin Ahmadzadeh Heshmati Afshin Ahmadzadeh Heshmati Department of Orthopedics, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Department of Orthopedics, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3412221600, Fax: +98-3412231969 Department of Orthopedics, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Department of Orthopedics, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3412221600, Fax: +98-3412231969
en 25838933 10.5812/ircmj.18776 Validity and Reliability of the Hausa Version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Index Validity and Reliability of the Hausa Version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Index research-article research-article Conclusions

The 11 item Hausa-MSPSS index is valid for the assessment of perceived social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria.

Results

Based on expert panel, clinicians’ review and patients’ feedback, the 12 item Hausa-MSPSS had sufficient face, content and criterion validity. In reliability analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.781. In test-retest reliability analysis, the minimum kappa value was 0.673. In Confirmatory factor analysis, the three-factor model was not acceptable. An alternative two-factor model with Family and Friends, as the two domain was found to be acceptable (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI, CFI > 0.9, RMSEA < 0.08). The average variances extracted for the two constructs were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The R-squared value between the two constructs was 0.397. Cross validity tested using 1000 bootstrap resamples gave satisfactory results (P = 0.079).

Background

Social support has been identified as one of the key factors for enhancing the quality of life after stroke. However, a scientific tool that is valid for evaluating social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria has not been developed so far.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hausa translated versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and to validate it for future use in clinical research in Nigeria.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral centers in Kano, Nigeria. The psychometric analysis of the Hausa-MSPSS involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests, as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess validity of the three-factor (Family, Friends and Significant others) model for the Hausa-MSPSS.

Conclusions

The 11 item Hausa-MSPSS index is valid for the assessment of perceived social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria.

Results

Based on expert panel, clinicians’ review and patients’ feedback, the 12 item Hausa-MSPSS had sufficient face, content and criterion validity. In reliability analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.781. In test-retest reliability analysis, the minimum kappa value was 0.673. In Confirmatory factor analysis, the three-factor model was not acceptable. An alternative two-factor model with Family and Friends, as the two domain was found to be acceptable (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI, CFI > 0.9, RMSEA < 0.08). The average variances extracted for the two constructs were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The R-squared value between the two constructs was 0.397. Cross validity tested using 1000 bootstrap resamples gave satisfactory results (P = 0.079).

Background

Social support has been identified as one of the key factors for enhancing the quality of life after stroke. However, a scientific tool that is valid for evaluating social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria has not been developed so far.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hausa translated versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and to validate it for future use in clinical research in Nigeria.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral centers in Kano, Nigeria. The psychometric analysis of the Hausa-MSPSS involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests, as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess validity of the three-factor (Family, Friends and Significant others) model for the Hausa-MSPSS.

Stroke;Social Support;Reliability and Validity Stroke;Social Support;Reliability and Validity http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18776 Ashiru Hamza Mohammad Ashiru Hamza Mohammad Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, P. O. Box: 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: +60-146396673 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, P. O. Box: 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: +60-146396673 Nabilla Al Sadat Nabilla Al Sadat Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Loh Siew Yim Loh Siew Yim Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Karuthan Chinna Karuthan Chinna Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
en 25834741 10.5812/ircmj.19469 Combination of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion (I/D) (rs4646994) and VEGF Polymorphism (+405G/C; rs2010963) Synergistically Associated With the Development, of Albuminuria in Iranian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Combination of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion (I/D) (rs4646994) and VEGF Polymorphism (+405G/C; rs2010963) Synergistically Associated With the Development, of Albuminuria in Iranian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes research-article research-article Conclusions

Our study indicated that ACE-D and VEGF-G alleles can be an independent risk factor for microalbominuria in T2DM patients.

Results

A total of 255 consecutive patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria (Group A) and 235 patients with T2DM and normoalbuminuria (Group B) were included in the study. In univariate analysis, the groups were statistically similar for all variables, except for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P = 0.034), and the frequency of ACE (P = 0.015) and VEGF (P = 0.006) genotypes. Our study showed that the VEGF-G and ACE-D alleles are independently associated with the development of nephropathy. According to our data, the combination of these two risk factors had a significant synergistic effect on the risk of microalbuminuria development.

Objectives

We examined the hypothesis that ACE-D and VEGF-G alleles act synergistically in association with DN, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Patients and Methods

The VEGF (rs2010963) and ACE (rs4646994) genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 490 T2DM patients. Diabetic patients were classified as T2DM patients with and without albuminuria (control). The PCR and RFLP were used to detect the VEGF and ACE alleles.

Background

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms have been shown to associate with diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Conclusions

Our study indicated that ACE-D and VEGF-G alleles can be an independent risk factor for microalbominuria in T2DM patients.

Results

A total of 255 consecutive patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria (Group A) and 235 patients with T2DM and normoalbuminuria (Group B) were included in the study. In univariate analysis, the groups were statistically similar for all variables, except for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P = 0.034), and the frequency of ACE (P = 0.015) and VEGF (P = 0.006) genotypes. Our study showed that the VEGF-G and ACE-D alleles are independently associated with the development of nephropathy. According to our data, the combination of these two risk factors had a significant synergistic effect on the risk of microalbuminuria development.

Objectives

We examined the hypothesis that ACE-D and VEGF-G alleles act synergistically in association with DN, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Patients and Methods

The VEGF (rs2010963) and ACE (rs4646994) genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 490 T2DM patients. Diabetic patients were classified as T2DM patients with and without albuminuria (control). The PCR and RFLP were used to detect the VEGF and ACE alleles.

Background

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms have been shown to associate with diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor;Albuminuria;Diabetes Mellitus;Genetic Polymorphism Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor;Albuminuria;Diabetes Mellitus;Genetic Polymorphism http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19469 Mohammad Fathi Mohammad Fathi Department of Anesthesiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Anesthesiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abdol Rahim Nikzamir Abdol Rahim Nikzamir Department of Biochemistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Biochemistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166948671, Fax: +98-2166948671 Department of Biochemistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Biochemistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166948671, Fax: +98-2166948671 Alireza Esteghamati Alireza Esteghamati Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Manouchehr Nakhjavani Manouchehr Nakhjavani Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mir Saeed Yekaninejad Mir Saeed Yekaninejad Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25838937 10.5812/ircmj.23607 Comparative Study of Radiographic and Laboratory Findings Between Beta Thalassemia Major and Beta Thalassemia Intermedia Patients With and Without Treatment by Hydroxyurea Comparative Study of Radiographic and Laboratory Findings Between Beta Thalassemia Major and Beta Thalassemia Intermedia Patients With and Without Treatment by Hydroxyurea research-article research-article Conclusions

In patients with TM, bone widening, trabeculation, paraspinal masses and facial bone deformity were lower than patients with TI, whichcan be related to effectiveness of therapy with blood transfusion irrespective of its adverse effects in TM patients.

