Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 6 29 gregorian 2017 6 29 17 11
en 26730348 10.5812/ircmj.12862 The Most Frequent Causes of Hospitalization of Iranian Pilgrims in Iraq During a 5-Month Period in 2012, and Their Outcome The Most Frequent Causes of Hospitalization of Iranian Pilgrims in Iraq During a 5-Month Period in 2012, and Their Outcome research-article research-article Conclusions

Considering the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and fractures in Iranian pilgrims, the necessity of self-care education to diminish such rates is substantial.

Results

A total of 177 referral cases from Iranian clinics to Iraqi hospitals were recorded in 5 months. Most of these referrals were due to cardiovascular diseases with 38.6%, then comes trauma with 26.55%, and finally renal failure in need of dialysis with 12.43%. About 80.2% of the patients were discharged, 13% of them were sent to Iran, and 6.2% died. Around 90% of deaths were due to heart diseases.

Objectives

The main purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of Iranian pilgrims’ referral cases to Karbala and Najaf hospitals in Iraq during a 5-month period in 2012.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, medical records of all patients referred to Iraqi hospitals from Iranian clinics during a 5-month period from 16 January 2012 until 14 June 2012 was recorded. A checklist, including demographic data and diagnostic causes were prepared and completed by general practitioners. Then, the completed forms were checked and delivered to health surveillance supervisors.

Background

Investigating the prevalence of diseases and causes of hospitalization of Iranian pilgrims in Iraq can be helpful for healthcare programmers in scheduling a healthy and joyful trip for pilgrims and reducing their mortality and morbidity.

Conclusions

Considering the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and fractures in Iranian pilgrims, the necessity of self-care education to diminish such rates is substantial.

Results

A total of 177 referral cases from Iranian clinics to Iraqi hospitals were recorded in 5 months. Most of these referrals were due to cardiovascular diseases with 38.6%, then comes trauma with 26.55%, and finally renal failure in need of dialysis with 12.43%. About 80.2% of the patients were discharged, 13% of them were sent to Iran, and 6.2% died. Around 90% of deaths were due to heart diseases.

Objectives

The main purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of Iranian pilgrims’ referral cases to Karbala and Najaf hospitals in Iraq during a 5-month period in 2012.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, medical records of all patients referred to Iraqi hospitals from Iranian clinics during a 5-month period from 16 January 2012 until 14 June 2012 was recorded. A checklist, including demographic data and diagnostic causes were prepared and completed by general practitioners. Then, the completed forms were checked and delivered to health surveillance supervisors.

Background

Investigating the prevalence of diseases and causes of hospitalization of Iranian pilgrims in Iraq can be helpful for healthcare programmers in scheduling a healthy and joyful trip for pilgrims and reducing their mortality and morbidity.

Dialysis;Cardiovascular Diseases;Fracture;Trauma;Referral;Karbala;Najaf Dialysis;Cardiovascular Diseases;Fracture;Trauma;Referral;Karbala;Najaf http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12862 Soleiman Sadeghi Soleiman Sadeghi Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Ali Heidari Ali Heidari Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Hosein Fazli Hosein Fazli Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Mashallah Rezaei Mashallah Rezaei Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq; Mashallah Rezaei, Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq. Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq; Mashallah Rezaei, Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq. Javad Sheikhzadeh Javad Sheikhzadeh Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq Hajj and Pilgrimage Medical Center, Iraq
en 26732240 10.5812/ircmj.26685 Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause Efficacy of <italic>Trigonella foenum-graecum</italic> Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause research-article research-article Conclusions

The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days.

Results

Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05).

Background

Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders.

Conclusions

The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days.

Results

Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05).

Background

Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders.

Cytokines;Menopause;Rats;Trigonella foenum-graecum Cytokines;Menopause;Rats;Trigonella foenum-graecum http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26685 Mahmood Abedinzade Mahmood Abedinzade Medical Biotechnology Research Center, Paramedical School, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Medical Biotechnology Research Center, Paramedical School, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran Sima Nasri Sima Nasri Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123277539, Fax: +98-2188948995 Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123277539, Fax: +98-2188948995 Masome Jamal Omodi Masome Jamal Omodi Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran Elham Ghasemi Elham Ghasemi Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran Ahmad Ghorbani Ahmad Ghorbani Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 26734469 10.5812/ircmj.17278 Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts research-article research-article Conclusions

The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor.

Results

The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs.

Materials and Methods

This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Background

It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors.

Objectives

This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs).

Conclusions

The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor.

Results

The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs.

Materials and Methods

This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Background

It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors.

Objectives

This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs).

Radicular Cyst;Dentigerous Cyst;Odontogenic Cysts;Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor3 Radicular Cyst;Dentigerous Cyst;Odontogenic Cysts;Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor3 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=17278 Marieh Honarmand Marieh Honarmand Oral and Dental Disease Research Centre, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Oral and Dental Disease Research Centre, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Shirin Saravani Shirin Saravani Oral and Dental Disease Research Centre, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Oral and Dental Disease Research Centre, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5433441814, Fax: +98-5433414003 Oral and Dental Disease Research Centre, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Oral and Dental Disease Research Centre, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5433441814, Fax: +98-5433414003 Nazanin Kamyab Nazanin Kamyab Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran Mehdi Jahantigh Mehdi Jahantigh Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Molouk Torabi Parizi Molouk Torabi Parizi Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
en 26734473 10.5812/ircmj.19920 Nonsurgical Treatment of Hemifacial Microsomia: A Case Report Nonsurgical Treatment of Hemifacial Microsomia: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

Excellent esthetic and functional results achieved; total treatment duration was about 72 months.

Case Presentation

This is a case report about the successful orthodontic treatment of a patient with mild hemifacial microsomia (HFM), using a non-surgical orthopedic and orthodontic treatment approach. The aim of this approach was to make the best noninvasive modality to treat HFM. A 7-year-old boy with a mild HFM presented with a convex profile and slight chin deviation. Orthopedic treatment performed using a hybrid functional and high pulls headgear. Treatment continued by fixed orthodontic straight wire appliance to achieve perfect occlusion.

Introduction

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a birth defect involving craniofacial structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Although it is a relatively uncommon malformation, it is the second most common craniofacial birth defect after cleft lip and palate (CL/P).

Conclusions

Excellent esthetic and functional results achieved; total treatment duration was about 72 months.

Case Presentation

This is a case report about the successful orthodontic treatment of a patient with mild hemifacial microsomia (HFM), using a non-surgical orthopedic and orthodontic treatment approach. The aim of this approach was to make the best noninvasive modality to treat HFM. A 7-year-old boy with a mild HFM presented with a convex profile and slight chin deviation. Orthopedic treatment performed using a hybrid functional and high pulls headgear. Treatment continued by fixed orthodontic straight wire appliance to achieve perfect occlusion.

Introduction

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a birth defect involving craniofacial structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Although it is a relatively uncommon malformation, it is the second most common craniofacial birth defect after cleft lip and palate (CL/P).

Orthodontics;Microsomias;Craniofacial;Functional Orthodontic Appliances Orthodontics;Microsomias;Craniofacial;Functional Orthodontic Appliances http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19920 Mahtab Nouri Mahtab Nouri Orthodontic Department of School of Dentistry, Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Orthodontic Department of School of Dentistry, Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Arash Farzan Arash Farzan Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126009396, Fax: +98-2122092644 Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126009396, Fax: +98-2122092644
en 26734472 10.5812/ircmj.19815 Relationship Between Job Characteristics and Organizational Commitment: A Descriptive Analytical Study Relationship Between Job Characteristics and Organizational Commitment: A Descriptive Analytical Study research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results, managers of the hospitals should increase staff’s commitment through paying attention to proper job designing.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive and correlational study, 152 Iranian employees of the hospitals (physicians, nurses, and administrative staff) were selected through stratified random sampling. Data gathered using 3-part questionnaire of “demographic information”, “job characteristics model,” and “organizational commitment,” in 2011. Study data were analyzed using SPSS v. 16.