Results

All radiologic findings were significantly higher in patients with TI compared to TM (P< 0.05). In patients with TI, only trabeculation was observed with a higher frequency in patients with HU compared to those without HU (68% vs. 27.3%, P= 0.008). In the regression model, from all variables evaluated, only NRBC showed a significant correlation with trabeculation (Exp B = 1.014, CI: 1.004-1.025, P = 0.008) and age showed a significant correlation with paravertebral mass (Exp B = 1.147, CI: 1.03-1.27, P = 0.013).

Patients and Methods

In this cross sectional study, 86 consecutive thalassemia patients referring to the Thalassemia clinic in Shiraz, Southern Iran were evaluated during 2012. Patients were divided into three groups including TM and thalassemia intermedia (TI) with and without taking hydroxyurea (HU). Findings ofchest radiography (trabeculation, rib widening and paraspinal masses) as well as facial bone deformity were evaluated by an expert radiologist. Besides, laboratory findings were measured regarding hemoglobin, ferritin, NRBC and platelet count.

Background

In patients with thalassemia, chronic anemia causes bone marrow expansion and consequently skeletal manifestation in spine, skull, face and rib bones.

Objectives

We aimed to compare chest radiographic findings and facial bone deformity in patients with thalassemia major (TM) and intermedia.

Conclusions

In patients with TM, bone widening, trabeculation, paraspinal masses and facial bone deformity were lower than patients with TI, whichcan be related to effectiveness of therapy with blood transfusion irrespective of its adverse effects in TM patients.

Results

All radiologic findings were significantly higher in patients with TI compared to TM (P< 0.05). In patients with TI, only trabeculation was observed with a higher frequency in patients with HU compared to those without HU (68% vs. 27.3%, P= 0.008). In the regression model, from all variables evaluated, only NRBC showed a significant correlation with trabeculation (Exp B = 1.014, CI: 1.004-1.025, P = 0.008) and age showed a significant correlation with paravertebral mass (Exp B = 1.147, CI: 1.03-1.27, P = 0.013).

Patients and Methods

In this cross sectional study, 86 consecutive thalassemia patients referring to the Thalassemia clinic in Shiraz, Southern Iran were evaluated during 2012. Patients were divided into three groups including TM and thalassemia intermedia (TI) with and without taking hydroxyurea (HU). Findings ofchest radiography (trabeculation, rib widening and paraspinal masses) as well as facial bone deformity were evaluated by an expert radiologist. Besides, laboratory findings were measured regarding hemoglobin, ferritin, NRBC and platelet count.

Background

In patients with thalassemia, chronic anemia causes bone marrow expansion and consequently skeletal manifestation in spine, skull, face and rib bones.

Objectives

We aimed to compare chest radiographic findings and facial bone deformity in patients with thalassemia major (TM) and intermedia.

Beta-Thalassemia;Hydroxyurea;Mass Chest X-Ray Beta-Thalassemia;Hydroxyurea;Mass Chest X-Ray http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23607 Amin Abolhasani Foroughi Amin Abolhasani Foroughi Medical Imaging Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Medical Imaging Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Hosein Ghaffari Hosein Ghaffari Medical Imaging Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Medical Imaging Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Sezaneh Haghpanah Sezaneh Haghpanah Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Masoume Nazeri Masoume Nazeri Department of Neurology, Motahhari Clinic, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Neurology, Motahhari Clinic, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Roghieh Ghaffari Roghieh Ghaffari Department of Pediatric, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Pediatric, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Marzieh Bardestani Marzieh Bardestani Department of Library and Information Science, College of Humanities, Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Library and Information Science, College of Humanities, Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mehran Karimi Mehran Karimi Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-7136473239 Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-7136473239
en 25793116 10.5812/ircmj.20895 Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage research-article research-article Background

Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations.

Patients and Methods

A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran.

Results

Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes.

Conclusions

The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking.

Background

Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations.

Patients and Methods

A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran.

Results

Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes.

Conclusions

The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking.

Qualitative Content Analysis;Nurses;Creativity;Innovation;Outcomes;Iran Qualitative Content Analysis;Nurses;Creativity;Innovation;Outcomes;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20895 Sara Shahsavari Isfahani Sara Shahsavari Isfahani Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Hosseini Mohammad Ali Hosseini Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122180132, Fax: +98-2122180132 Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122180132, Fax: +98-2122180132 Masood Fallahi Khoshknab Masood Fallahi Khoshknab Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hamid Peyrovi Hamid Peyrovi Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hamid Reza Khanke Hamid Reza Khanke Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25838932 10.5812/ircmj.18668 Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis Effect of <italic>Cinnamomum zeylanicumon</italic> on Spermatogenesis research-article research-article Conclusions

The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis.

Results

Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05).

Background

In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals.

Objectives

To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method.

Conclusions

The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis.

Results

Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05).

Background

In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals.

Objectives

To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method.

Catalase;Cinnamomum Zeylanicum;Spermatogenesis;Superoxide Dismutase;Testosterone Catalase;Cinnamomum Zeylanicum;Spermatogenesis;Superoxide Dismutase;Testosterone http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18668 Arash Khaki Arash Khaki Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran. Tel: +98-9143138399 Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran. Tel: +98-9143138399
en 25793113 10.5812/ircmj.11167 Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel research-article research-article Conclusions

To have a successful and durable composite restoration, having a high strength bonding is essential. Considering the wide use of CPP-ACP in preventing tooth decay and the role of adhesive shear bond strength (SBS) in success of composite restoration, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the SBS of adhesives to primary teeth enamel.

Materials and Methods

This in vitro study was conducted on 180 extracted primary molars. They were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was divided into 2 subgroups (treated with CPP-ACP and untreated). In subgroups with CPP-ACP, enamel was treated with CPP-ACP paste 1 h/d for 5 days. Types of adhesives that were evaluated in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, AdheSE One F, single Bond 2, SE Bond, and Adper Prompt L-Pop. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine and mode of failure was evaluated under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by T test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Fisher exact test using SPSS18. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level.

Results

Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to enamel of primary teeth treated and untreated with CPP-ACP showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mode of failure in all groups regardless of CPP-ACP administration was mainly adhesive type. Our results indicated that CPP-ACP did not affect shear bond strength of studied adhesives to primary teeth enamel.