Background

Many factors influence the organizational commitment of employees. One of these factors is job designing since it affects the attitude, beliefs, and feelings of the organization employees.

Results

There was significant statistical correlation between organizational commitment and variables of educational level (P = 0.001) and job category (P = 0.001). Also, a direct and significant correlation existed between motivating potential score and job feedback on one hand and organizational commitment on the other hand (P = 0.014).

Objectives

We aimed to determine the relationship between job characteristics and organizational commitment among the employees of hospitals.

Conclusions

According to the results, managers of the hospitals should increase staff’s commitment through paying attention to proper job designing.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive and correlational study, 152 Iranian employees of the hospitals (physicians, nurses, and administrative staff) were selected through stratified random sampling. Data gathered using 3-part questionnaire of “demographic information”, “job characteristics model,” and “organizational commitment,” in 2011. Study data were analyzed using SPSS v. 16.

Background

Many factors influence the organizational commitment of employees. One of these factors is job designing since it affects the attitude, beliefs, and feelings of the organization employees.

Results

There was significant statistical correlation between organizational commitment and variables of educational level (P = 0.001) and job category (P = 0.001). Also, a direct and significant correlation existed between motivating potential score and job feedback on one hand and organizational commitment on the other hand (P = 0.014).

Objectives

We aimed to determine the relationship between job characteristics and organizational commitment among the employees of hospitals.

Personnel Loyalty;Occupation;Iran;Organizations Personnel Loyalty;Occupation;Iran;Organizations http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19815 Obeidollah Faraji Obeidollah Faraji Assistant Professor, School of Heath, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Assistant Professor, School of Heath, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran Abbas Ali Ramazani Abbas Ali Ramazani MSc in Epidemiology, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran MSc in Epidemiology, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Pouria Hedaiati Pouria Hedaiati Department of Health Services Management, Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran Department of Health Services Management, Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran Ali Aliabadi Ali Aliabadi Department of Health Information Technology, Paramedics School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Health Information Technology, Paramedics School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Samira Elhamirad Samira Elhamirad Department of Health Services Management, Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran Department of Health Services Management, Faculty of Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran Sina Valiee Sina Valiee Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188734619, Fax: +98-8733660092 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188734619, Fax: +98-8733660092
en 26734471 10.5812/ircmj.19656 Right Atrium Myxoma After Lung Adenocarcinoma Right Atrium Myxoma After Lung Adenocarcinoma case-report case-report Conclusions

A right atrium myxoma in a patient with a history of multiple soft tissue tumors has been limited to only a few cases. This may suggest a genomic affinity or similarity; if so, those with multiple different type soft tissue masses should be screened for a heart mass before the mass becomes complicated.

Introduction

Heart secondary tumors are much more common than primary tumors. These two types of tumors differ not only by their source but also by their symptoms and location in heart chambers.

Case Presentation

This report presents a 66-year-old heavy smoker female with a history of pulmonary lobectomy due to lung adenocarcinoma, hysterectomy due to myoma, and lumpectomy due to benign breast mass, who had symptoms of right heart failure for months. Physical examinations followed by imaging showed a mass in her right atrium, which was most likely, a myxoma. After a successful surgical excision, histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis. More studies are needed to evaluate a possible combination between these soft tissue masses.

Conclusions

A right atrium myxoma in a patient with a history of multiple soft tissue tumors has been limited to only a few cases. This may suggest a genomic affinity or similarity; if so, those with multiple different type soft tissue masses should be screened for a heart mass before the mass becomes complicated.

Introduction

Heart secondary tumors are much more common than primary tumors. These two types of tumors differ not only by their source but also by their symptoms and location in heart chambers.

Case Presentation

This report presents a 66-year-old heavy smoker female with a history of pulmonary lobectomy due to lung adenocarcinoma, hysterectomy due to myoma, and lumpectomy due to benign breast mass, who had symptoms of right heart failure for months. Physical examinations followed by imaging showed a mass in her right atrium, which was most likely, a myxoma. After a successful surgical excision, histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis. More studies are needed to evaluate a possible combination between these soft tissue masses.

Atrium;Myxoma;Adenocarcinoma;Myoma Atrium;Myxoma;Adenocarcinoma;Myoma http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19656 Mohhamad Abbasi Tashnizi Mohhamad Abbasi Tashnizi Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Ghasem Soltani Ghasem Soltani Department of Anesthesiology, Cardiac Anesthesia Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Anesthesiology, Cardiac Anesthesia Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mostafa Mehrabi Bahar Mostafa Mehrabi Bahar Surgical Oncology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Surgical Oncology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mahnaz Ahmadi Mahnaz Ahmadi Department of Heart and Vascular Diseases, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Heart and Vascular Diseases, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Ebrahim Golmakani Ebrahim Golmakani Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9153158013, Fax: +98-5842222122 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9153158013, Fax: +98-5842222122 Elena Saremi Elena Saremi Mashhad Vascular and Endovascular Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mashhad Vascular and Endovascular Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 26734474 10.5812/ircmj.19932 Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. and its Relation With Marmazad Activities in Traditional Manuscripts <italic>Stachys lavandulifolia</italic> Vahl. and its Relation With Marmazad Activities in Traditional Manuscripts review-article review-article Conclusions

The achieved findings from this comparison between botanical characteristics and therapeutic activities of Stachys based on modern researches and those of Marmazad by referring to traditional manuscripts revealed significant similarities between them. Also, there were some applications mentioned for Marmazad in TIM which could help new researchers in modern phytotherapy to deal with those dimensions of this herb which are not worked out yet.

Results

In this study by exploring morphology, botanical properties and therapeutic activities of Stachys from modern botany and Marmazad in TIM, comparing them and considering similarities between those botanical properties and some of therapeutic activities this outcome was drawn that what had been known as Marmazad in TIM nowadays is equal to Stachys or Chay-e-Kouhi in modern botany.

Context

In modern phytotherapy, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl., a type of Stachys also known as Mountain Tea (Chay-e-Kouhi) has been widely studied based on its botanical and therapeutic characteristics over the recent decades.

Evidence Acquisition

The present study investigated morphology, botanical characteristics, and some therapeutic activities of this plant and compares them with those of Marmazad, as the traditional equivalent of Stachys in traditional iranian medicine (TIM), to evaluate the similarities between Stachys and Marmazad.

Conclusions

The achieved findings from this comparison between botanical characteristics and therapeutic activities of Stachys based on modern researches and those of Marmazad by referring to traditional manuscripts revealed significant similarities between them. Also, there were some applications mentioned for Marmazad in TIM which could help new researchers in modern phytotherapy to deal with those dimensions of this herb which are not worked out yet.

Results

In this study by exploring morphology, botanical properties and therapeutic activities of Stachys from modern botany and Marmazad in TIM, comparing them and considering similarities between those botanical properties and some of therapeutic activities this outcome was drawn that what had been known as Marmazad in TIM nowadays is equal to Stachys or Chay-e-Kouhi in modern botany.

Context

In modern phytotherapy, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl., a type of Stachys also known as Mountain Tea (Chay-e-Kouhi) has been widely studied based on its botanical and therapeutic characteristics over the recent decades.

Evidence Acquisition

The present study investigated morphology, botanical characteristics, and some therapeutic activities of this plant and compares them with those of Marmazad, as the traditional equivalent of Stachys in traditional iranian medicine (TIM), to evaluate the similarities between Stachys and Marmazad.

Stachys;Traditional Medicine;Modern Medicine Stachys;Traditional Medicine;Modern Medicine http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19932 Bagher Minae Bagher Minae School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Sardari Mehdi Sardari School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Sharifi Hossein Sharifi School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Massih Sedigh Rahim Abadi Massih Sedigh Rahim Abadi School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Omid Sadeghpour Omid Sadeghpour School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2133972108 School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2133972108
en 26734470 10.5812/ircmj.19612 The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women research-article research-article Results

From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times.

Objectives

This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness.

Patients and Methods

This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test.

Conclusions

The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions.

Background

Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly.

Results

From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times.

Objectives

This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness.

Patients and Methods

This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test.

Conclusions

The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions.

Background

Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly.

Autobiography;Agedly;Happiness;Women Autobiography;Agedly;Happiness;Women http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19612 Zahra Yousefi Zahra Yousefi Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Khadijeh Sharifi Khadijeh Sharifi Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-3615550021, Fax: +98-3615556633 Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-3615550021, Fax: +98-3615556633 Zahra Tagharrobi Zahra Tagharrobi Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Nursing Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Hossien Akbari Hossien Akbari Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
en 26730349 10.5812/ircmj.19611 Microleakage of Four Dental Cements in Metal Ceramic Restorations With Open Margins Microleakage of Four Dental Cements in Metal Ceramic Restorations With Open Margins research-article research-article Conclusions

Fuji Plus cement exhibited better sealing ability in closed and open margins compared to G-Cem and Fleck cements. When using G-Cem and Fleck cements for full metal ceramic restorations, clinicians should try to minimize marginal gaps in order to reduce restoration failure. In situations where there are doubts about perfect marginal adaptation, the use of Fuji Plus cement may be helpful.

Results

The least microleakage occurred in the Panavia F2.0 group (closed margin, 0.18 mm; open margin, 0.64 mm) and the maximum was observed in the Fleck group (closed margin, 1.92 mm; open margin, 3.32 mm). The Fleck group displayed significantly more microleakage compared to the Fuji Plus and Panavia F2.0 groups (P < 0.001) in both closed and open margins. In open margins, differences in microleakage between the Fuji Plus and G-Cem as well as between the G-Cem and Panavia F2.0 groups were significant (P < 0.001). In closed margins, only the G-Cem group displayed significantly more microleakage as compared to the Panavia F2.0 group (P < 0.05). Paired t-test results showed significantly more microleakage in open margins compared to closed margins, except in the Fuji Plus group (P = 0.539).

Background

Fixed prosthodontics is a routine dental treatment and microleakage is a major cause of its failure.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the marginal microleakage of four cements in metal ceramic restorations with adapted and open margins.

Materials and Methods

Sixty sound human premolars were selected for this experimental study performed in Tehran, Iran and prepared for full-crown restorations. Wax patterns were formed leaving a 300 µm gap on one of the proximal margins. The crowns were cast and the samples were randomly divided into four groups based on the cement used. Copings were cemented using zinc phosphate cement (Fleck), Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer, Panavia F2.0 resin cement, or G-Cem resin cement, according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution. After 24 hours, dye penetration was assessed under a stereomicroscope and analyzed using the respective software. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, paired t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests.

Conclusions

Fuji Plus cement exhibited better sealing ability in closed and open margins compared to G-Cem and Fleck cements. When using G-Cem and Fleck cements for full metal ceramic restorations, clinicians should try to minimize marginal gaps in order to reduce restoration failure. In situations where there are doubts about perfect marginal adaptation, the use of Fuji Plus cement may be helpful.

Results

The least microleakage occurred in the Panavia F2.0 group (closed margin, 0.18 mm; open margin, 0.64 mm) and the maximum was observed in the Fleck group (closed margin, 1.92 mm; open margin, 3.32 mm). The Fleck group displayed significantly more microleakage compared to the Fuji Plus and Panavia F2.0 groups (P < 0.001) in both closed and open margins. In open margins, differences in microleakage between the Fuji Plus and G-Cem as well as between the G-Cem and Panavia F2.0 groups were significant (P < 0.001). In closed margins, only the G-Cem group displayed significantly more microleakage as compared to the Panavia F2.0 group (P < 0.05). Paired t-test results showed significantly more microleakage in open margins compared to closed margins, except in the Fuji Plus group (P = 0.539).

Background

Fixed prosthodontics is a routine dental treatment and microleakage is a major cause of its failure.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the marginal microleakage of four cements in metal ceramic restorations with adapted and open margins.

Materials and Methods

Sixty sound human premolars were selected for this experimental study performed in Tehran, Iran and prepared for full-crown restorations. Wax patterns were formed leaving a 300 µm gap on one of the proximal margins. The crowns were cast and the samples were randomly divided into four groups based on the cement used. Copings were cemented using zinc phosphate cement (Fleck), Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer, Panavia F2.0 resin cement, or G-Cem resin cement, according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution. After 24 hours, dye penetration was assessed under a stereomicroscope and analyzed using the respective software. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, paired t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests.

Dental Leakage;Metal Ceramic Restorations;Tooth Dental Leakage;Metal Ceramic Restorations;Tooth http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19611 Reza Eftekhar Ashtiani Reza Eftekhar Ashtiani Department of Dental Technology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Dental Technology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Babak Farzaneh Babak Farzaneh Endodontics Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endodontics Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohadese Azarsina Mohadese Azarsina Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farzad Aghdashi Farzad Aghdashi Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126214250 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126214250 Nima Dehghani Nima Dehghani Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Aisooda Afshari Aisooda Afshari Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Minu Mahshid Minu Mahshid Department of Prosthetic, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Prosthetic, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 26734479 10.5812/ircmj.20353 Small Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Clinicopathological Features and Outcome of 22 Cases Small Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Clinicopathological Features and Outcome of 22 Cases brief-report brief-report Conclusions

Primary SCEC is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. However, prognosis is poor and long-term survival is exceptional. CRT could be an appropriate alternative to operation.

Patients and Methods

This brief report was carried out by reviewing the medical records of 22 patients with newly histologically proven SCEC that were treated between 2000 and 2010 at 2 tertiary academic hospitals. All the potential prognostic variables, including the patients’ characteristics, tumor features, and treatment modalities were analyzed to establish their influence on the patients’ survival rates.

Results

This study was conducted on 7 males and 15 females with a median age of 61 years. Dysphagia and weight loss were the most prevalent symptoms. According to the results, 14 patients (64%) had limited diseases and 8 cases (36%) had extensive diseases. In those with extensive diseases, liver, lung, and lymph nodes (LNs) were the most metastatic sites. Besides, most tumors were located in lower (50%) and middle (32%) part of the esophagus. Most patients (91%) were treated with sequential (55%) or concurrent (36%) chemoradiation (CRT). Surgical resection was also performed for 7 patients. Chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatin and etoposide in 14 patients (64%). The median follow up time was 12 months. The 1, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 27%, 14%, and 4%, respectively. Yet, no prognostic factors were found because of the small sample size of the study.

Objectives

This study aimed to report the characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of 22 patients with SCEC.

Background

Small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) is a highly aggressive and rare neoplasm.

Conclusions

Primary SCEC is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. However, prognosis is poor and long-term survival is exceptional. CRT could be an appropriate alternative to operation.

Patients and Methods

This brief report was carried out by reviewing the medical records of 22 patients with newly histologically proven SCEC that were treated between 2000 and 2010 at 2 tertiary academic hospitals. All the potential prognostic variables, including the patients’ characteristics, tumor features, and treatment modalities were analyzed to establish their influence on the patients’ survival rates.

Results

This study was conducted on 7 males and 15 females with a median age of 61 years. Dysphagia and weight loss were the most prevalent symptoms. According to the results, 14 patients (64%) had limited diseases and 8 cases (36%) had extensive diseases. In those with extensive diseases, liver, lung, and lymph nodes (LNs) were the most metastatic sites. Besides, most tumors were located in lower (50%) and middle (32%) part of the esophagus. Most patients (91%) were treated with sequential (55%) or concurrent (36%) chemoradiation (CRT). Surgical resection was also performed for 7 patients. Chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatin and etoposide in 14 patients (64%). The median follow up time was 12 months. The 1, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 27%, 14%, and 4%, respectively. Yet, no prognostic factors were found because of the small sample size of the study.

Objectives

This study aimed to report the characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of 22 patients with SCEC.