Background

CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel of primary teeth molars.

Conclusions

To have a successful and durable composite restoration, having a high strength bonding is essential. Considering the wide use of CPP-ACP in preventing tooth decay and the role of adhesive shear bond strength (SBS) in success of composite restoration, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the SBS of adhesives to primary teeth enamel.

Materials and Methods

This in vitro study was conducted on 180 extracted primary molars. They were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was divided into 2 subgroups (treated with CPP-ACP and untreated). In subgroups with CPP-ACP, enamel was treated with CPP-ACP paste 1 h/d for 5 days. Types of adhesives that were evaluated in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, AdheSE One F, single Bond 2, SE Bond, and Adper Prompt L-Pop. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine and mode of failure was evaluated under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by T test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Fisher exact test using SPSS18. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level.

Results

Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to enamel of primary teeth treated and untreated with CPP-ACP showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mode of failure in all groups regardless of CPP-ACP administration was mainly adhesive type. Our results indicated that CPP-ACP did not affect shear bond strength of studied adhesives to primary teeth enamel.

Background

CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel of primary teeth molars.

CPP-ACP;Bond Strength (BS);Adhesive CPP-ACP;Bond Strength (BS);Adhesive http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11167 Elham Farokh Gisovar Elham Farokh Gisovar Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Nassim Hedayati Nassim Hedayati Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran; Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3412119021; +98-9139873558 Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran; Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3412119021; +98-9139873558 Niloofar Shadman Niloofar Shadman Restorative and Cosmetic Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Restorative and Cosmetic Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Leila Shafiee Leila Shafiee Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Pediatric Dentistry Group, Dentistry Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
en 25838930 10.5812/ircmj.16570 Clinical Determinants of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Deterioration in Patients Suffered From Complete Left Bundle Branch Block Clinical Determinants of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Deterioration in Patients Suffered From Complete Left Bundle Branch Block research-article research-article Conclusions

Male gender, history of hypertension, high NYHA score, and the presence of CAD predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB.

Objectives

The present study aimed to identify underlying factors that predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) deterioration in patients suffered from complete LBBB.

Patients and Methods

In a retrospective case-control study, the data of 220 consecutive patients diagnosed with LBBB on their electrocardiograms were assessed. They were referred to Isfahan Heart Center in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2013. LVEF deterioration was defined as a decrease in LVEF at least 10% between the baseline and follow-up echocardiography study. Thus, achieving the LVEF values ≤ 40% in patients with an initial EF of > 50% was considered LVEF deterioration.

Results

Among 220 patients, 40% of LBBB patients suffered LVEF deterioration within 3 months of initial assessment. The group with LVEF deterioration had higher male to female ratio, had higher NYHA score, and suffered more from systolic hypertension than another group. Those with coronary artery disease (CAD) had also significantly lower LVEF than non-CAD ones. Adverse associations were revealed between systolic blood pressure and LVEF measurement (r = -0.193, P = 0.006) as well as between NYHA score and LVEF (r = -0.215, P = 0.002). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that among baseline variables, male gender (OR = 3.218, P < 0.001), history of systolic hypertension (OR = 2.012, P = 0.029), higher NYHA score (OR = 1.623, P = 0.005), and the presence of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.475, P = 0.028) could effectively predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB.

Background

Recently, the deleterious effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular systolic function have been taken into consideration.

Conclusions

Male gender, history of hypertension, high NYHA score, and the presence of CAD predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB.

Objectives

The present study aimed to identify underlying factors that predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) deterioration in patients suffered from complete LBBB.

Patients and Methods

In a retrospective case-control study, the data of 220 consecutive patients diagnosed with LBBB on their electrocardiograms were assessed. They were referred to Isfahan Heart Center in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2013. LVEF deterioration was defined as a decrease in LVEF at least 10% between the baseline and follow-up echocardiography study. Thus, achieving the LVEF values ≤ 40% in patients with an initial EF of > 50% was considered LVEF deterioration.

Results

Among 220 patients, 40% of LBBB patients suffered LVEF deterioration within 3 months of initial assessment. The group with LVEF deterioration had higher male to female ratio, had higher NYHA score, and suffered more from systolic hypertension than another group. Those with coronary artery disease (CAD) had also significantly lower LVEF than non-CAD ones. Adverse associations were revealed between systolic blood pressure and LVEF measurement (r = -0.193, P = 0.006) as well as between NYHA score and LVEF (r = -0.215, P = 0.002). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that among baseline variables, male gender (OR = 3.218, P < 0.001), history of systolic hypertension (OR = 2.012, P = 0.029), higher NYHA score (OR = 1.623, P = 0.005), and the presence of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.475, P = 0.028) could effectively predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB.

Background

Recently, the deleterious effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular systolic function have been taken into consideration.

Bundle-Branch Block;Coronary Artery;Left Ventricular;Ejection Fraction Bundle-Branch Block;Coronary Artery;Left Ventricular;Ejection Fraction http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=16570 Mohammad Hashemi Jazi Mohammad Hashemi Jazi Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Peyman Nilforoush Peyman Nilforoush Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mojgan Gharipour Mojgan Gharipour Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3116507448; +98-9131030177 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3116507448; +98-9131030177 Azadeh Batvandi Azadeh Batvandi Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Robabeh Mohammadi Robabeh Mohammadi Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Roya Najafi Roya Najafi Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 25838929 10.5812/ircmj.12863 Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Iranian Pilgrims Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Iranian Pilgrims research-article research-article Conclusions

Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed.

Results

Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice.

Objectives

In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions).

Background

Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP).

Conclusions

Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed.

Results

Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice.

Objectives

In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions).

Background

Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP).

Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice;Public Health Practice;Attitude Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice;Public Health Practice;Attitude http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12863 Aminreza Tabatabaei Aminreza Tabatabaei Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran Seyyed Mostafa Mortazavi Seyyed Mostafa Mortazavi Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran Navvab Shamspour Navvab Shamspour Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran; Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Ostad Nejatollahi St., RCS Building, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2186744114, Fax: +98-2188912476 Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran; Hajj and Pilgrimage Health Research Center, Ostad Nejatollahi St., RCS Building, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2186744114, Fax: +98-2188912476 Naser Shushtarizadeh Naser Shushtarizadeh Representative of Iranian Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Madinah Almonavvarah, Saudi Arabia Representative of Iranian Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Madinah Almonavvarah, Saudi Arabia
en 25793121 10.5812/ircmj.9244 Increased Interleukin-17 Transcripts in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, a Link Between T-Helper 17 and Proinflammatory Responses in Bladder Cancer Increased Interleukin-17 Transcripts in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, a Link Between T-Helper 17 and Proinflammatory Responses in Bladder Cancer research-article research-article Conclusions

As most of the cases studied in this investigation were in stages I and II, IL-17 as a prominent proinflammatory cytokine may play an important role in recruiting and infiltrating of antitumor immune responses in early stages of bladder cancer. Furthermore, it can be used as predictor for the clinical stage and prognosis of cancers such as bladder carcinoma.