Background

Small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) is a highly aggressive and rare neoplasm.

Small Cell Carcinoma;Esophagus;Prognosis;Surgical Procedures;Chemotherapy Small Cell Carcinoma;Esophagus;Prognosis;Surgical Procedures;Chemotherapy http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20353 Sare Hosseini Sare Hosseini Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Roham Salek Roham Salek Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5138414499 Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5138414499 Hamid Nasrolahi Hamid Nasrolahi Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad Mohammadianpanah Mohammad Mohammadianpanah Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mona Judi Mona Judi Cancer Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Cancer Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 26734484 10.5812/ircmj.20744 Ten-year Survival and Its Associated Factors in the Patients Undergoing Pacemaker Implantation in Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences During 2002 - 2012 Ten-year Survival and Its Associated Factors in the Patients Undergoing Pacemaker Implantation in Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences During 2002 - 2012 research-article research-article Conclusions

In this study, sick sinus syndrome and pacemaker mode followed by syncope were independently associated with increased mortality.

Results

Survival data were available for 1030 (80%) patients (median age = 71 years [5th to 95th percentile range: 26 - 86 years]) and follow-up was completed for 84.28% of them. According to the results, 56% of the patients had received dual-chamber systems, while 44% had been implanted by single-chamber ventricular systems. Moreover, sick sinus syndrome and pacemaker mode were independent predictors of increased mortality.

Background

Heart failure is a prevalent disease affecting about 4.9 million people in the U.S. and more than 22 million individuals worldwide. Using electric pacemaker is the most common treatment for the patients with heart conduction problems. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting survival in the patients undergoing pacemaker implantation in the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to identify the factors affecting the survival of the patients suffering from arrhythmia.

Patients and Methods

This retrospective survival analysis was conducted on all 1207 patients with heart failure who had undergone permanent pacemaker implantation in the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2012. The data were analyzed using non-parametric methods such as Kaplan-Meier method, life table, and Cox regression model. The risk factors of mortality were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards method.

Conclusions

In this study, sick sinus syndrome and pacemaker mode followed by syncope were independently associated with increased mortality.

Results

Survival data were available for 1030 (80%) patients (median age = 71 years [5th to 95th percentile range: 26 - 86 years]) and follow-up was completed for 84.28% of them. According to the results, 56% of the patients had received dual-chamber systems, while 44% had been implanted by single-chamber ventricular systems. Moreover, sick sinus syndrome and pacemaker mode were independent predictors of increased mortality.

Background

Heart failure is a prevalent disease affecting about 4.9 million people in the U.S. and more than 22 million individuals worldwide. Using electric pacemaker is the most common treatment for the patients with heart conduction problems. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting survival in the patients undergoing pacemaker implantation in the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to identify the factors affecting the survival of the patients suffering from arrhythmia.

Patients and Methods

This retrospective survival analysis was conducted on all 1207 patients with heart failure who had undergone permanent pacemaker implantation in the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2012. The data were analyzed using non-parametric methods such as Kaplan-Meier method, life table, and Cox regression model. The risk factors of mortality were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards method.

Survival Analysis;Risk Factors;Pacemaker, Artificial Survival Analysis;Risk Factors;Pacemaker, Artificial http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20744 Abdolreza Rajaeefard Abdolreza Rajaeefard Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251001, Fax: +98-7137260225 Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251001, Fax: +98-7137260225 Mohammad Ghorbani Mohammad Ghorbani Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Babaee Baigi Mohammad Ali Babaee Baigi Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Hamidreza Tabatabae Hamidreza Tabatabae Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 26734482 10.5812/ircmj.20727 The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students research-article research-article Conclusions

Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

Background

Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed.

Results

About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices.

Conclusions

Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

Background

Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed.

Results

About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices.

Physical Education and Training;Eating Disorders;Body Composition;Anthropometry Physical Education and Training;Eating Disorders;Body Composition;Anthropometry http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20727 Tohid Rouzitalab Tohid Rouzitalab Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Bahram Pourghassem Gargari Bahram Pourghassem Gargari Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357581, Fax: +98-4133340634 Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133357581, Fax: +98-4133340634 Ramin Amirsasan Ramin Amirsasan Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Road Traffic Injury Prevention Research Center, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Road Traffic Injury Prevention Research Center, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Alireza Farsad Naeimi Alireza Farsad Naeimi Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Meisam Sanoobar Meisam Sanoobar Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 26734481 10.5812/ircmj.20618 Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Tooth Enamel After Treatment With Different Tooth Bleaching Methods Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Tooth Enamel After Treatment With Different Tooth Bleaching Methods research-article research-article Conclusions

The bleaching procedures using 20% carbamide peroxide and 45% carbamide peroxide and diode laser significantly decreased shear bond strength of brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups.

Results

Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P < 0.001); and also between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the other groups.

Background

Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard.

Objectives

This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth.

Materials and Methods

This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test.

Conclusions

The bleaching procedures using 20% carbamide peroxide and 45% carbamide peroxide and diode laser significantly decreased shear bond strength of brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups.

Results

Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P < 0.001); and also between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the other groups.

Background

Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard.

Objectives

This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth.

Materials and Methods

This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test.

Carbamide Peroxide;Hydrogen Peroxide;Shear Strength;Tooth Bleaching Carbamide Peroxide;Hydrogen Peroxide;Shear Strength;Tooth Bleaching http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20618 Elahe Vahid Dastjerdi Elahe Vahid Dastjerdi Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Negar Khaloo Negar Khaloo Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Seyed Masoud Mojahedi Seyed Masoud Mojahedi Department of Laser and Surgery, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Laser and Surgery, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohadese Azarsina Mohadese Azarsina Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123859399, Fax: +98-2188695955 Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123859399, Fax: +98-2188695955
en 26734477 10.5812/ircmj.20281 Risk Factors of Graft Survival After Diagnosis of Post-kidney Transplant Malignancy: Using Cox Proportional Hazard Model Risk Factors of Graft Survival After Diagnosis of Post-kidney Transplant Malignancy: Using Cox Proportional Hazard Model research-article research-article Conclusions

By controlling the modifiable risk factors and modality of treatment in our study, physicians can reach more effective treatment.

Results

At the end of the study, long-term graft failure was seen in 27 (10.2%) cases. One-year and 2-year graft survival after diagnosis of cancer were 93.6% and 91.7%, respectively. The univariate analysis showed that the incidence of chronic graft loss was significantly higher in male patients with solid cancers, withdrawal of immunosuppressant regimen, no response to treatment, and tumor metastasis. In continuation, the Cox model indicated that the significant risk factors associated with graft survival were type of cancer (P < 0.0001), response to treatment (P < 0.0001, HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.32), metastasis (P < 0.0001, HR = 5.68, 95% CI: 2.24 - 14.42), and treatment modality (P = 0.0001).

Patients and Methods

To reach this purpose, we conducted a historical cohort study in Iran and 266 cases with posttransplant malignancy were followed up from diagnosis of malignancy until long-term graft loss or the date of last visit. These patients were taken as a census from 16 Transplant Centers in Iran during 22 years follow-up period since October 1984 to December 2008. A Cox proportional hazards model was performed to determine the important independent predictors of graft survival after malignancy.

Background

All recipients of kidney transplantation, especially those with posttransplant malignancy, are at risk of long-term graft failure.

Objectives

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with graft survival after diagnosis of malignancy.

Conclusions

By controlling the modifiable risk factors and modality of treatment in our study, physicians can reach more effective treatment.

Results

At the end of the study, long-term graft failure was seen in 27 (10.2%) cases. One-year and 2-year graft survival after diagnosis of cancer were 93.6% and 91.7%, respectively. The univariate analysis showed that the incidence of chronic graft loss was significantly higher in male patients with solid cancers, withdrawal of immunosuppressant regimen, no response to treatment, and tumor metastasis. In continuation, the Cox model indicated that the significant risk factors associated with graft survival were type of cancer (P < 0.0001), response to treatment (P < 0.0001, HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.32), metastasis (P < 0.0001, HR = 5.68, 95% CI: 2.24 - 14.42), and treatment modality (P = 0.0001).

Patients and Methods

To reach this purpose, we conducted a historical cohort study in Iran and 266 cases with posttransplant malignancy were followed up from diagnosis of malignancy until long-term graft loss or the date of last visit. These patients were taken as a census from 16 Transplant Centers in Iran during 22 years follow-up period since October 1984 to December 2008. A Cox proportional hazards model was performed to determine the important independent predictors of graft survival after malignancy.

Background

All recipients of kidney transplantation, especially those with posttransplant malignancy, are at risk of long-term graft failure.

Objectives

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with graft survival after diagnosis of malignancy.

Neoplasms;Kidney Transplant;Proportional Hazards Model Neoplasms;Kidney Transplant;Proportional Hazards Model http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20281 Abbas Rahimi Foroushani Abbas Rahimi Foroushani Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahmoud Salesi Mahmoud Salesi Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zohreh Rostami Zohreh Rostami Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ali Reza Mehrazmay Ali Reza Mehrazmay Behaviolar Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behaviolar Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Jamile Mohammadi Jamile Mohammadi Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Behzad Einollahi Behzad Einollahi Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nephrology and Urology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Eshraghian Mohammad Reza Eshraghian Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 141556446, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2188989127 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 141556446, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/fax: +98-2188989127
en 26734478 10.5812/ircmj.20306 Delayed Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism in Children: Report of 3 Cases Delayed Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism in Children: Report of 3 Cases case-report case-report Introduction

Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in children and presented with various sign and symptoms; its diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion.

Case Presentation

We report 3 cases with unusual presentations of hypothyroidism and with delay in diagnosis that referred to Pediatric Endocrine Outpatient Clinic in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran with different clinical manifestations. They had decreased Thyroxin (T4) and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. One case had mental retardation and deafness, but the other two cases had normal neurodevelopment. Some additional interesting findings were as follows: short stature, delayed bone age, teeth eruption impairment, hair loss, anemia and hypercholesterolemia, persistent and long-term constipation that had led to several abdominal surgeries. After a year of hormonal replacement therapy, their growth parameters and hematological values improved.

Conclusions

We recommend thyroid hormonal evaluation for any children with short stature, especially with delayed bone age, in order to detect and treat hypothyroidism at the right time. It seems that more attention to pediatric growth is necessary.

Introduction

Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in children and presented with various sign and symptoms; its diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion.

Case Presentation

We report 3 cases with unusual presentations of hypothyroidism and with delay in diagnosis that referred to Pediatric Endocrine Outpatient Clinic in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran with different clinical manifestations. They had decreased Thyroxin (T4) and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. One case had mental retardation and deafness, but the other two cases had normal neurodevelopment. Some additional interesting findings were as follows: short stature, delayed bone age, teeth eruption impairment, hair loss, anemia and hypercholesterolemia, persistent and long-term constipation that had led to several abdominal surgeries. After a year of hormonal replacement therapy, their growth parameters and hematological values improved.

Conclusions

We recommend thyroid hormonal evaluation for any children with short stature, especially with delayed bone age, in order to detect and treat hypothyroidism at the right time. It seems that more attention to pediatric growth is necessary.

Hypothyroidism;Deafness;Constipation;Short Stature;Mental Retardation;Bone Age Hypothyroidism;Deafness;Constipation;Short Stature;Mental Retardation;Bone Age http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20306 Nosrat Ghaemi Nosrat Ghaemi Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Sepideh Bagheri Sepideh Bagheri Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Saghi Elmi Saghi Elmi Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155181130, Fax: +98-5137273943 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155181130, Fax: +98-5137273943 Saber Mohammadzade Rezaee Saber Mohammadzade Rezaee Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran Sam Elmi Sam Elmi Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Reza Erfani Sayyar Reza Erfani Sayyar Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 26734480 10.5812/ircmj.20551 Intelligence Care: A Nursing Care Strategy in Respiratory Intensive Care Unit Intelligence Care: A Nursing Care Strategy in Respiratory Intensive Care Unit research-article research-article Conclusions

Intelligence care is a comprehensive strategy that in addition to recognizing barriers and bridges of nursing care, with predisposing and precipitating forces it can convert barriers to bridges.

Results

Intelligence care emerged as a main theme, has a broad spectrum of categories and subcategories with bridges and barriers, including equality of bridges and barriers (contingency care, forced oriented task); bridges are more than barriers (human-center care, innovative care, cultural care, participatory care, feedback of nursing services, therapeutic-professional communication, specialized and independent care, and independent nurse practice), and barriers are higher than bridges (personalized care, neglecting to provide proper care, ineffectiveness of supportive caring wards, futility care, nurse burnout, and nonethical-nonprofessional communications).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to explore the appropriate nursing care strategy in the RICU in order to unify and coordinate the nursing care in special atmosphere of the RICU.

Materials and Methods

This conventional content analysis study was conducted on 23 health care providers working in the RICU of Sina and Shariati hospitals affiliated to Tehran university of medical sciences and the RICU of Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences from August 2012 to the end of July 2013. In addition to in-depth semistructured interviews, uninterrupted observations, field notes, logs, patient’s reports and documents were used. Information saturation was determined as an interview termination criterion.

Background

Working in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) is multidimensional that requires nurses with special attributes to involve with the accountability of the critically ill patients.

Conclusions

Intelligence care is a comprehensive strategy that in addition to recognizing barriers and bridges of nursing care, with predisposing and precipitating forces it can convert barriers to bridges.

Results

Intelligence care emerged as a main theme, has a broad spectrum of categories and subcategories with bridges and barriers, including equality of bridges and barriers (contingency care, forced oriented task); bridges are more than barriers (human-center care, innovative care, cultural care, participatory care, feedback of nursing services, therapeutic-professional communication, specialized and independent care, and independent nurse practice), and barriers are higher than bridges (personalized care, neglecting to provide proper care, ineffectiveness of supportive caring wards, futility care, nurse burnout, and nonethical-nonprofessional communications).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to explore the appropriate nursing care strategy in the RICU in order to unify and coordinate the nursing care in special atmosphere of the RICU.

Materials and Methods

This conventional content analysis study was conducted on 23 health care providers working in the RICU of Sina and Shariati hospitals affiliated to Tehran university of medical sciences and the RICU of Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences from August 2012 to the end of July 2013. In addition to in-depth semistructured interviews, uninterrupted observations, field notes, logs, patient’s reports and documents were used. Information saturation was determined as an interview termination criterion.

Background

Working in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) is multidimensional that requires nurses with special attributes to involve with the accountability of the critically ill patients.

Intelligence Care;Graneheim and Lundman’s Method;Nursing Care;Respiratory Intensive Care Unit;Iran Intelligence Care;Graneheim and Lundman’s Method;Nursing Care;Respiratory Intensive Care Unit;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20551 Amir Vahedian-Azimi Amir Vahedian-Azimi Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abbas Ebadi Abbas Ebadi Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122149019, Fax:+98-2126127237 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122149019, Fax:+98-2126127237 Soheil Saadat Soheil Saadat Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fazlollah Ahmadi Fazlollah Ahmadi Nursing Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Nursing Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 26734475 10.5812/ircmj.20111 Comparing the Effects of Reflexology and Footbath on Sleep Quality in the Elderly: A Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing the Effects of Reflexology and Footbath on Sleep Quality in the Elderly: A Controlled Clinical Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

It is suggested that the training of nonpharmacological methods to improve sleep quality such as reflexology and foot bath be included in the elderly health programs. In addition, it is recommended that the impact of these interventions on subjective sleep quality using polysomnographic recordings be explored in future research.

Background

Sleep disorders are common mental disorders reported among the elderly in all countries, and with nonpharmacological interventions, they could be helped to improve their sleep quality.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two interventions, foot reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people.