Objectives

The aim of this case-control study was to determine the gene expression of IL-6, IL-17, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in Iranian patients with bladder cancer.

Patients and Methods

Blood samples were collected from 37 patients with bladder cancer and 37 healthy individuals with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders, based of simple sampling. The expression of IL-6, IL-17, and TGF-β were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

Results

The mean of IL-17 transcripts was significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared with healthy individuals (0.33 ± 0.06 vs. 0.42 ± 0.14, ) (P = 0.04), but their TGF-β was lower (12.53 ± 8.41 vs. 54.94 ± 17.95, ) (P = 0.04). However, the IL-6 transcripts level was similar in both groups (5.34 ± 2.40 vs. 8.07 ± 3.28, ) (P > 0.05) and there was not any significant difference between the noted cytokines expressions among patients with different stages and grades.

Background

Interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4+ T helper (Th17) cells thatare known by producing IL-17 have recently been defined as a unique subset of proinflammatory helper cells. IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine with robust effect on many cells and it can play important roles in pathogenesis of diverse groups of immune-mediated diseases.

Conclusions

As most of the cases studied in this investigation were in stages I and II, IL-17 as a prominent proinflammatory cytokine may play an important role in recruiting and infiltrating of antitumor immune responses in early stages of bladder cancer. Furthermore, it can be used as predictor for the clinical stage and prognosis of cancers such as bladder carcinoma.

Objectives

The aim of this case-control study was to determine the gene expression of IL-6, IL-17, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in Iranian patients with bladder cancer.

Patients and Methods

Blood samples were collected from 37 patients with bladder cancer and 37 healthy individuals with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders, based of simple sampling. The expression of IL-6, IL-17, and TGF-β were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

Results

The mean of IL-17 transcripts was significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared with healthy individuals (0.33 ± 0.06 vs. 0.42 ± 0.14, ) (P = 0.04), but their TGF-β was lower (12.53 ± 8.41 vs. 54.94 ± 17.95, ) (P = 0.04). However, the IL-6 transcripts level was similar in both groups (5.34 ± 2.40 vs. 8.07 ± 3.28, ) (P > 0.05) and there was not any significant difference between the noted cytokines expressions among patients with different stages and grades.

Background

Interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4+ T helper (Th17) cells thatare known by producing IL-17 have recently been defined as a unique subset of proinflammatory helper cells. IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine with robust effect on many cells and it can play important roles in pathogenesis of diverse groups of immune-mediated diseases.

Interleukin6; Interleukin17; Transforming Growth Factor Beta Interleukin6; Interleukin17; Transforming Growth Factor Beta http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9244 Rasoul Baharlou Rasoul Baharlou Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran Abdolaziz Khezri Abdolaziz Khezri Department of Urology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Urology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mahboobeh Razmkhah Mahboobeh Razmkhah Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mojtaba Habibagahi Mojtaba Habibagahi Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Ahmad Hosseini Ahmad Hosseini Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Abbas Ghaderi Abbas Ghaderi Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mansooreh Jaberipour Mansooreh Jaberipour Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112303687, +98-7112304952 Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112303687, +98-7112304952
en 25834740 10.5812/ircmj.18293 Expectations of Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Their Families: A Qualitative Study in Iran Expectations of Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Their Families: A Qualitative Study in Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Individuals with MS and their families had different expectations pertaining to all dimensions of life, such that not meeting the needs related to any dimension could have affect the other dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary for healthcare providers to have a holistic assessment as well as try to meet all needs and expectations.

Results

The age of the participants ranged from 22–63 years. The data obtained from this study was classified into 5 main categories as follows: being cured, need for comfort, promoting knowledge, economic welfare, and social security.

Objectives

This study was conducted to identify the expectations of individuals with MS and their families for healthcare services.

Patients and Methods

This article is part of a qualitative case study. The participants were selected by a purposive sampling method. In this study, semi-structured interviews of 20 individuals with MS and 8 family members were conducted to identify the expectations of MS patients and their families. In addition to the interviews, the documents related to the aim of the study, including weblogs, MS magazines, special websites of individuals with MS, and news agencies were gathered. Analysis of data was performed by a conventional content analysis method.

Background

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that is most commonly observed among young people. Drug and non-drug treatments are used to prevent the progression of the disease and to control illness-related disorders. Patients with MS often have multiple and complicated needs that require a broad spectrum of health services.

Conclusions

Individuals with MS and their families had different expectations pertaining to all dimensions of life, such that not meeting the needs related to any dimension could have affect the other dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary for healthcare providers to have a holistic assessment as well as try to meet all needs and expectations.

Results

The age of the participants ranged from 22–63 years. The data obtained from this study was classified into 5 main categories as follows: being cured, need for comfort, promoting knowledge, economic welfare, and social security.

Objectives

This study was conducted to identify the expectations of individuals with MS and their families for healthcare services.

Patients and Methods

This article is part of a qualitative case study. The participants were selected by a purposive sampling method. In this study, semi-structured interviews of 20 individuals with MS and 8 family members were conducted to identify the expectations of MS patients and their families. In addition to the interviews, the documents related to the aim of the study, including weblogs, MS magazines, special websites of individuals with MS, and news agencies were gathered. Analysis of data was performed by a conventional content analysis method.

Background

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that is most commonly observed among young people. Drug and non-drug treatments are used to prevent the progression of the disease and to control illness-related disorders. Patients with MS often have multiple and complicated needs that require a broad spectrum of health services.

Family;Multiple Sclerosis;Patients;Qualitative Research Family;Multiple Sclerosis;Patients;Qualitative Research http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18293 Shahla Abolhassani Shahla Abolhassani Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Ahmadreza Yazdannik Ahmadreza Yazdannik Critical Care Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Critical Care Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9133108878 Critical Care Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Critical Care Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9133108878 Fariba Taleghani Fariba Taleghani Adult Health Nursing Department, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Adult Health Nursing Department, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Ahmadreza Zamani Ahmadreza Zamani Community and Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Community and Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 25793115 10.5812/ircmj.18288 Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Pathologic hyperbilirubinemia causes acute disorder on brain stem function; therefore, early diagnosis of neonatal jaundice for prevention of bilirubin neurotoxic effects is essential. As national neonatal hearing screening in not yet established in Iran, we recommend performing ABR for screening of bilirubin neurotoxicity in all cases with hyperbilirubinemia.

Results

The mean latencies of waves I, III and V of ABR were significantly higher in the pathologic hyperbilirubinemia group compared with the controls (P < 0.001). In addition, the mean interpeak intervals (IPI) of waves I-III, I-V and III-V of ABR were significantly higher in the pathologic hyperbilirubinemia group compared with the controls (P < 0.001). For example, the mean latencies time of wave I was significantly higher in right ear of the case group than in controls (2.16 ± 0.26 vs. 1.77 ± 0.15 milliseconds, respectively) (P < 0.001).

Patients and Methods

This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia with serum bilirubin values of ≥ 7 mg/dL, ≥ 10 mg/dL and ≥14 mg/dL at the first, second and third-day of life, respectively, and with bilirubin concentration ≥ 18 mg/dL at over 72 hours of life. The exclusion criteria included family history and diseases causing sensorineural hearing loss, use of auto-toxic medications within the preceding five days, convulsion, congenital craniofacial anomalies, birth trauma, preterm newborns < 35 weeks old, birth weight < 1500 g, asphyxia, and mechanical ventilations for five days or more. A total of 48 newborns with hyperbilirubinemia met the enrolment criteria as the case group and 49 healthy newborns as the control group, who were hospitalized in a university educational hospital (22 Bahaman), in a north-eastern city of Iran, Mashhad. ABR was performed on both groups. The evaluated variable factors were latency time, inter peak intervals time, and loss of waves.

Background

Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children.

Objectives

We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia.

Conclusions

Pathologic hyperbilirubinemia causes acute disorder on brain stem function; therefore, early diagnosis of neonatal jaundice for prevention of bilirubin neurotoxic effects is essential. As national neonatal hearing screening in not yet established in Iran, we recommend performing ABR for screening of bilirubin neurotoxicity in all cases with hyperbilirubinemia.

Results

The mean latencies of waves I, III and V of ABR were significantly higher in the pathologic hyperbilirubinemia group compared with the controls (P < 0.001). In addition, the mean interpeak intervals (IPI) of waves I-III, I-V and III-V of ABR were significantly higher in the pathologic hyperbilirubinemia group compared with the controls (P < 0.001). For example, the mean latencies time of wave I was significantly higher in right ear of the case group than in controls (2.16 ± 0.26 vs. 1.77 ± 0.15 milliseconds, respectively) (P < 0.001).

Patients and Methods

This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia with serum bilirubin values of ≥ 7 mg/dL, ≥ 10 mg/dL and ≥14 mg/dL at the first, second and third-day of life, respectively, and with bilirubin concentration ≥ 18 mg/dL at over 72 hours of life. The exclusion criteria included family history and diseases causing sensorineural hearing loss, use of auto-toxic medications within the preceding five days, convulsion, congenital craniofacial anomalies, birth trauma, preterm newborns < 35 weeks old, birth weight < 1500 g, asphyxia, and mechanical ventilations for five days or more. A total of 48 newborns with hyperbilirubinemia met the enrolment criteria as the case group and 49 healthy newborns as the control group, who were hospitalized in a university educational hospital (22 Bahaman), in a north-eastern city of Iran, Mashhad. ABR was performed on both groups. The evaluated variable factors were latency time, inter peak intervals time, and loss of waves.

Background

Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children.

Objectives

We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia.

Newborn;Bilirubin;Hyperbilirubinemia;Auditory Brain Stem Evoked Response Newborn;Bilirubin;Hyperbilirubinemia;Auditory Brain Stem Evoked Response http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18288 Tooba Okhravi Tooba Okhravi Student Research Committee, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; ABR Center, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; ABR Center, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IR Iran Saeedeh Tarvij Eslami Saeedeh Tarvij Eslami Department of Pediatrics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Pediatrics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128444226, Fax: +98-2189787379 Department of Pediatrics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Pediatrics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128444226, Fax: +98-2189787379 Ali Hushyar Ahmadi Ali Hushyar Ahmadi Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University,Mashad, IR Iran Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University,Mashad, IR Iran Hossain Nassirian Hossain Nassirian Department of Pediatrics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Reza Najibpour Reza Najibpour Student Research Committee, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25793117 10.5812/ircmj.22796 Fecal Calprotectin is an Accurate Tool and Correlated to Seo Index in Prediction of Relapse in Iranian Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Fecal Calprotectin is an Accurate Tool and Correlated to Seo Index in Prediction of Relapse in Iranian Patients With Ulcerative Colitis research-article research-article Background

The natural clinical course of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is characterized by episodes of relapse and remission. Fecal Calprotectin (FC) is a relatively new marker of intestinal inflammation and is an available, non-expensive tool for predicting relapse of quiescent UC. The Seo colitis activity index is a clinical index for assessment of the severity of UC.

Objectives

The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of FC and the Seo colitis activity index and their correlation in prediction of UC exacerbation.

Patients and Methods

In this prospective cohort study, 157 patients with clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of UC selected randomly from 1273 registered patients in Fars province’s IBD registry center in Shiraz, Iran, were followed from October 2012 to October 2013 for 12 months or shorter, if they had a relapse. Two patients left the study before completion and one patient had relapse because of discontinuation of drugs. The participants' clinical and serum factors were evaluated every three months. Furthermore, stool samples were collected at the beginning of study and every three months and FC concentration (commercially available enzyme linked immunoassay) and the Seo Index were assessed. Then univariate analysis, multiple variable logistic regression, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson’s correlation test (r) were used for statistical analysis of data.

Results

According to the results, 74 patients (48.1%) relapsed during the follow-up (33 men and 41 women). Mean ± SD of FC was 862.82 ± 655.97 μg/g and 163.19 ± 215.85 μg/g in relapsing and non-relapsing patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, number of previous relapses, FC and the Seo index were significant predictors of relapse. ROC curve analysis of FC level and Seo activity index for prediction of relapse demonstrated area under the curve of 0.882 (P < 0.001) and 0.921(P < 0.001), respectively. Besides, FC level of 341 μg/g was identified as the cut-off point with 11.2% and 79.7% relapse rate below and above this point, respectively. Additionally, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between FC and the Seo index was significant in prediction of relapse (r = 0.63, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

As a simple and noninvasive marker, FC is highly accurate and significantly correlated to the Seo activity index in prediction of relapse in the course of quiescent UC in Iranian patients.

Background

The natural clinical course of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is characterized by episodes of relapse and remission. Fecal Calprotectin (FC) is a relatively new marker of intestinal inflammation and is an available, non-expensive tool for predicting relapse of quiescent UC. The Seo colitis activity index is a clinical index for assessment of the severity of UC.

Objectives

The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of FC and the Seo colitis activity index and their correlation in prediction of UC exacerbation.

Patients and Methods

In this prospective cohort study, 157 patients with clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of UC selected randomly from 1273 registered patients in Fars province’s IBD registry center in Shiraz, Iran, were followed from October 2012 to October 2013 for 12 months or shorter, if they had a relapse. Two patients left the study before completion and one patient had relapse because of discontinuation of drugs. The participants' clinical and serum factors were evaluated every three months. Furthermore, stool samples were collected at the beginning of study and every three months and FC concentration (commercially available enzyme linked immunoassay) and the Seo Index were assessed. Then univariate analysis, multiple variable logistic regression, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson’s correlation test (r) were used for statistical analysis of data.

Results

According to the results, 74 patients (48.1%) relapsed during the follow-up (33 men and 41 women). Mean ± SD of FC was 862.82 ± 655.97 μg/g and 163.19 ± 215.85 μg/g in relapsing and non-relapsing patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, number of previous relapses, FC and the Seo index were significant predictors of relapse. ROC curve analysis of FC level and Seo activity index for prediction of relapse demonstrated area under the curve of 0.882 (P < 0.001) and 0.921(P < 0.001), respectively. Besides, FC level of 341 μg/g was identified as the cut-off point with 11.2% and 79.7% relapse rate below and above this point, respectively. Additionally, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between FC and the Seo index was significant in prediction of relapse (r = 0.63, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

As a simple and noninvasive marker, FC is highly accurate and significantly correlated to the Seo activity index in prediction of relapse in the course of quiescent UC in Iranian patients.

Calprotectin;Ulcerative Colitis;Relapse Calprotectin;Ulcerative Colitis;Relapse http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22796 Seyed Vahid Hosseini Seyed Vahid Hosseini Colorectal Research Center, Department of Surgery , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Colorectal Research Center, Department of Surgery , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Peyman Jafari Peyman Jafari Biostatistic Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Biostatistic Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Seyed Alireza Taghavi Seyed Alireza Taghavi Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Ali Reza Safarpour Ali Reza Safarpour Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112357282, Fax: +98-7112307594 Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112357282, Fax: +98-7112307594 Abbas Rezaianzadeh Abbas Rezaianzadeh Laparoscopy Research Center, Department of Surgery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Laparoscopy Research Center, Department of Surgery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Maryam Moini Maryam Moini Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Manoosh Mehrabi Manoosh Mehrabi Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 25838938 10.5812/ircmj.25013 A Comparative Study of Three Speckle Reducing Methods for Intima-Media Thickness Ultrasound Images A Comparative Study of Three Speckle Reducing Methods for Intima-Media Thickness Ultrasound Images research-article research-article Conclusions

By measuring image quality metrics, this study showed that DTD and CTD filters with the Canny edge detection respectively, are better than SRAD filter with the Canny detection for speckle suppression and details preservation in both arteries in the ultrasound images.

Background

Ultrasonic evaluation of intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early marker of assessing the development of atherosclerosis and determining cardiovascular risk. To attain the best possible diagnosis, it is essential that medical images be clear, sharp and without noise and artifacts.

Objectives

Comparison of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), discrete (DTD) and continuum topological derivative (CTD) on B-mode ultrasound images of common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle.

Patients and Methods

In a cross-sectional design, an examination was performed on forty-two human subjects with a mean age of 44 ± 6 years from April 2013 to June 2013. This study was approved by the ethics committees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Beheshti Hospital. An ultrasonic examination of common carotid and brachial arteries of forty-two human subjects was performed. The program was designed in MATLAB software to extract consecutive B-mode images and apply region of interest (ROI) on the IMT of the common carotid and brachial arteries. Then, three different noise reduction filters with the Canny edge detection were used in ROI separately. Finally, the program measured the image quality metrics.

Results

According to values of eleven different image quality metrics (mentioned in the main text), there was a significant difference between CTD, DTD and SRAD filters with the Canny edge detection status in the common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle (all P values < 0.001). For example, peak signal to noise ratios (PSNR) using CTD, DTD and SRAD filters were 95.43 ± 0.64, 88.86 ± 0.82 and 73.02 ± 0.20 in common carotid and 96.39 ± 1.25, 92.58 ± 0.11 and 88.27 ± 0.63 in brachial arteries, respectively (both P values < 0.001).

Conclusions

By measuring image quality metrics, this study showed that DTD and CTD filters with the Canny edge detection respectively, are better than SRAD filter with the Canny detection for speckle suppression and details preservation in both arteries in the ultrasound images.

Background

Ultrasonic evaluation of intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early marker of assessing the development of atherosclerosis and determining cardiovascular risk. To attain the best possible diagnosis, it is essential that medical images be clear, sharp and without noise and artifacts.

Objectives

Comparison of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), discrete (DTD) and continuum topological derivative (CTD) on B-mode ultrasound images of common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle.

Patients and Methods

In a cross-sectional design, an examination was performed on forty-two human subjects with a mean age of 44 ± 6 years from April 2013 to June 2013. This study was approved by the ethics committees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Beheshti Hospital. An ultrasonic examination of common carotid and brachial arteries of forty-two human subjects was performed. The program was designed in MATLAB software to extract consecutive B-mode images and apply region of interest (ROI) on the IMT of the common carotid and brachial arteries. Then, three different noise reduction filters with the Canny edge detection were used in ROI separately. Finally, the program measured the image quality metrics.

Results

According to values of eleven different image quality metrics (mentioned in the main text), there was a significant difference between CTD, DTD and SRAD filters with the Canny edge detection status in the common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle (all P values < 0.001). For example, peak signal to noise ratios (PSNR) using CTD, DTD and SRAD filters were 95.43 ± 0.64, 88.86 ± 0.82 and 73.02 ± 0.20 in common carotid and 96.39 ± 1.25, 92.58 ± 0.11 and 88.27 ± 0.63 in brachial arteries, respectively (both P values < 0.001).

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness;Brachial Artery;Ultrasonography;Noise Carotid Intima-Media Thickness;Brachial Artery;Ultrasonography;Noise http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25013 Mehravar Rafati Mehravar Rafati Department of Medical Physic and Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, IR Iran Department of Medical Physic and Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, IR Iran Masoud Arabfard Masoud Arabfard Department of Basic Sciences, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish Island, IR Iran Department of Basic Sciences, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish Island, IR Iran Mehrdad Rafati Rahimzadeh Mehrdad Rafati Rahimzadeh Department of Nursing, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Hasan Voshtani Hasan Voshtani Department of Cardiology, Heshmat Cardiovascular Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran; Department of Cardiology, Heshmat Cardiovascular Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1333663070, Fax: +98-1316668718 Department of Cardiology, Heshmat Cardiovascular Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran; Department of Cardiology, Heshmat Cardiovascular Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1333663070, Fax: +98-1316668718 Hassan Moladoust Hassan Moladoust Department of Cardiology, Heshmat Cardiovascular Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Department of Cardiology, Heshmat Cardiovascular Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran
en 25838936 10.5812/ircmj.23333 Mothers’ Satisfaction With Two Systems of Providing Care to Their Hospitalized Children Mothers’ Satisfaction With Two Systems of Providing Care to Their Hospitalized Children research-article research-article Background

Despite the paramount importance of the patient’s satisfaction, there are limited data on mothers’ satisfaction with the nursing care provided to their children in Iranian clinical settings.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate mothers’ satisfaction with two systems of providing care to their hospitalized children.

Patients and Methods

This research was a two-group quasi-experimental study. Primarily, the basics of the case method and the functional care delivery systems were educated to the practicing nurses of the study setting. Each system was implemented independently. After the implementation of each system, 200 mothers whose children were hospitalized in the pediatric care ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran, were invited to respond to the 28 -item Pediatric Family Satisfaction Questionnaire. Study data were analyzed by SPSS v. 16.0.

Results

Results were indicative of mothers’ satisfaction with medical care delivered by case method as 13.2 ± 5.2 and by functional method as 13.17 ± 5.56. Also, no significant difference was seen between two groups (P = 0.4). Mothers’ satisfaction with nursing care delivered by case method was 17.7 ± 4.43 and by functional method was 13.33 ± 5.69 and there was a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.004). Mothers’ satisfaction with accommodations by case method was 16.78 ± 4.07 and by functional method was 17.9 ± 6.67 with a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.06).

Conclusions

Improving the quality of care is associated with higher patient’s satisfaction. Accordingly, developing and implementing programs for improving nurses’ communication and clinical skills can improve both care quality and patient outcomes.

Background

Despite the paramount importance of the patient’s satisfaction, there are limited data on mothers’ satisfaction with the nursing care provided to their children in Iranian clinical settings.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate mothers’ satisfaction with two systems of providing care to their hospitalized children.

Patients and Methods

This research was a two-group quasi-experimental study. Primarily, the basics of the case method and the functional care delivery systems were educated to the practicing nurses of the study setting. Each system was implemented independently. After the implementation of each system, 200 mothers whose children were hospitalized in the pediatric care ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran, were invited to respond to the 28 -item Pediatric Family Satisfaction Questionnaire. Study data were analyzed by SPSS v. 16.0.

Results

Results were indicative of mothers’ satisfaction with medical care delivered by case method as 13.2 ± 5.2 and by functional method as 13.17 ± 5.56. Also, no significant difference was seen between two groups (P = 0.4). Mothers’ satisfaction with nursing care delivered by case method was 17.7 ± 4.43 and by functional method was 13.33 ± 5.69 and there was a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.004). Mothers’ satisfaction with accommodations by case method was 16.78 ± 4.07 and by functional method was 17.9 ± 6.67 with a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.06).

Conclusions

Improving the quality of care is associated with higher patient’s satisfaction. Accordingly, developing and implementing programs for improving nurses’ communication and clinical skills can improve both care quality and patient outcomes.

Personal Satisfaction;Nursing Care;Hospitalized Children Personal Satisfaction;Nursing Care;Hospitalized Children http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23333 Masoumeh Hosseinian Masoumeh Hosseinian Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131613899, Fax: +98-3615556633 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131613899, Fax: +98-3615556633 Soophia Esalat Manesh Soophia Esalat Manesh Medical Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Medical Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 25838934 10.5812/ircmj.21070 Primary Intraosseous Hydatid Cyst of Femur Primary Intraosseous Hydatid Cyst of Femur case-report case-report Conclusions

Based on this report (of a patient presented with an intramedullary cyst in the long bones), the primary bone hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind and be investigated in the differential diagnosis.

Case Presentations

In this study, an evaluation was made of a patient referred at Yozgat State Hospital Orthopedics and Traumatology Polyclinic with complaints of pain in her left thigh close to the knee. After examinations of plain radiographs, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance images, and blood parameters, a diagnosis was made of left femoral intramedullary hydatid cyst from excised intraoperative material. Throughout a 6-month follow-up period, there was no recurrence and functional results were good.

Introduction

Echinococcosis is a parasitic and zoonotic disease of animals and humans. The cause is Echinococcus granulosus and occasionally, Echinococcus multilocularis. Hydatid cysts are mostly seen in the liver and lungs, although almost all organs and systemscan be involvement. Hydatid cysts seen with bone involvement comprise approximately 3% of all hydatid cysts. Even if a long period of survey is possible, it is still difficult to eradicate the disease and effect a cure.

Conclusions

Based on this report (of a patient presented with an intramedullary cyst in the long bones), the primary bone hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind and be investigated in the differential diagnosis.

Case Presentations

In this study, an evaluation was made of a patient referred at Yozgat State Hospital Orthopedics and Traumatology Polyclinic with complaints of pain in her left thigh close to the knee. After examinations of plain radiographs, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance images, and blood parameters, a diagnosis was made of left femoral intramedullary hydatid cyst from excised intraoperative material. Throughout a 6-month follow-up period, there was no recurrence and functional results were good.

Introduction

Echinococcosis is a parasitic and zoonotic disease of animals and humans. The cause is Echinococcus granulosus and occasionally, Echinococcus multilocularis. Hydatid cysts are mostly seen in the liver and lungs, although almost all organs and systemscan be involvement. Hydatid cysts seen with bone involvement comprise approximately 3% of all hydatid cysts. Even if a long period of survey is possible, it is still difficult to eradicate the disease and effect a cure.

Echinococcus granulosus;Femur;Cyst;Hydatid Echinococcus granulosus;Femur;Cyst;Hydatid http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21070 Hasan Onur Arik Hasan Onur Arik Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey Mehmet Arican Mehmet Arican Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey; Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey. Tel: +90-5557051499 Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey; Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey. Tel: +90-5557051499 Nesibe Kahraman Cetin Nesibe Kahraman Cetin Department of Pathology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey Department of Pathology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey Umit Sarp Umit Sarp Department of Physical Treatment and Rehabilitation, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey Department of Physical Treatment and Rehabilitation, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey
en 25838931 10.5812/ircmj.18301 How Does a Group of Iranian Youth Conceptualize Their Risky Sexual Experiences? How Does a Group of Iranian Youth Conceptualize Their Risky Sexual Experiences? research-article research-article Conclusions

Rising youth awareness, creating a positive attitude, and appropriate knowledge about safe sex practices are seminal. It is also vital to ensure access to gender specific sexual and reproductive health services for youths, empower women, and strengthen their sexual assertiveness as well as the elimination of all forms of gender-based inequalities.

Background

There are restrictions as well as lawful and religious prohibition for sexual relationships in Iranian society.

Objectives

This study explores the varied experiential reality of Iranian youth and their risky sexual experiences.

Patients and Methods

Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews with 30 single young men and women. Observation of interactions of youth in different settings has been another source of information. Interviews were microscopically content analyzed.

Results

The accounts of risky sexual experiences included gendered behavioral, cultural, and cognitive factors. In the re-contextualizing process, these accounts were categorized by two main themes: “gendered sexual script” and “cultural scenarios of interpersonal interactions”. The notion of “male power” was evident in the responses provided by the participants. Women seldom asked for condom use due to limited knowledge about STIs-HIV/AIDS and unpleasant experiences with condoms. Men had limited knowledge about various sexual modes of HIV and STIs transmission and did not use condoms consistently because they had not seen themselves at risk of STIs or HIV as well as their belief about the decrease of sexual pleasure.

Conclusions

Rising youth awareness, creating a positive attitude, and appropriate knowledge about safe sex practices are seminal. It is also vital to ensure access to gender specific sexual and reproductive health services for youths, empower women, and strengthen their sexual assertiveness as well as the elimination of all forms of gender-based inequalities.

Background

There are restrictions as well as lawful and religious prohibition for sexual relationships in Iranian society.

Objectives

This study explores the varied experiential reality of Iranian youth and their risky sexual experiences.

Patients and Methods

Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews with 30 single young men and women. Observation of interactions of youth in different settings has been another source of information. Interviews were microscopically content analyzed.

Results

The accounts of risky sexual experiences included gendered behavioral, cultural, and cognitive factors. In the re-contextualizing process, these accounts were categorized by two main themes: “gendered sexual script” and “cultural scenarios of interpersonal interactions”. The notion of “male power” was evident in the responses provided by the participants. Women seldom asked for condom use due to limited knowledge about STIs-HIV/AIDS and unpleasant experiences with condoms. Men had limited knowledge about various sexual modes of HIV and STIs transmission and did not use condoms consistently because they had not seen themselves at risk of STIs or HIV as well as their belief about the decrease of sexual pleasure.

Risk Taking;Behavior;Sexual Behavior;Youth Risk Taking;Behavior;Sexual Behavior;Youth http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18301 Mahnaz Noroozi Mahnaz Noroozi Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Effat-al-Sadat Merghati Khoei Effat-al-Sadat Merghati Khoei Iranian National Centre of Addiction Studies, Institution of Risk Behaviors Reduction, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iranian National Centre of Addiction Studies, Institution of Risk Behaviors Reduction, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125599856, Fax: +98-2188779487 Iranian National Centre of Addiction Studies, Institution of Risk Behaviors Reduction, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iranian National Centre of Addiction Studies, Institution of Risk Behaviors Reduction, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125599856, Fax: +98-2188779487 Fariba Taleghani Fariba Taleghani Department of Adult Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Adult Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mahgol Tavakoli Mahgol Tavakoli Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, IR Iran Ali Gholami Ali Gholami Department of Islamic Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Islamic Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 25834743 10.5812/ircmj.25156 Iranian Women’s Experiences of Health Information Seeking Barriers: A Qualitative Study in Kerman Iranian Women’s Experiences of Health Information Seeking Barriers: A Qualitative Study in Kerman research-article research-article Background

Women as active health information seekers play a key role in determining lifestyle and possible implementation of preventive measures, thereby improving the health of individuals, families and society. Although studies indicate that equipping people with adequate health information leads to optimal health outcomes, sometimes the complexity of human behavior and presence of barriers and limitations expose them to challenges.

Objectives

This study was designed to explore women's experiences of health information seeking barriers.

Patients and Methods

In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was conducted regarding inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was performed constantly and simultaneously with data collection.

Results

Five central themes were emerged to explain women's experiences of barriers to health information seeking as inadequate support from health care system, shame and embarrassment, costs, wrong ideas and beliefs and inadequate health literacy.

Conclusions

It seems the accurate and evidence-based review of the current health system is crucial to support the health informative requirements in a community-based approach, respecting the community cultural-religious beliefs and client participation in health care and according to local resources.

Background

Women as active health information seekers play a key role in determining lifestyle and possible implementation of preventive measures, thereby improving the health of individuals, families and society. Although studies indicate that equipping people with adequate health information leads to optimal health outcomes, sometimes the complexity of human behavior and presence of barriers and limitations expose them to challenges.

Objectives

This study was designed to explore women's experiences of health information seeking barriers.

Patients and Methods

In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was conducted regarding inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was performed constantly and simultaneously with data collection.

Results

Five central themes were emerged to explain women's experiences of barriers to health information seeking as inadequate support from health care system, shame and embarrassment, costs, wrong ideas and beliefs and inadequate health literacy.

Conclusions

It seems the accurate and evidence-based review of the current health system is crucial to support the health informative requirements in a community-based approach, respecting the community cultural-religious beliefs and client participation in health care and according to local resources.

Women;Health;Lifestyle;Health information;Seeking;Barriers Women;Health;Lifestyle;Health information;Seeking;Barriers http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25156 Alireza Nikbakht Nasrabadi Alireza Nikbakht Nasrabadi Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sakineh Sabzevari Sakineh Sabzevari Department of Medical Sergical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Department of Medical Sergical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Tayebeh Negahban Bonabi Tayebeh Negahban Bonabi Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran. Tel: +983434255900, Fax:+983434258497 Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran. Tel: +983434255900, Fax:+983434258497