Patients and Methods

This three-group randomized clinical trial (two experimental groups and a control group) was conducted on 69 elderly men. The two experimental groups had reflexology (n = 23) and foot bath (n = 23) interventions for 6 weeks. The reflexology intervention was done in the mornings, once a week for ten minutes on each foot. The participants in the foot bath group were asked to soak their feet in 41°C to 42°C water one hour before sleeping. The pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was completed before and after the intervention through an interview process.

Results

The results showed that the PSQI scores after intervention compared to before it in the reflexology and foot bath groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01 , P = 0.001); however, in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference (P = 0.14). In addition, the total score changes among the three groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01). Comparing the score changes of quality of sleep between the reflexology and foot bath groups showed that there was no significant difference in none of the components and the total score (P = 0.09). The two interventions had the same impact on the quality of sleep.

Conclusions

It is suggested that the training of nonpharmacological methods to improve sleep quality such as reflexology and foot bath be included in the elderly health programs. In addition, it is recommended that the impact of these interventions on subjective sleep quality using polysomnographic recordings be explored in future research.

Background

Sleep disorders are common mental disorders reported among the elderly in all countries, and with nonpharmacological interventions, they could be helped to improve their sleep quality.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two interventions, foot reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people.

Patients and Methods

This three-group randomized clinical trial (two experimental groups and a control group) was conducted on 69 elderly men. The two experimental groups had reflexology (n = 23) and foot bath (n = 23) interventions for 6 weeks. The reflexology intervention was done in the mornings, once a week for ten minutes on each foot. The participants in the foot bath group were asked to soak their feet in 41°C to 42°C water one hour before sleeping. The pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was completed before and after the intervention through an interview process.

Results

The results showed that the PSQI scores after intervention compared to before it in the reflexology and foot bath groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01 , P = 0.001); however, in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference (P = 0.14). In addition, the total score changes among the three groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01). Comparing the score changes of quality of sleep between the reflexology and foot bath groups showed that there was no significant difference in none of the components and the total score (P = 0.09). The two interventions had the same impact on the quality of sleep.

Bath;Elderly;Reflexology;Sleep Bath;Elderly;Reflexology;Sleep http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20111 Leila Valizadeh Leila Valizadeh Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Alehe Seyyedrasooli Alehe Seyyedrasooli Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Vahid Zamanazadeh Vahid Zamanazadeh Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Khadijeh Nasiri Khadijeh Nasiri Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Medical- Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9372681253, Fax: +98-4524234042 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Medical- Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9372681253, Fax: +98-4524234042
en 26734476 10.5812/ircmj.20211 Transdermal Wound Oxygen Therapy on Pressure Ulcer Healing: A Single-Blind Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial Transdermal Wound Oxygen Therapy on Pressure Ulcer Healing: A Single-Blind Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Transdermal wound oxygen therapy can effectively promote wound healing in patients with pressure ulcers.

Results

After 12 days of wound oxygen therapy, the number of patients with complete wound healing in the experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group. Moreover, the total mean of wound area in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of TWOT on the healing of pressure ulcers.

Patients and Methods

This study was a randomized controlled trial, and the convenient sample including 100 patients hospitalized in two university-affiliated medical-surgical intensive care units and one neurology unit located in Qazvin, Iran were studied. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcer on the sacral or ischial areas were randomly assigned to either the control or the experimental groups. The experimental group received a 12-day transdermal wound oxygen therapy. Wound status was assessed seven times before the intervention, as well as two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve days after the intervention.

Background

Although healthcare quality has considerably improved in many countries, pressure ulcer is still a major health challenge worldwide.

Conclusions

Transdermal wound oxygen therapy can effectively promote wound healing in patients with pressure ulcers.

Results

After 12 days of wound oxygen therapy, the number of patients with complete wound healing in the experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group. Moreover, the total mean of wound area in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of TWOT on the healing of pressure ulcers.

Patients and Methods

This study was a randomized controlled trial, and the convenient sample including 100 patients hospitalized in two university-affiliated medical-surgical intensive care units and one neurology unit located in Qazvin, Iran were studied. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcer on the sacral or ischial areas were randomly assigned to either the control or the experimental groups. The experimental group received a 12-day transdermal wound oxygen therapy. Wound status was assessed seven times before the intervention, as well as two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve days after the intervention.

Background

Although healthcare quality has considerably improved in many countries, pressure ulcer is still a major health challenge worldwide.

Pressure Ulcer;Oxygen Therapy;Wounds Pressure Ulcer;Oxygen Therapy;Wounds http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20211 Jalil Azimian Jalil Azimian Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nahid Dehghan Nayeri Nahid Dehghan Nayeri Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123819057, Fax: +98-2812237268 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123819057, Fax: +98-2812237268 Enis Pourkhaleghi Enis Pourkhaleghi Department of Nursing, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Kosar General Hospital, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Kosar General Hospital, Qazvin, IR Iran Monireh Ansari Monireh Ansari Department of Nursing, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Boali Medical Hospital, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Boali Medical Hospital, Qazvin, IR Iran
en 26734483 10.5812/ircmj.20741 Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective review-article review-article Context

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency.

Evidence Acquisition

In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed.

Conclusions

Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies.

Results

The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used.

Context

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency.

Evidence Acquisition

In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed.

Conclusions

Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies.

Results

The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used.

Herbal Medicine;Dyspepsia;Medicinal Plants;Medicine, Traditional Herbal Medicine;Dyspepsia;Medicinal Plants;Medicine, Traditional http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20741 Mahmoud Babaeian Mahmoud Babaeian Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Naseri Mohsen Naseri Traditional Medicin Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran; Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2166464320 Traditional Medicin Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran; Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2166464320 Mohammad Kamalinejad Mohammad Kamalinejad Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farzaneh Ghaffari Farzaneh Ghaffari Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemeh Emadi Fatemeh Emadi Traditional Medicin Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Traditional Medicin Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Awat Feizi Awat Feizi Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University Medical, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University Medical, Isfahan, IR Iran Nafiseh Hosseini Yekta Nafiseh Hosseini Yekta Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Peyman Adibi Peyman Adibi Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 26732124 10.5812/ircmj.26622 Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound research-article research-article Objectives

In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones.

Materials and Methods

This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded.

Results

Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of inhibition zones in exposed and non-exposed samples of Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus.

Conclusions

This study clearly shows that short-term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasonic waves can significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. We believe that this physical method of making the antibiotic-resistant population susceptible can open new horizons in antibiotic therapy of a broad range of diseases, including tuberculosis.

Background

Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources.

Objectives

In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones.

Materials and Methods

This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded.

Results

Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of inhibition zones in exposed and non-exposed samples of Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus.

Conclusions

This study clearly shows that short-term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasonic waves can significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. We believe that this physical method of making the antibiotic-resistant population susceptible can open new horizons in antibiotic therapy of a broad range of diseases, including tuberculosis.

Background

Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources.

Drug Resistance;Ultrasound;Infection;Antibiotics Drug Resistance;Ultrasound;Infection;Antibiotics http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26622 Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Radiology, Faculty of ParaMedicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran; Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112349332, Fax: +98-7112349332; +98-7112289113 Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Radiology, Faculty of ParaMedicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran; Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112349332, Fax: +98-7112349332; +98-7112289113 Leili Darvish Leili Darvish Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Mohammad Abounajmi Mohammad Abounajmi Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Samira Zarei Samira Zarei Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Tahereh Zare Tahereh Zare Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad Taheri Mohammad Taheri Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Samaneh Nematollahi Samaneh Nematollahi Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 26734486 10.5812/ircmj.32016 Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone research-article research-article Background

South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence.

Conclusions

It is necessary to implement simultaneous national interventions as soon as possible to improve the economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental conditions. In the current study, unlike the previous attempts, national stakeholders, including ministry of petroleum, ministry of health and medical education, interior ministry, ministry of cooperatives, labor, and social welfare, and Iran drug control headquarters have played active roles. This fact is evident in their formulation of a policy document in the region and action plan after reaching a memorandum of understanding.

Results

Different factors were identified affecting the prevalence of drug addiction. Various prevention and treatment interventions have been conducted in response to drug abuse in the region, though they have been often sectional, insular, inconsistent, and immeasurable in terms of impact. After the study, a combination of compulsory, facilitative, and promotional interventions was proposed to reduce drug abuse by 10% within a strategic 5-year plan. These interventions are based on 3 aspects: people, industry, and governance, which have been announced and approved based on a memorandum of understanding.

Objectives

The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region.

Materials and Methods

The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) and analysis of participated stakeholders’ views. The study was conducted from January 2014 to May 2015 in Bushehr province. Intentional sampling was used in qualitative section. Collected data were classified in 3 areas: recognition, directions, and implementation requirements.

Background

South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence.

Conclusions

It is necessary to implement simultaneous national interventions as soon as possible to improve the economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental conditions. In the current study, unlike the previous attempts, national stakeholders, including ministry of petroleum, ministry of health and medical education, interior ministry, ministry of cooperatives, labor, and social welfare, and Iran drug control headquarters have played active roles. This fact is evident in their formulation of a policy document in the region and action plan after reaching a memorandum of understanding.

Results

Different factors were identified affecting the prevalence of drug addiction. Various prevention and treatment interventions have been conducted in response to drug abuse in the region, though they have been often sectional, insular, inconsistent, and immeasurable in terms of impact. After the study, a combination of compulsory, facilitative, and promotional interventions was proposed to reduce drug abuse by 10% within a strategic 5-year plan. These interventions are based on 3 aspects: people, industry, and governance, which have been announced and approved based on a memorandum of understanding.

Objectives

The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region.

Materials and Methods

The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) and analysis of participated stakeholders’ views. The study was conducted from January 2014 to May 2015 in Bushehr province. Intentional sampling was used in qualitative section. Collected data were classified in 3 areas: recognition, directions, and implementation requirements.

Asalouyeh;South Pars Region;Workplace;Substance-Related Disorders Asalouyeh;South Pars Region;Workplace;Substance-Related Disorders http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=32016 Behzad Damari Behzad Damari Social Determinants of Health Department, National Institute for Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Department, National Institute for Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahin Ahmadi Pishkuhi Mahin Ahmadi Pishkuhi Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Irvan Masoudiasl Irvan Masoudiasl Department of Health Services Administration, School of Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Services Administration, School of Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2183357569, Fax: +98-2183357508 Department of Health Services Administration, School of Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Services Administration, School of Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2183357569, Fax: +98-2183357508 Golamreza Bostanmanesh Golamreza Bostanmanesh Social and Health Department, Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor, and Social Welfare, Tehran, IR Iran Social and Health Department, Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor, and Social Welfare, Tehran, IR Iran
en 26734485 10.5812/ircmj.31277 Effect of Relaxation With Guided Imagery on The Physical and Psychological Symptoms of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Effect of Relaxation With Guided Imagery on The Physical and Psychological Symptoms of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy research-article research-article Conclusions

Relaxation with guided imagery had a positive effect on mediating anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients.

Results

The experimental group showed significant decreases in insomnia (-0.34 ± 0.83, P < 0.05), pain (-0.28 ± 0.58, P < 0.05), anxiety (-3.56 ± 2.94, P < 0.00), and depression (-2.38 ± 2.70, P < 0.00) between the pretest and the posttest. Comparing the two groups, statistically significant differences were found in the overall symptom distress (B = 0.11, P < 0.05), insomnia (B = 0.50, P <0.05), depression (B = 0.38, P < 0.05), and numbness in physical symptoms (B = 0.38, P < 0.05), as well as in anxiety (B = 3.08, P < 0.00) and depression (B = 1.86, P < 0.00) in psychological distress. One week of relaxation with guided imagery can significantly improve the overall symptoms of distress, insomnia, depression, physical symptoms, and anxiety, and can decrease psychological distress.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of relaxation with guided imagery on patients with breast cancer.

Patients and Methods

A two-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design with a randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-five breast cancer patients from one medical center in Taiwan were enrolled in the study. These patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 32) or to the control group (n = 33). Both groups received chemotherapy self-care education, but the experimental group also received relaxation with guided imagery training. The training on relaxation with guided imagery was conducted before chemotherapy, and the patients were supplied with a compact disc detailing the performance of relaxation with guided imagery for 20 minutes daily at home for 7 days after chemotherapy.

Background

Breast cancer patients frequently experience psychological distress during the chemotherapy period.

Conclusions

Relaxation with guided imagery had a positive effect on mediating anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients.

Results

The experimental group showed significant decreases in insomnia (-0.34 ± 0.83, P < 0.05), pain (-0.28 ± 0.58, P < 0.05), anxiety (-3.56 ± 2.94, P < 0.00), and depression (-2.38 ± 2.70, P < 0.00) between the pretest and the posttest. Comparing the two groups, statistically significant differences were found in the overall symptom distress (B = 0.11, P < 0.05), insomnia (B = 0.50, P <0.05), depression (B = 0.38, P < 0.05), and numbness in physical symptoms (B = 0.38, P < 0.05), as well as in anxiety (B = 3.08, P < 0.00) and depression (B = 1.86, P < 0.00) in psychological distress. One week of relaxation with guided imagery can significantly improve the overall symptoms of distress, insomnia, depression, physical symptoms, and anxiety, and can decrease psychological distress.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of relaxation with guided imagery on patients with breast cancer.

Patients and Methods

A two-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design with a randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-five breast cancer patients from one medical center in Taiwan were enrolled in the study. These patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 32) or to the control group (n = 33). Both groups received chemotherapy self-care education, but the experimental group also received relaxation with guided imagery training. The training on relaxation with guided imagery was conducted before chemotherapy, and the patients were supplied with a compact disc detailing the performance of relaxation with guided imagery for 20 minutes daily at home for 7 days after chemotherapy.

Background

Breast cancer patients frequently experience psychological distress during the chemotherapy period.

Relaxation;Guided Imagery;Breast Cancer;Chemotherapy;Symptom Relaxation;Guided Imagery;Breast Cancer;Chemotherapy;Symptom http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31277 Shu-Fen Chen Shu-Fen Chen Department of Nursing, Mackay Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan Department of Nursing, Mackay Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan Hsiu-Ho Wang Hsiu-Ho Wang Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, No.306, Yuanpei St., HsinChu, Taiwan 30015, R.O.C. Tel: +886-35381183, Fax: +886-36102332, E-mail:; Ue-Lin Chung, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taiwan. No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City, Taiwan R.O.C. Tel: +886-426318652, Fax: +886-426331198 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, No.306, Yuanpei St., HsinChu, Taiwan 30015, R.O.C. Tel: +886-35381183, Fax: +886-36102332, E-mail:; Ue-Lin Chung, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taiwan. No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City, Taiwan R.O.C. Tel: +886-426318652, Fax: +886-426331198 Hsing-Yu Yang Hsing-Yu Yang Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan Ue-Lin Chung Ue-Lin Chung Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, No.306, Yuanpei St., HsinChu, Taiwan 30015, R.O.C. Tel: +886-35381183, Fax: +886-36102332, E-mail:; Ue-Lin Chung, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taiwan. No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City, Taiwan R.O.C. Tel: +886-426318652, Fax: +886-426331198 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, No.306, Yuanpei St., HsinChu, Taiwan 30015, R.O.C. Tel: +886-35381183, Fax: +886-36102332, E-mail:; Ue-Lin Chung, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taiwan. No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City, Taiwan R.O.C. Tel: +886-426318652, Fax: +886-426331198
en 26734487 10.5812/ircmj.34181 Occult HCV Infection: The Current State of Knowledge Occult HCV Infection: The Current State of Knowledge review-article review-article Results

OCI has been reported in several high-risk groups, especially in hemodialysis patients and subjects with cryptogenic liver disease. Furthermore, some studies have proposed a specific immune response for OCI in comparison with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).

Conclusions

With a clinical history of approximately 11 years, occult HCV infection can be considered an occult type of CHC. Evidences suggest that considering OCI in these high-risk groups seems to be necessary. We suggest that alternative diagnostic tests should be applied and that there is a need for the participation of all countries to determine the epidemiology of this type of HCV infection. Additionally, evaluating OCI in blood transfusion centers and in patients who receive large amounts of blood and clotting factors, such as patients with hemophilia, should be performed in future projects.

Context

Occult HCV infection (OCI) is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in hepatocytes and the absence of HCV in the serum according to usual tests. We aimed to define OCI and provide information about the currently available diagnostic methods. Then we focus on specific groups that are at high risk of OCI and finally investigate immune responses to OCI and the available treatment approaches.

Evidence Acquisition

PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “occult”, “hepatitis C virus” and “occult HCV infection”. The definition of OCI, diagnostic methods, specific groups that are at high risk and available treatment approaches were extract from literature. An analysis of available articles on OCI also was done based on Scopus search results.

Results

OCI has been reported in several high-risk groups, especially in hemodialysis patients and subjects with cryptogenic liver disease. Furthermore, some studies have proposed a specific immune response for OCI in comparison with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).

Conclusions

With a clinical history of approximately 11 years, occult HCV infection can be considered an occult type of CHC. Evidences suggest that considering OCI in these high-risk groups seems to be necessary. We suggest that alternative diagnostic tests should be applied and that there is a need for the participation of all countries to determine the epidemiology of this type of HCV infection. Additionally, evaluating OCI in blood transfusion centers and in patients who receive large amounts of blood and clotting factors, such as patients with hemophilia, should be performed in future projects.

Context

Occult HCV infection (OCI) is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in hepatocytes and the absence of HCV in the serum according to usual tests. We aimed to define OCI and provide information about the currently available diagnostic methods. Then we focus on specific groups that are at high risk of OCI and finally investigate immune responses to OCI and the available treatment approaches.

Evidence Acquisition

PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “occult”, “hepatitis C virus” and “occult HCV infection”. The definition of OCI, diagnostic methods, specific groups that are at high risk and available treatment approaches were extract from literature. An analysis of available articles on OCI also was done based on Scopus search results.

Hepatitis C;Occult infection;Review;Knowledge Hepatitis C;Occult infection;Review;Knowledge http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34181 Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Reza Hadi Reza Hadi Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran Hamidreza Karimi-Sari Hamidreza Karimi-Sari Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Reza Ajudani Reza Ajudani Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fardin Dolatimehr Fardin Dolatimehr Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdi Ramezani-Binabaj Mahdi Ramezani-Binabaj Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Students’ Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Seyyed Mohammad Miri Seyyed Mohammad Miri Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran; Kowsar Medical Institute, Heerlen, The Netherlands Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran; Kowsar Medical Institute, Heerlen, The Netherlands Seyed Moayed Alavian Seyed Moayed Alavian Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran; Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gasteroenterology and Liver Disease (BRCGL), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188945186, Fax: +98-2188945188 Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD), Tehran, IR Iran; Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gasteroenterology and Liver Disease (BRCGL), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188945186, Fax: +98-2188945188
en 26732379 10.5812/ircmj.24609 Expression of bax and bcl2 Genes in MDMA-induced Hepatotoxicity on Rat Liver Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR Method through Triggering Programmed Cell Death Expression of <italic>bax</italic> and <italic>bcl2</italic> Genes in MDMA-induced Hepatotoxicity on Rat Liver Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR Method through Triggering Programmed Cell Death research-article research-article Background

3-4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic and psychoactive drug, which is known popularly as Ecstasy and has toxic effects on human organs.

Objectives

Considering the potential toxic interaction, this study was performed to quantify the expression of bax and bcl2 genes in MDMA-induced hepatotoxicity on rat liver. Subsequently, we evaluated pentoxifylline as a possible protective drug on hepatotoxicity.

Conclusions

The present study focused on molecular mechanism of MDMA in programmed cell death using gene expression quantification of a pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptoic gene in MDMA-induced hepatotoxocity. The results showed that MDMA prompted apoptosis in liver and pentoxifylline protected against hepatotoxicity before and after taking MDMA.

Results

Using Real-Time quantitative PCR results, the gene expression ratio of bcl2 were calculated 93.80±20.64, 340.45 ± 36.60 and 47.13 ± 5.84 fold in MDMA, treated-1 and treated-2 groups, respectively. Furthermore, this ratio for bax gene obtained 2.13±0.33 fold in MDMA, 1.55 ± 0.26 fold in treated-1 and 10.44 ± 1.56 fold in treated-2 groups.

Materials and Methods

Adult male Wistar rats weighting 250 - 300 grams were used in the study. The rats were equally distributed into four experimental groups (5 rat/group). MDMA was dissolved in PBS and injected intraperitoneally (IP) including untreated control, MDMA (MDMA dissolved in PBS), treated-1 (MDMA followed by PTX) and treated-2 (PTX followed by MDMA). All animals given MDMA received 3 doses of 7.5mg/kg with two hours gap between doses. Liver tissue was removed after anaesthetizing. Subsequently, RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and Real-Time PCR were performed. Finally, data analyzed statistically to determine significantly differences between the groups (P value < 0.05).

Background

3-4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic and psychoactive drug, which is known popularly as Ecstasy and has toxic effects on human organs.

Objectives

Considering the potential toxic interaction, this study was performed to quantify the expression of bax and bcl2 genes in MDMA-induced hepatotoxicity on rat liver. Subsequently, we evaluated pentoxifylline as a possible protective drug on hepatotoxicity.

Conclusions

The present study focused on molecular mechanism of MDMA in programmed cell death using gene expression quantification of a pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptoic gene in MDMA-induced hepatotoxocity. The results showed that MDMA prompted apoptosis in liver and pentoxifylline protected against hepatotoxicity before and after taking MDMA.

Results

Using Real-Time quantitative PCR results, the gene expression ratio of bcl2 were calculated 93.80±20.64, 340.45 ± 36.60 and 47.13 ± 5.84 fold in MDMA, treated-1 and treated-2 groups, respectively. Furthermore, this ratio for bax gene obtained 2.13±0.33 fold in MDMA, 1.55 ± 0.26 fold in treated-1 and 10.44 ± 1.56 fold in treated-2 groups.

Materials and Methods

Adult male Wistar rats weighting 250 - 300 grams were used in the study. The rats were equally distributed into four experimental groups (5 rat/group). MDMA was dissolved in PBS and injected intraperitoneally (IP) including untreated control, MDMA (MDMA dissolved in PBS), treated-1 (MDMA followed by PTX) and treated-2 (PTX followed by MDMA). All animals given MDMA received 3 doses of 7.5mg/kg with two hours gap between doses. Liver tissue was removed after anaesthetizing. Subsequently, RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and Real-Time PCR were performed. Finally, data analyzed statistically to determine significantly differences between the groups (P value < 0.05).

Pentoxifylline;Anti-Apoptotic Gene;MDMA;Pro-Apoptotic Gene;qReal-Time PCR Pentoxifylline;Anti-Apoptotic Gene;MDMA;Pro-Apoptotic Gene;qReal-Time PCR http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24609 Mitra Behroozaghdam Mitra Behroozaghdam Department of Genetics, Faculty of Sciences, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Genetics, Faculty of Sciences, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Mehrdad Hashemi Mehrdad Hashemi Department of Genetics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of genetics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122006664, Fax: +21-22008049 Department of Genetics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of genetics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122006664, Fax: +21-22008049 Gholamreza Javadi Gholamreza Javadi Department of Genetics, Faculty of Sciences, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Genetics, Faculty of Sciences, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Reza Mahdian Reza Mahdian Molecular Medicine Department, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran Molecular Medicine Department, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran Mansoureh Soleimani Mansoureh Soleimani Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran