Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 6 28 gregorian 2017 6 28 15 8
en 10.5812/ircmj.4141 Attitude and Usage of Mobile Phone among Students in Yazd University of Medical Science Attitude and Usage of Mobile Phone among Students in Yazd University of Medical Science letter letter Cellular Phone;Attitude;Universities;Students Cellular Phone;Attitude;Universities;Students 752 754 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4141 Mohamad Hosein Baghianimoghadam Mohamad Hosein Baghianimoghadam Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Hasan Shahbazi Hasan Shahbazi Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran; Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98 9139776513 Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran; Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98 9139776513 Dariush Masoodi Boroojeni Dariush Masoodi Boroojeni Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Behnam Baghianimoghadam Behnam Baghianimoghadam Reaserch Consultant, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Reaserch Consultant, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4615 Does DNA Methylation Plays a Critical Role in Osteoblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)? Does DNA Methylation Plays a Critical Role in Osteoblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)? letter letter Mesenchymal Stromal Cells;Cell Differentiation;Osteoblastic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells;Cell Differentiation;Osteoblastic 755 756 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4615 Najmaldin Saki Najmaldin Saki Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Majid Farshdousti Hagh Majid Farshdousti Hagh Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran, Tel: +98-4113364665, Fax: +98-4113364665 Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran, Tel: +98-4113364665, Fax: +98-4113364665 Esmaeil Mortaz Esmaeil Mortaz Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands Abdolreza Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza Ardeshiry Lajimi Young Researchers Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Young Researchers Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4244 Twin Pregnancy of a Complete Hydatidform Mole and a Co-existent Fetus: A Very Rare Case Report Twin Pregnancy of a Complete Hydatidform Mole and a Co-existent Fetus: A Very Rare Case Report letter letter Moles;Pregnancy;Fetus Moles;Pregnancy;Fetus 757 758 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4244 Afsaneh Tabandeh Afsaneh Tabandeh Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran Mahsa Besharat Mahsa Besharat Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1712340835, Fax: +98-1712369210 Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1712340835, Fax: +98-1712369210
en 10.5812/ircmj.13756 Concerns on the Growing Use of Lithium: The Pros and Cons Concerns on the Growing Use of Lithium: The Pros and Cons editorial editorial Lithium;Electrolytes;Toxicity;Environment Lithium;Electrolytes;Toxicity;Environment 629 632 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13756 Soodabeh Saeidnia Soodabeh Saeidnia Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Mohammad Abdollahi Mohammad Abdollahi Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 1417614411, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-21-66959104; Email: Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 1417614411, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-21-66959104; Email:
en 10.5812/ircmj.4030 The Comparative Effects of Atorvastatin and Quince Leaf Extract on Atherosclerosis The Comparative Effects of Atorvastatin and Quince Leaf Extract on Atherosclerosis research-article research-article Conclusions

These results indicate the lipid-lowering effects of quince leaf similar to atorvastatin and it can probably serve as a new potential natural product for atherosclerosis treatment.

Results

Oral administration of cholesterol for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma markers. Treatment with the extract at dose of 50 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of atorvastatin not only were reduced lipid profile in plasma (P < 0.05) but also were increased HDL-cholesterol levels. There were decrease (P = 0.04) in the liver enzymes in extract treated rabbits. However, plaque thickness had no significant difference in the aorta of treated rabbits compared with studied control.

Objectives

This study suggested that quince leaf effects on progression of atherosclerosis, and comparison with atorvastatin as a standard medication.

Materials and Methods

The effect of 50mg/kg of the quince leaf extract on lipid profiles was assessed by measuring the levels of totalcholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, and liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and AP) in plasma and were evaluated the thickness of aortic plaques in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits after stopping. These assessments were performed using 0.5 mg/kg of atorvastatin.

Background

This study investigates the ability of quince leaf extract to prevent progression of atherosclerosis and to determine the lipid-lowering effect of it.

Conclusions

These results indicate the lipid-lowering effects of quince leaf similar to atorvastatin and it can probably serve as a new potential natural product for atherosclerosis treatment.

Results

Oral administration of cholesterol for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma markers. Treatment with the extract at dose of 50 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of atorvastatin not only were reduced lipid profile in plasma (P < 0.05) but also were increased HDL-cholesterol levels. There were decrease (P = 0.04) in the liver enzymes in extract treated rabbits. However, plaque thickness had no significant difference in the aorta of treated rabbits compared with studied control.

Objectives

This study suggested that quince leaf effects on progression of atherosclerosis, and comparison with atorvastatin as a standard medication.

Materials and Methods

The effect of 50mg/kg of the quince leaf extract on lipid profiles was assessed by measuring the levels of totalcholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, and liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and AP) in plasma and were evaluated the thickness of aortic plaques in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits after stopping. These assessments were performed using 0.5 mg/kg of atorvastatin.

Background

This study investigates the ability of quince leaf extract to prevent progression of atherosclerosis and to determine the lipid-lowering effect of it.

Atherosclerosis;Atorvastatin;Liver Enzymes;Leaf Extract Atherosclerosis;Atorvastatin;Liver Enzymes;Leaf Extract 639 643 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4030 Farzaneh Khademi Farzaneh Khademi Department of Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188991118, Fax: +98-2188991117 Department of Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188991118, Fax: +98-2188991117 Behnam Danesh Behnam Danesh Department of Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Daruosh Mohammad Nejad Daruosh Mohammad Nejad Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.12107 Association of Depression and Anxiety With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Concerning Some Sociological Factors Association of Depression and Anxiety With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Concerning Some Sociological Factors research-article research-article Conclusions

Depression and anxiety have higher prevalence among diabetic patients and some sociological factors such as age, gender, job and education are related to these psychological disorders.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among diabetic patients with regards to some factors such as age, gender, level of education and occupational status.

Materials and Methods

One hundred and eighty four diabetic patients have participated in this study. To assess the severity of depression and anxiety Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory questionnaire were used respectively. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze the data.

Results

The results of the present study have shown that 70.7% of the diabetic patients were suffered from depression. Besides, 69.6% of them were diagnosed with anxiety. According to the result, diabetes related depression is affected by sex (OR: 2.767), age (OR: 2.222), level of education (OR: 4.145) and job status (OR: 3.901). It has been also resulted that gender (OR: 2.274), age (OR: 2.706) and Job Status (OR: 2.441) are the effective factors leading to anxiety.

Background

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with a high worldwide prevalence. It has been reported that diabetic patients are more prone to depression and anxiety.

Conclusions

Depression and anxiety have higher prevalence among diabetic patients and some sociological factors such as age, gender, job and education are related to these psychological disorders.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among diabetic patients with regards to some factors such as age, gender, level of education and occupational status.

Materials and Methods

One hundred and eighty four diabetic patients have participated in this study. To assess the severity of depression and anxiety Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory questionnaire were used respectively. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze the data.

Results

The results of the present study have shown that 70.7% of the diabetic patients were suffered from depression. Besides, 69.6% of them were diagnosed with anxiety. According to the result, diabetes related depression is affected by sex (OR: 2.767), age (OR: 2.222), level of education (OR: 4.145) and job status (OR: 3.901). It has been also resulted that gender (OR: 2.274), age (OR: 2.706) and Job Status (OR: 2.441) are the effective factors leading to anxiety.

Background

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with a high worldwide prevalence. It has been reported that diabetic patients are more prone to depression and anxiety.

Depression;Anxiety;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Depression;Anxiety;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 644 648 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12107 Maryam Palizgir Maryam Palizgir Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IR Iran Maryam Bakhtiari Maryam Bakhtiari Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel.: 98-91227773873 Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel.: 98-91227773873 Alireza Esteghamati Alireza Esteghamati Department of Endocrinology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Endocrinology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.8267 Evaluation of the Effects of Atorvastatin on the Treatment of Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of the Effects of Atorvastatin on the Treatment of Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: A Randomized Controlled Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Although we found a trend towards decreasing SPAH and improving 6MWD, no statistically significant shift were detected in our outcomes due to inadequate sample size.

Patients and Methods

A registered (IRCT201108257411N1), triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed in Rasoule Akram hospital, Tehran, from 2009 to 2011. Forty five patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension due to COPD were recruited and randomized to two groups receiving either Atorvastatin 40 mg/d or placebo in addition to their current treatment for 6 months. The outcomes including systolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH), cardiac output (CO), right ventricular size (RVS), CRP, 6 min walk distance test (6MWD), and spirometry parameters were measured after 6 months.

Background

Since pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) causes poor prognosis and inflammatory process involved in PH, it is supposed that Statins with anti-inflammatory effects might be useful in the treatment of PH.

Results

Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. After 6 months, pulmonary hypertension changed from 48.5 ± 6.9 to 42.9 ± 9.3 mmHg for Atorvastatin users and from 49.7 ± 11.4 to 48.2 ± 14.6 mmHg for Placebo users (P = 0.19, CI - 13.57 - 2.89), 6MWD after 6 months was 339 ± 155 meters in case group versus 340 ± 106 meters in control group (P = 0.98, CI - 92.58 - 91.15). There were no significant changes in other outcomes including CRP, RVS, CO and spirometry parameters.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Atorvastatin on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with COPD.

Conclusions

Although we found a trend towards decreasing SPAH and improving 6MWD, no statistically significant shift were detected in our outcomes due to inadequate sample size.

Patients and Methods

A registered (IRCT201108257411N1), triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed in Rasoule Akram hospital, Tehran, from 2009 to 2011. Forty five patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension due to COPD were recruited and randomized to two groups receiving either Atorvastatin 40 mg/d or placebo in addition to their current treatment for 6 months. The outcomes including systolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH), cardiac output (CO), right ventricular size (RVS), CRP, 6 min walk distance test (6MWD), and spirometry parameters were measured after 6 months.

Background

Since pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) causes poor prognosis and inflammatory process involved in PH, it is supposed that Statins with anti-inflammatory effects might be useful in the treatment of PH.

Results

Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. After 6 months, pulmonary hypertension changed from 48.5 ± 6.9 to 42.9 ± 9.3 mmHg for Atorvastatin users and from 49.7 ± 11.4 to 48.2 ± 14.6 mmHg for Placebo users (P = 0.19, CI - 13.57 - 2.89), 6MWD after 6 months was 339 ± 155 meters in case group versus 340 ± 106 meters in control group (P = 0.98, CI - 92.58 - 91.15). There were no significant changes in other outcomes including CRP, RVS, CO and spirometry parameters.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Atorvastatin on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with COPD.

Hypertension, Pulmonary;Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD);Statin Hypertension, Pulmonary;Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD);Statin 649 654 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8267 Seyed Ali Javad Moosavi Seyed Ali Javad Moosavi Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hanieh Raji Hanieh Raji Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-6114163728 Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-6114163728 Masoomeh Faghankhani Masoomeh Faghankhani Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Rostam Yazdani Rostam Yazdani Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Mansour Esmaeili Mansour Esmaeili Department of Cardiology, Iranshar Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Cardiology, Iranshar Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.11810 Perceived Barriers Affecting Access to Preventive Dental Services: Application of DEMATEL Method Perceived Barriers Affecting Access to Preventive Dental Services: Application of DEMATEL Method research-article research-article Results

The five determinants of cost, inconvenience, fear, organization, and patient-dentist relationship were determined as barriers to access to dental services among which the cost and patient-dentist relationship were identified as the first and last priorities with the coordinates (1.4 and 1.4) and (1.25 and -0.65), respectively.

Conclusions

High cost of dental care has led to not referring patients to the clinic. Oral health costs are too high; however insurance organizations have no commitment to support such services. Policymakers, administrators, and insurance organizations have a major role in improving access to dental services. These decision-makers in making their policies can provide the required financial resources, shift the available resources towards preventive care and periodic checkups, and consider providing proper and sufficient places for dental care facilities.

Background

Identifying perceived access barriers to preventive dental services is one of the basic steps to improve the public health.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the perceived barriers affecting access to preventive dental services in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012.

Patients and Methods

This research was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study conducted in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012 using decision–making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The study sample included all patients (100 patients) who had referred to the endodontic treatment department from 26 - 31 May, 2012. The required data were collected using a questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and MATLAB 7.9.0 SPSSS 18.0, as well as, some descriptive and analytical tests including Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), and Independent T- Test.

Results

The five determinants of cost, inconvenience, fear, organization, and patient-dentist relationship were determined as barriers to access to dental services among which the cost and patient-dentist relationship were identified as the first and last priorities with the coordinates (1.4 and 1.4) and (1.25 and -0.65), respectively.

Conclusions

High cost of dental care has led to not referring patients to the clinic. Oral health costs are too high; however insurance organizations have no commitment to support such services. Policymakers, administrators, and insurance organizations have a major role in improving access to dental services. These decision-makers in making their policies can provide the required financial resources, shift the available resources towards preventive care and periodic checkups, and consider providing proper and sufficient places for dental care facilities.

Background

Identifying perceived access barriers to preventive dental services is one of the basic steps to improve the public health.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the perceived barriers affecting access to preventive dental services in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012.

Patients and Methods

This research was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study conducted in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012 using decision–making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The study sample included all patients (100 patients) who had referred to the endodontic treatment department from 26 - 31 May, 2012. The required data were collected using a questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and MATLAB 7.9.0 SPSSS 18.0, as well as, some descriptive and analytical tests including Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), and Independent T- Test.

Public Health;Dental Care;Hospital Dental Services Public Health;Dental Care;Hospital Dental Services 655 662 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11810 Mohammadkarim Bahadori Mohammadkarim Bahadori Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ramin Ravangard Ramin Ravangard School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Baratali Asghari Baratali Asghari Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182482417, Fax: +98-2188057022 Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182482417, Fax: +98-2188057022
en 10.5812/ircmj.12500 Perceived Social Support Among People With Physical Disability Perceived Social Support Among People With Physical Disability research-article research-article Conclusions

Based on the results, participants in the study didn’t have favorable status with respect to perceived social support (in all dimensions) from their social network members. While, social support as one of the social determinants of health, plays an important role in improving psychological conditions in people’s lives; therefore, being aware of social support and designing effective interventions to improve it for the disabled is very important.

Results

The present sample comprised of 68 (50%) male and 68 (50%) female with the mean age of 33 (SD = 8.9) years. Based on the results, mean of functional support was 135. 57 (SD = 98.77) and mean of structural support was 77.37 (SD = 52.37). Regression analysis model, demonstrates that variables of age and marital status remained in the model as significant predictors of functional support (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively) and structural support (P = 0.002, P = 0.006, respectively).

Background

Disability is more based on social, rather than medical aspects. Lack of attention and social support may impact on participation of people with physical disability in various aspects and their return to normal life in the society.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine perceived social support and related factors among physically disabled in the city of Tehran.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study by using simple random sampling was conducted on 136 people with physically disabled who were covered by Welfare Organization of Tehran. The Norbeck social support questionnaire was used .Multiple linear regression analysis with the backward method was used to identify the adjusted association between perceived social support as dependent variable and demographic variables as independent variables.

Conclusions

Based on the results, participants in the study didn’t have favorable status with respect to perceived social support (in all dimensions) from their social network members. While, social support as one of the social determinants of health, plays an important role in improving psychological conditions in people’s lives; therefore, being aware of social support and designing effective interventions to improve it for the disabled is very important.

Results

The present sample comprised of 68 (50%) male and 68 (50%) female with the mean age of 33 (SD = 8.9) years. Based on the results, mean of functional support was 135. 57 (SD = 98.77) and mean of structural support was 77.37 (SD = 52.37). Regression analysis model, demonstrates that variables of age and marital status remained in the model as significant predictors of functional support (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively) and structural support (P = 0.002, P = 0.006, respectively).

Background

Disability is more based on social, rather than medical aspects. Lack of attention and social support may impact on participation of people with physical disability in various aspects and their return to normal life in the society.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine perceived social support and related factors among physically disabled in the city of Tehran.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study by using simple random sampling was conducted on 136 people with physically disabled who were covered by Welfare Organization of Tehran. The Norbeck social support questionnaire was used .Multiple linear regression analysis with the backward method was used to identify the adjusted association between perceived social support as dependent variable and demographic variables as independent variables.

Perceived Social Support; Physically Disabled; Welfare Organization; Iran Perceived Social Support; Physically Disabled; Welfare Organization; Iran 663 667 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12500 Ameneh Setareh Forouzan Ameneh Setareh Forouzan Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abolfazl Mahmoodi Abolfazl Mahmoodi Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-22756112 Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-22756112 Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Yahya Salimi Yahya Salimi Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Public Health School, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Public Health School, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Public Health School, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Public Health School, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Homeira Sajjadi Homeira Sajjadi Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zohreh Mahmoodi Zohreh Mahmoodi
en 10.5812/ircmj.11258 Is Certolizumab Pegol Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Patients with Moderate to Severe Crohn’s Disease? A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials Is Certolizumab Pegol Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Patients with Moderate to Severe Crohn’s Disease? A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials research-article research-article Conclusions

Cp is effective for inducing clinical response and maintenance of clinical remission in patients with moderate to severe CD with similar side-effect profile as the control arms.

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antibodies are currently used in patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease (CD) who are unresponsive to conventional therapies. Certolizumab pegol (Cp) is one of the anti-TNF-α agents introduced for the management of CD and rheumatoid arthritis.

Objectives

The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of Cp in inducing clinical response and remission in CD and the associated adverse events. The effect of Cp in terms of CD patients’ C-reactive protein (CRP) level was also studied.

Patients and Methods

Literature was searched for studies investigated the efficacy of Cp on inducing clinical response and maintaining remission in the patients with CD between 1966 and July 2012.

Results

Among 165 potentially relevant studies, six with a total of 1695 patients met the inclusion criteria and were meta-analyzed. In comparison to control groups, patients who received Cp had a relative risk (RR) of 1.38 with absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.21), number needed for treatment (NNT) = 9; P < 0.0001 ) for clinical response and RR of 1.54 (ARR = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.0198 to 0.2), (NNT = 12; P < 0.0001) for maintenance of clinical remission and non-significant RR of 1.24 (P = 0.052) for induction of clinical remission. Baseline CRP did not significantly alter the magnitude or response. Adverse events were not significantly different among patients receiving Cp comparing to placebo.

Conclusions

Cp is effective for inducing clinical response and maintenance of clinical remission in patients with moderate to severe CD with similar side-effect profile as the control arms.

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antibodies are currently used in patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease (CD) who are unresponsive to conventional therapies. Certolizumab pegol (Cp) is one of the anti-TNF-α agents introduced for the management of CD and rheumatoid arthritis.

Objectives

The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of Cp in inducing clinical response and remission in CD and the associated adverse events. The effect of Cp in terms of CD patients’ C-reactive protein (CRP) level was also studied.

Patients and Methods

Literature was searched for studies investigated the efficacy of Cp on inducing clinical response and maintaining remission in the patients with CD between 1966 and July 2012.

Results

Among 165 potentially relevant studies, six with a total of 1695 patients met the inclusion criteria and were meta-analyzed. In comparison to control groups, patients who received Cp had a relative risk (RR) of 1.38 with absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.21), number needed for treatment (NNT) = 9; P < 0.0001 ) for clinical response and RR of 1.54 (ARR = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.0198 to 0.2), (NNT = 12; P < 0.0001) for maintenance of clinical remission and non-significant RR of 1.24 (P = 0.052) for induction of clinical remission. Baseline CRP did not significantly alter the magnitude or response. Adverse events were not significantly different among patients receiving Cp comparing to placebo.

Meta-analysis; Certolizumab Pegol; Crohn’s Disease Meta-analysis; Certolizumab Pegol; Crohn’s Disease 668 675 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11258 Shekoufeh Nikfar Shekoufeh Nikfar Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran Solmaz Ehteshami-Afshar Solmaz Ehteshami-Afshar Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Abdollahi Mohammad Abdollahi Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2164122319, Fax: +98-2166959104 Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2164122319, Fax: +98-2166959104
en 10.5812/ircmj.3883 Bacteria Isolated From Patients With Cholelithiasis and Their Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Bacteria Isolated From Patients With Cholelithiasis and Their Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern letter letter Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern;Bacteria;Cholelithiasis Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern;Bacteria;Cholelithiasis 759 761 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3883 Mohammad Moazeni Bistgani Mohammad Moazeni Bistgani Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences Shahrekord, IR Iran; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131812974, Fax: +98-3812224492 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences Shahrekord, IR Iran; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131812974, Fax: +98-3812224492 Reza Imani Reza Imani Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.7516 Effectivity of One Session Charcoal Hemoperfusion Treatment in Severe Carbamazepine Poisoning Effectivity of One Session Charcoal Hemoperfusion Treatment in Severe Carbamazepine Poisoning case-report case-report

A carbamazepine intoxication with attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that presenting with coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and even death. We report a case of severe carbamazepine poisoning that was successfully treated with one session charcoal hemoperfusion. On admission, the patient was comatose and required ventilator support. Hemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal successfully decreased the serum carbamazepine concentration from 45 µg mL−1 to 21 µg mL−1 within 2 h, with subsequent clinical improvement.

A carbamazepine intoxication with attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that presenting with coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and even death. We report a case of severe carbamazepine poisoning that was successfully treated with one session charcoal hemoperfusion. On admission, the patient was comatose and required ventilator support. Hemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal successfully decreased the serum carbamazepine concentration from 45 µg mL−1 to 21 µg mL−1 within 2 h, with subsequent clinical improvement.

Carbamazepine;Toxicity;Hemoperfusion Carbamazepine;Toxicity;Hemoperfusion 749 751 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7516 Yasemin Isik Yasemin Isik Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey; Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. Tel: +90-4322151669 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey; Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. Tel: +90-4322151669 Lokman Soyoral Lokman Soyoral Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, State Hospital, Van, Turkey Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, State Hospital, Van, Turkey Sevdegul Karadas Sevdegul Karadas Department of EmergencFaculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey Department of EmergencFaculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey Habib Emre Habib Emre Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey Muhammed Bilal Cegin Muhammed Bilal Cegin Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey
en 10.5812/ircmj.11120 Relationship between Breast Feeding and Obesity in Children with Low Birth Weight Relationship between Breast Feeding and Obesity in Children with Low Birth Weight research-article research-article Background

Breast feeding appears to play a role in determining obesity and abdominal obesity during childhood, specifically in children with a history of low birth weight.

Objective

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of breast-feeding with either of abdominal obesity and obesity among Iranian school children.

Materials and Methods

A total of 1184 students (625 girls and 559 boys), aged 10 to 13 years old, were selected from 112 governmental elementary schools in Iran. Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured using standard instruments and a pretested standardized questionnaire was performed for compiling information about family economics and educational level, first–degree family history of obesity, history of breast feeding, food pattern and birth weight, as well.

Results

13.68% (n = 160) of students had a history of low birth weight, and 26.41% of them had abdominal obesity. Of all participants, 22.04% were overweight and 5.32% were obese which was more prevalent in girls than in boys (P = 0.03). First-degree family history of obesity (P = 0.001), excessive gestational weight gain (P = 0.001) and birth weight (P = 0.01) were significantly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity during childhood. Moreover the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children with low birth weight was significantly correlated with breast feeding (P = 0.04); But this relation was not significantly about obesity in our participants (P = 0.9). Furthermore duration of breast feeding was significantly and inversely correlated with obesity and abdominal obesity in schoolchildren with low birth weight (P = 0.01).

Conclusions

The results suggest that Breast feeding and its long-term consequences were important factors for preventing metabolic syndrome criteria in childhood and later years of life span. With regard to the increasing prevalence of obesity in children, more research is urgently needed to clarify whether breast feeding have negative consequences for the risk of chronic disease in children, especially in children with low birth weight.

Background

Breast feeding appears to play a role in determining obesity and abdominal obesity during childhood, specifically in children with a history of low birth weight.

Objective

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of breast-feeding with either of abdominal obesity and obesity among Iranian school children.

Materials and Methods

A total of 1184 students (625 girls and 559 boys), aged 10 to 13 years old, were selected from 112 governmental elementary schools in Iran. Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured using standard instruments and a pretested standardized questionnaire was performed for compiling information about family economics and educational level, first–degree family history of obesity, history of breast feeding, food pattern and birth weight, as well.

Results

13.68% (n = 160) of students had a history of low birth weight, and 26.41% of them had abdominal obesity. Of all participants, 22.04% were overweight and 5.32% were obese which was more prevalent in girls than in boys (P = 0.03). First-degree family history of obesity (P = 0.001), excessive gestational weight gain (P = 0.001) and birth weight (P = 0.01) were significantly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity during childhood. Moreover the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children with low birth weight was significantly correlated with breast feeding (P = 0.04); But this relation was not significantly about obesity in our participants (P = 0.9). Furthermore duration of breast feeding was significantly and inversely correlated with obesity and abdominal obesity in schoolchildren with low birth weight (P = 0.01).

Conclusions

The results suggest that Breast feeding and its long-term consequences were important factors for preventing metabolic syndrome criteria in childhood and later years of life span. With regard to the increasing prevalence of obesity in children, more research is urgently needed to clarify whether breast feeding have negative consequences for the risk of chronic disease in children, especially in children with low birth weight.

Low Birth Weight;Abdominal Obesity;Breast Feeding;Iran Low Birth Weight;Abdominal Obesity;Breast Feeding;Iran 676 682 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11120 Mitra Zarrati Mitra Zarrati Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farzad Shidfar Farzad Shidfar Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran, Tel: +98 2188779118, Fax: +98 2188779487 Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran, Tel: +98 2188779118, Fax: +98 2188779487 Maryam Moradof Maryam Moradof Department of Exercise Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Exercise Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Farinaz Nasiri Nejad Farinaz Nasiri Nejad Department of Physiology, Medicine Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physiology, Medicine Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Keyvani Hossein Keyvani Department of Virology, Medicine Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Virology, Medicine Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Rezaei Hemami Mohsen Rezaei Hemami Cardiovascular Research Center, Rajaee Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran Cardiovascular Research Center, Rajaee Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran Elham Razmpoosh Elham Razmpoosh Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Science, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Science, Qazvin, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.11532 Women’s Preferences of Method of Delivery and Influencing Factors Women’s Preferences of Method of Delivery and Influencing Factors research-article research-article Conclusions

Information gained misleadingly and fears related to vaginal delivery were seen as factors affecting women’s preferences for delivery. Thus, midwives are required to train both pregnant women during antenatal care and all women in society about methods of delivery and to give effective counseling.

Results

Mean age rate of participants was 39.8 ± 11.8 years. The most significant reasons of vaginal delivery preferred by participants (n = 685) were determined to be healthy and swift recovery period after delivery, whereas those preferred by participants (n=155) for caesarean section were being safer for babies, easier than vaginal delivery and a less painful method. Higher educational status, pregnancy after infertility treatment and undergoing caesarean section for the last delivery were determined to be among important factors affecting to choose caesarean section.

Objectives

To determine Turkish women’s attitudes and basal knowledge regarding vaginal delivery and caesarean section, as well as factors causing women to prefer caesarean section even when a medical indication does not exist.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive study consisted of 840 women, completing the questionnaire developed by the researchers.

Background

Currently, the rate of caesarean section has been substantially increased in developing and developed countries. To determine the factors causing such an increase, it is important to determine reasons for women to refuse vaginal delivery and preferring caesarean section.

Conclusions

Information gained misleadingly and fears related to vaginal delivery were seen as factors affecting women’s preferences for delivery. Thus, midwives are required to train both pregnant women during antenatal care and all women in society about methods of delivery and to give effective counseling.

Results

Mean age rate of participants was 39.8 ± 11.8 years. The most significant reasons of vaginal delivery preferred by participants (n = 685) were determined to be healthy and swift recovery period after delivery, whereas those preferred by participants (n=155) for caesarean section were being safer for babies, easier than vaginal delivery and a less painful method. Higher educational status, pregnancy after infertility treatment and undergoing caesarean section for the last delivery were determined to be among important factors affecting to choose caesarean section.

Objectives

To determine Turkish women’s attitudes and basal knowledge regarding vaginal delivery and caesarean section, as well as factors causing women to prefer caesarean section even when a medical indication does not exist.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive study consisted of 840 women, completing the questionnaire developed by the researchers.

Background

Currently, the rate of caesarean section has been substantially increased in developing and developed countries. To determine the factors causing such an increase, it is important to determine reasons for women to refuse vaginal delivery and preferring caesarean section.

Caesarean Section;Vaginal Birth after Cesarean;Pregnancy Caesarean Section;Vaginal Birth after Cesarean;Pregnancy 683 689 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11532 Sema Dereli Yilmaz Sema Dereli Yilmaz Department of Midwifery, Health Sciences Faculty of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; Midwifery Department, Health Sciences Faculty of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Tel: +90-3322233537, Fax: +98-3323240056 Department of Midwifery, Health Sciences Faculty of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; Midwifery Department, Health Sciences Faculty of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Tel: +90-3322233537, Fax: +98-3323240056 Meltem Demirgoz Bal Meltem Demirgoz Bal Department of Gynecologic and Obstetrics Nursing, Health College of Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey Department of Gynecologic and Obstetrics Nursing, Health College of Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey Nezihe Kizilkaya Beji Nezihe Kizilkaya Beji Department of Gynecologic and Obstetrics Nursing, Florence Nightingale Nursing Faculty of Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Gynecologic and Obstetrics Nursing, Florence Nightingale Nursing Faculty of Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Seyfettin Uludag Seyfettin Uludag Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical School of Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical School of Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
en 10.5812/ircmj.5364 Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Central Iran: A 20-Year Study Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Central Iran: A 20-Year Study research-article research-article Conclusions

CMM in Yazd is a low-incidence skin tumor that shows a relatively fixed incidence between 1988 and 2008, Higher incidences of CMM were found in sun-exposed areas (especially head and neck areas), with more incidence in men. Skin cancers and CMM incidence in Iran is lower than western countries, most probably due to geographical zone, genetic factors, skin type, society-related customs including clothing styles.

Results

The mean incidence rate for CMM in Yazd-Iran between 1988 and 2008 was 0.40 per 100,000 for males and 0.27 per 100,000 for females per year, and the incidence of CMM was relatively constant during this period of time. The mean survival rates for women were better than men (80.5% and 76.3% respectively).

Materials and Methods

This study used data obtained from the cancer registry center in the province of Yazd for a period of 21 years (1988 – 2008). Population and statistical data were gathered from “National Organization for Civil Registration”. Population-based data were analyzed, focusing on the incidence and mean survival time over this 21 year period.

Background

Skin cancers are the most common cancers around the world. Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is the malignancy of melanocytes that are mainly located in the skin and mucous membranes.

Objective

This study tried to evaluate the incidence and mean survival time of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Yazd, Iran. It seems that the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CMM in Iran are different from those in other parts of the world; also due to the limited and scattered studies there isn't lot in the literature regarding CMM in Iran.

Conclusions

CMM in Yazd is a low-incidence skin tumor that shows a relatively fixed incidence between 1988 and 2008, Higher incidences of CMM were found in sun-exposed areas (especially head and neck areas), with more incidence in men. Skin cancers and CMM incidence in Iran is lower than western countries, most probably due to geographical zone, genetic factors, skin type, society-related customs including clothing styles.

Results

The mean incidence rate for CMM in Yazd-Iran between 1988 and 2008 was 0.40 per 100,000 for males and 0.27 per 100,000 for females per year, and the incidence of CMM was relatively constant during this period of time. The mean survival rates for women were better than men (80.5% and 76.3% respectively).

Materials and Methods

This study used data obtained from the cancer registry center in the province of Yazd for a period of 21 years (1988 – 2008). Population and statistical data were gathered from “National Organization for Civil Registration”. Population-based data were analyzed, focusing on the incidence and mean survival time over this 21 year period.

Background

Skin cancers are the most common cancers around the world. Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is the malignancy of melanocytes that are mainly located in the skin and mucous membranes.

Objective

This study tried to evaluate the incidence and mean survival time of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Yazd, Iran. It seems that the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CMM in Iran are different from those in other parts of the world; also due to the limited and scattered studies there isn't lot in the literature regarding CMM in Iran.

Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma;Epidemiology;Prevalence;Survival Rate Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma;Epidemiology;Prevalence;Survival Rate 690 694 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5364 Mohammad Taghi Noorbala Mohammad Taghi Noorbala Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran, Tel: +98 3515250094, Fax: +98 3515255406 Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran, Tel: +98 3515250094, Fax: +98 3515255406 Saman Mohammadi Saman Mohammadi Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Mohammad Noorbala Mohammad Noorbala Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Dermatology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.2084 Premenstrual Disorders: Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Sample of Iranian Adolescents Premenstrual Disorders: Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Sample of Iranian Adolescents research-article research-article Conclusion

Premenstrual disorders are common in adolescent girls. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended.

Background

Premenstrual disorders usually refer to Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). This study was designed to find out the frequency of premenstrual disorders and evaluate the associated factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents.

Objectives

This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of premenstrual disorders (PMS and PMDD) based on Premenstrual Assessment Scale (PAS) and also to determine the association of some demographic and menstrual characteristics with these disorders in adolescent girls.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross sectional study. A sample of adolescent school girls aged between 14 and 19 years were included in the study. Diagnostic assessments were based on Premenstrual Assessment Scale (PAS). The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion and were compared among subgroups of the study sample. In addition, demographic and menstrual factors associations with premenstrual disorders were assessed.

Results

In all 1379 female students were included in the study. About 99.5 % of the students reported at least one premenstrual symptom. Of these, 66.3% was mild, 31.4% moderate and 2.3% severe. A total of 814 girls (59%) met the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Most frequently reported symptoms were back pain, lethargy, fatigue and anxiety. Early menarche, lower education was associated with higher scores on PAS.

Conclusion

Premenstrual disorders are common in adolescent girls. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended.

Background

Premenstrual disorders usually refer to Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). This study was designed to find out the frequency of premenstrual disorders and evaluate the associated factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents.

Objectives

This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of premenstrual disorders (PMS and PMDD) based on Premenstrual Assessment Scale (PAS) and also to determine the association of some demographic and menstrual characteristics with these disorders in adolescent girls.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross sectional study. A sample of adolescent school girls aged between 14 and 19 years were included in the study. Diagnostic assessments were based on Premenstrual Assessment Scale (PAS). The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion and were compared among subgroups of the study sample. In addition, demographic and menstrual factors associations with premenstrual disorders were assessed.

Results

In all 1379 female students were included in the study. About 99.5 % of the students reported at least one premenstrual symptom. Of these, 66.3% was mild, 31.4% moderate and 2.3% severe. A total of 814 girls (59%) met the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Most frequently reported symptoms were back pain, lethargy, fatigue and anxiety. Early menarche, lower education was associated with higher scores on PAS.

Premenstrual Syndrome;Depressive Disorder;Prevalence, Dysmenorrhea Premenstrual Syndrome;Depressive Disorder;Prevalence, Dysmenorrhea 695 700 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=2084 Mahin Delara Mahin Delara Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Faculty of Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Faculty of Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran. Tel: +985714419572,Fax: +985714445994 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Faculty of Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Faculty of Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran. Tel: +985714419572,Fax: +985714445994 Hamed Borzuei Hamed Borzuei Research Development Center, Crez Co., Tehran, IR Iran; Research Development Center, Crez Co., Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5714419572, Fax: +98-5714445994 Research Development Center, Crez Co., Tehran, IR Iran; Research Development Center, Crez Co., Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5714419572, Fax: +98-5714445994 Ali Montazeri Ali Montazeri Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Centre, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Centre, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.5303 Serologic Detection of Anti Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Diabetic Patients Serologic Detection of Anti Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Diabetic Patients research-article research-article Conclusions

Diabetes may be caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Presence of T. gondii in the pancreas at the same time could directly undermines the pancreas cells. When β cells are destroyed, insulin secretion would then be affected. Probably the destruction of T. gondii affects nervous system and damages pancreatic cells leading to increased risk of diabetes.

Results

The prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in diabetic patients and healthy controls were 60.43% and 38% respectively. Risk of toxoplasmosis infection in diabetic patients with was two folds higher than healthy controls (RR = 2.31, 93% CI; 1.6 – 3.7, P = 0.001).

Materials and Methods

Through a case-control study, overall 184 serum samples including 91 from diabetic cases and 93 from healthy non-diabetic controls were investigated. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. Serum samples were tested for sugar by an enzymatic method, and IgG antibodies were tested against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA method.

Background

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. The parasite is intracellular and can result in severe complications leading to death in immuno-deficient patients in particular. Diabetes is an important factor that increases susceptibility and risk of various infections in the host.

Objectives

The present study focused on the serologic detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in diabetic patients.

Conclusions

Diabetes may be caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Presence of T. gondii in the pancreas at the same time could directly undermines the pancreas cells. When β cells are destroyed, insulin secretion would then be affected. Probably the destruction of T. gondii affects nervous system and damages pancreatic cells leading to increased risk of diabetes.

Results

The prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in diabetic patients and healthy controls were 60.43% and 38% respectively. Risk of toxoplasmosis infection in diabetic patients with was two folds higher than healthy controls (RR = 2.31, 93% CI; 1.6 – 3.7, P = 0.001).

Materials and Methods

Through a case-control study, overall 184 serum samples including 91 from diabetic cases and 93 from healthy non-diabetic controls were investigated. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. Serum samples were tested for sugar by an enzymatic method, and IgG antibodies were tested against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA method.

Background

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. The parasite is intracellular and can result in severe complications leading to death in immuno-deficient patients in particular. Diabetes is an important factor that increases susceptibility and risk of various infections in the host.

Objectives

The present study focused on the serologic detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in diabetic patients.

Diabetes; Infection; Serum; Toxoplasma gondii Diabetes; Infection; Serum; Toxoplasma gondii 701 703 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5303 Shahnaz Shirbazou Shahnaz Shirbazou Department of Parasitology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Parasitology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122289941, Fax: +98-2126127258 Department of Parasitology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Parasitology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122289941, Fax: +98-2126127258 Ali Delpisheh Ali Delpisheh Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries, Research Centre, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries, Research Centre, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Rahim Mokhetari Rahim Mokhetari Department of Parasitology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Parasitology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.5189 Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Clostridium Difficile Clinical Isolates in Iran Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Clostridium Difficile Clinical Isolates in Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Metronidazole and vancomycin still seem to be most effective drugs for treatment CDI.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of C. difficile clinical isolates against antibiotics commonly used for treatment CDI in hospitalized patients.

Material and Methods

During a 12 month study, 75 C. difficile isolates were collected from 390 patients with CDI. All samples were treated with alcohol and yeast extract broth. The treated suspensions were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA) supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 5 days. Cdd-3, tcdA and tcdB genes were identified using PCR assay.

Results

The prevalence of A+B+ , A+ B- and A- B+ strains were 64(85.3%), 5(6.7%) and 6(8%) respectively. In vitro susceptibility of 75 clinical isolates of C. difficile to 5 antimicrobial agents, including metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin, erythromycin and cefotaxime were investigated by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method. Metronidazole and vancomycin had good activity against C. difficile isolates with MIC90s of 2 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. Seventy one (94.6%) of strains was inhibited by concentrations that did not exceed 2µg/ml for metronidazole. Resistant to metronidazole observed in 5.3% of isolates. Forty three (57.3%) of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Of 43 resistant strains to erythromycin, 9 (12%) isolates had high-level MIC of more than 64 µg/ml. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime. Sixty seven (89.3%) isolates were resistant to clindamycin (MIC90s > 256 µg/ml) and only 6.7% were sensitive to clindamycin. Multidrug-resistant (three or more antibiotics) was seen in 36(48%) isolates.

Background

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is major growing problem in hospitals and its high incidence has been reported in recent years.

Conclusions

Metronidazole and vancomycin still seem to be most effective drugs for treatment CDI.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of C. difficile clinical isolates against antibiotics commonly used for treatment CDI in hospitalized patients.

Material and Methods

During a 12 month study, 75 C. difficile isolates were collected from 390 patients with CDI. All samples were treated with alcohol and yeast extract broth. The treated suspensions were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA) supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 5 days. Cdd-3, tcdA and tcdB genes were identified using PCR assay.

Results

The prevalence of A+B+ , A+ B- and A- B+ strains were 64(85.3%), 5(6.7%) and 6(8%) respectively. In vitro susceptibility of 75 clinical isolates of C. difficile to 5 antimicrobial agents, including metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin, erythromycin and cefotaxime were investigated by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method. Metronidazole and vancomycin had good activity against C. difficile isolates with MIC90s of 2 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. Seventy one (94.6%) of strains was inhibited by concentrations that did not exceed 2µg/ml for metronidazole. Resistant to metronidazole observed in 5.3% of isolates. Forty three (57.3%) of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Of 43 resistant strains to erythromycin, 9 (12%) isolates had high-level MIC of more than 64 µg/ml. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime. Sixty seven (89.3%) isolates were resistant to clindamycin (MIC90s > 256 µg/ml) and only 6.7% were sensitive to clindamycin. Multidrug-resistant (three or more antibiotics) was seen in 36(48%) isolates.

Background

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is major growing problem in hospitals and its high incidence has been reported in recent years.

Clostridium Difficile;Antibiotic Resistance;Clindamycin Clostridium Difficile;Antibiotic Resistance;Clindamycin 704 711 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5189 Mehdi Goudarzi Mehdi Goudarzi Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Goudarzi Hossein Goudarzi Department of Microbiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Masoud Alebouyeh Masoud Alebouyeh Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Masoumeh Azimi Rad Masoumeh Azimi Rad Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farahnaz Sadat Shayegan Mehr Farahnaz Sadat Shayegan Mehr Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Zali Mohammad Reza Zali Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Mehdi Aslani Mohammad Mehdi Aslani Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Pasture Institute, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166405535, Fax: +98-2166465132 Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Pasture Institute, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166405535, Fax: +98-2166465132
en 10.5812/ircmj.5017 Rhazes, a Genius Physician in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis in Medical History Rhazes, a Genius Physician in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis in Medical History review-article review-article Conclusions

A review of opinion Rhazes and other ancient Islamic medical textbooks on nocturnal enuresis reveals that medical practice in those days was comparable to modern medicine yet avoiding the side effects that are commonly experienced with the modern medical approach.

Results

Our findings proved that Rhazes described the symptoms, signs, and the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in accordance with contemporary medicine.

Evidence Acquisition

In the review study we searched all available and reliable electronic and paper sources using appropriate keywords about the views of Rhazes, and compared them with recent medical evidence about diagnosis and treatment of nocturnal in medication.

Context

Nocturnal enuresis has undoubtedly occurred since man's earliest days and the first references are found in the Ebers papyri of 1550 BC. The purpose of this study is to review of Rhazes opinion about diagnosis and treatment of nocturnal enuresis and compare his belief and clinical methods with modern medical practice.

Conclusions

A review of opinion Rhazes and other ancient Islamic medical textbooks on nocturnal enuresis reveals that medical practice in those days was comparable to modern medicine yet avoiding the side effects that are commonly experienced with the modern medical approach.

Results

Our findings proved that Rhazes described the symptoms, signs, and the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in accordance with contemporary medicine.

Evidence Acquisition

In the review study we searched all available and reliable electronic and paper sources using appropriate keywords about the views of Rhazes, and compared them with recent medical evidence about diagnosis and treatment of nocturnal in medication.

Context

Nocturnal enuresis has undoubtedly occurred since man's earliest days and the first references are found in the Ebers papyri of 1550 BC. The purpose of this study is to review of Rhazes opinion about diagnosis and treatment of nocturnal enuresis and compare his belief and clinical methods with modern medical practice.

Nocturnal Enuresis; Medical History; Rhazes Nocturnal Enuresis; Medical History; Rhazes 633 638 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5017 Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani Department of Physiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran. Tel: 98-8614173526, Fax: 98-8614173526 Department of Physiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran. Tel: 98-8614173526, Fax: 98-8614173526 Mohsen Shamsi Mohsen Shamsi Department of Public Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Department of Public Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Ali Cyrus Ali Cyrus Department of Urology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Department of Urology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Seyed Mohammad Tabatabayei Seyed Mohammad Tabatabayei Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4938 Developing a Treatment Planning Software Based on TG-43U1 Formalism for Cs-137 LDR Brachytherapy Developing a Treatment Planning Software Based on TG-43U1 Formalism for Cs-137 LDR Brachytherapy research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results, the old dosimetry formalisms, overestimate the dose especially towards the applicator’s tip. While the TG-43U1 based software perform the calculations more accurately.

Results

For a typical arrangement of 10 active pellets in the applicator, the percentage difference between doses obtained by the new algorithm at 1cm distance from the tip of the applicator and those obtained by old formalisms is about 30%, while the difference between the results of MCNP and the new algorithm is less than 5%.

Materials and Methods

Two softwares used for treatment planning of Cs-137 sources in Iran (STPS and PLATO), are based on old formalisms. The purpose of this work is to establish and develop a TPS for Selectron source based on TG-43 formalism. In this planning system, the dosimetry parameters of each pellet in different places inside applicators were obtained by MCNP4c code. Then the dose distribution around every combination of active and inactive pellets was obtained by summing the doses. The accuracy of this algorithm was checked by comparing its results for special combination of active and inactive pellets with MC simulations. Finally, the uncertainty of old dose calculation formalism was investigated by comparing the results of STPS and PLATO softwares with those obtained by the new algorithm.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to design and establish a treatment planning software for Cs-137 Solectron brachytherapy source, based on TG-43U1 formalism by applying the effects of the applicator and dummy spacers.

Background

The old Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) used for intracavitary brachytherapy with Cs-137 Selectron source utilize traditional dose calculation methods, considering each source as a point source. Using such methods introduces significant errors in dose estimation. As of 1995, TG-43 is used as the main dose calculation formalism in treatment TPSs.

Conclusions

According to the results, the old dosimetry formalisms, overestimate the dose especially towards the applicator’s tip. While the TG-43U1 based software perform the calculations more accurately.

Results

For a typical arrangement of 10 active pellets in the applicator, the percentage difference between doses obtained by the new algorithm at 1cm distance from the tip of the applicator and those obtained by old formalisms is about 30%, while the difference between the results of MCNP and the new algorithm is less than 5%.

Materials and Methods

Two softwares used for treatment planning of Cs-137 sources in Iran (STPS and PLATO), are based on old formalisms. The purpose of this work is to establish and develop a TPS for Selectron source based on TG-43 formalism. In this planning system, the dosimetry parameters of each pellet in different places inside applicators were obtained by MCNP4c code. Then the dose distribution around every combination of active and inactive pellets was obtained by summing the doses. The accuracy of this algorithm was checked by comparing its results for special combination of active and inactive pellets with MC simulations. Finally, the uncertainty of old dose calculation formalism was investigated by comparing the results of STPS and PLATO softwares with those obtained by the new algorithm.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to design and establish a treatment planning software for Cs-137 Solectron brachytherapy source, based on TG-43U1 formalism by applying the effects of the applicator and dummy spacers.

Background

The old Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) used for intracavitary brachytherapy with Cs-137 Selectron source utilize traditional dose calculation methods, considering each source as a point source. Using such methods introduces significant errors in dose estimation. As of 1995, TG-43 is used as the main dose calculation formalism in treatment TPSs.

Monte Carlo Method;Intracavitary Brachytherapy;PLATO Monte Carlo Method;Intracavitary Brachytherapy;PLATO 712 717 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4938 Sedigheh Sina Sedigheh Sina Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Reza Faghihi Reza Faghihi Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7116473474, Fax: +98-7116473474 Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7116473474, Fax: +98-7116473474 Ali Soleimani Meigooni Ali Soleimani Meigooni Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Zahra Siavashpour Zahra Siavashpour Department of Radiation Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Radiation Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi Center for Research in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Center for Research in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4857 Study on Antiphospholipid/Anticardioliplin Antibodies in Women With Recurrent Abortion Study on Antiphospholipid/Anticardioliplin Antibodies in Women With Recurrent Abortion research-article research-article Conclusions

Antipospholipid antibodies based on number of abortions and gestational age of abortions were increased. Mean antipospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies in all patients remained in high level just in first 5 years post abortion and then began to fall.

Results

Mean age of participants was 24-39 years old. The average rate of antiphospolipid antibodies in patients with normal anticardiolipin was greater than those with abnormal anticardiolipin and T-test showed significant difference between two groups.(P = 0.000) In case group the number of abortions was more, mean of antiphosopolipid antibody levels were also higher. Mean anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies rate was greater with increasing gestational age at time of first abortion. Almost mean antipospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies in all patients remained in high level just in first 5 years with any number of abortions and five years later, antibodies began to fall.

Patients and Methods

We performed a case-control study on 197 pregnant women who had history of spontaneous recurrent abortion as case group and 50 pregnant healthy women as control group. Demographic characteristic of all participants filled in questionnaire forms. Antipospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in their serum by Enzyme linked Immunoassay with orgenec kits. Data analyzed by SPSS software (version 13) and T statistical test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Background

Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with recurrent abortion but correlation between level of antibodies and gestational age of abortion and duration post abortion is not clear.

Objectives

Aim of this study was study on relation between antiphospholipid antibodies in women with recurrent abortion and their gestational age and duration post abortion.

Conclusions

Antipospholipid antibodies based on number of abortions and gestational age of abortions were increased. Mean antipospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies in all patients remained in high level just in first 5 years post abortion and then began to fall.

Results

Mean age of participants was 24-39 years old. The average rate of antiphospolipid antibodies in patients with normal anticardiolipin was greater than those with abnormal anticardiolipin and T-test showed significant difference between two groups.(P = 0.000) In case group the number of abortions was more, mean of antiphosopolipid antibody levels were also higher. Mean anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies rate was greater with increasing gestational age at time of first abortion. Almost mean antipospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies in all patients remained in high level just in first 5 years with any number of abortions and five years later, antibodies began to fall.

Patients and Methods

We performed a case-control study on 197 pregnant women who had history of spontaneous recurrent abortion as case group and 50 pregnant healthy women as control group. Demographic characteristic of all participants filled in questionnaire forms. Antipospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in their serum by Enzyme linked Immunoassay with orgenec kits. Data analyzed by SPSS software (version 13) and T statistical test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Background

Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with recurrent abortion but correlation between level of antibodies and gestational age of abortion and duration post abortion is not clear.

Objectives

Aim of this study was study on relation between antiphospholipid antibodies in women with recurrent abortion and their gestational age and duration post abortion.

Antiphospholipids;antibodies;Anticardiolipin Antibodies;Recurrent Abortion Antiphospholipids;antibodies;Anticardiolipin Antibodies;Recurrent Abortion 718 722 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4857 Farideh Akhlaghi Farideh Akhlaghi Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5112231444, Fax: +98-511223144 Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5112231444, Fax: +98-511223144 Mohamad Reza Keramati Mohamad Reza Keramati Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mehri Tafazoli Mehri Tafazoli Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4605 Health Related Quality of Life in Iranian Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of the IBS-QOL Health Related Quality of Life in Iranian Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of the IBS-QOL research-article research-article Conclusions

In conclusion, the Persian version of the IBS-QOL provided a well-defined measure of QOL in IBS patients with high validity and reliability that is an appropriate measure to use in further IBS clinical studies in Iran.

Patients and Methods

The original 34 items of the IBS-QOL were translated from English into Persian through a structured procedure for the translation and cultural adaptation of the original English IBS-QOL into Persian. Ninety one patients who had GI symptoms but did not have any organic diseases (including 70 IBS patients diagnosed by Rome II criteria) were recruited from teaching hospitals Shiraz University in Iran and completed a Persian version of the IBS-QOL along with a Persian version of Room ΙΙ and IBS severity index (IBSSI).

Results

Our findings showed that the IBS-QOL has excellent convergent and acceptable discriminant validity. All domains had Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.7 except health worry. Seventy patients who were diagnosed as IBS by the Room ΙΙ had significantly lower scores in the IBS-QOL than those who were not (FBD) (43.7 ± 20.1 vs. 73.4 ± 14.9, P < 0.01). Age, sex, education or marital status did not affect scores in measuring the quality of life.

Background

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disease that is accompanied by pain, diarrhea, constipation and abdominal bloating. Hence, IBS has a major effect on patients’ quality of life.

Objectives

The present study aimed to examine validity and reliability of the Persian version of the IBS-QOL questionnaire in Iran.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the Persian version of the IBS-QOL provided a well-defined measure of QOL in IBS patients with high validity and reliability that is an appropriate measure to use in further IBS clinical studies in Iran.

Patients and Methods

The original 34 items of the IBS-QOL were translated from English into Persian through a structured procedure for the translation and cultural adaptation of the original English IBS-QOL into Persian. Ninety one patients who had GI symptoms but did not have any organic diseases (including 70 IBS patients diagnosed by Rome II criteria) were recruited from teaching hospitals Shiraz University in Iran and completed a Persian version of the IBS-QOL along with a Persian version of Room ΙΙ and IBS severity index (IBSSI).

Results

Our findings showed that the IBS-QOL has excellent convergent and acceptable discriminant validity. All domains had Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.7 except health worry. Seventy patients who were diagnosed as IBS by the Room ΙΙ had significantly lower scores in the IBS-QOL than those who were not (FBD) (43.7 ± 20.1 vs. 73.4 ± 14.9, P < 0.01). Age, sex, education or marital status did not affect scores in measuring the quality of life.

Background

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disease that is accompanied by pain, diarrhea, constipation and abdominal bloating. Hence, IBS has a major effect on patients’ quality of life.

Objectives

The present study aimed to examine validity and reliability of the Persian version of the IBS-QOL questionnaire in Iran.

Quality of Life;Irritable Bowel Syndrome;Questionnaires Quality of Life;Irritable Bowel Syndrome;Questionnaires 723 728 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4605 Peyman Jafari Peyman Jafari Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Zahra Asadollahi Zahra Asadollahi Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9139941058 Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9139941058 Maryam Moini Maryam Moini Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mahdi Seyed Mirzaie Mahdi Seyed Mirzaie Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4415 Frequency of Rotavirus and Adenovirus Gastroenteritis Among Children in Shiraz, Iran Frequency of Rotavirus and Adenovirus Gastroenteritis Among Children in Shiraz, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Given the non-specific symptoms of these viruses and the high prevalence of viral diarrhea in our region, more laboratories should be equipped for virus detection and vaccination might be considered as a prevention strategy.

Results

Rotavirus was identified in 347 patients out of 827 (42%), adenovirus was detected in 76 (9%) of samples and 34 (4%) of patients had rotavirus-adenovirus co-infection. Diarrhea was the most common symptom in viral infected patients.

Materials and Methods

827 stool samples of pediatrics patients with gastroenteritis who were admitted to Dastgheib Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, from September 2008 to February 2010 were tested for presence of rotavirus and adenovirus using the EIA method. A demographic and clinical study was performed to determine the relationship between viral infection and clinical outcomes of patients.

Objectives

Epidemiological studies on viral diarrhea and collecting data for rotavirus and adenovirus prevalence, as two important viral agents of gastroenteritis, are valuable for planning of a prospective program.

Background

Viral pathogens are the main cause of acute gastroenteritis in developed and developing countries. Rotavirus and adenovirus are the two important agents associated with hospitalization for diarrhea especially in children. Limitation and control of diarrhea as a costly disease must be considered in national health programs.

Conclusions

Given the non-specific symptoms of these viruses and the high prevalence of viral diarrhea in our region, more laboratories should be equipped for virus detection and vaccination might be considered as a prevention strategy.

Results

Rotavirus was identified in 347 patients out of 827 (42%), adenovirus was detected in 76 (9%) of samples and 34 (4%) of patients had rotavirus-adenovirus co-infection. Diarrhea was the most common symptom in viral infected patients.

Materials and Methods

827 stool samples of pediatrics patients with gastroenteritis who were admitted to Dastgheib Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, from September 2008 to February 2010 were tested for presence of rotavirus and adenovirus using the EIA method. A demographic and clinical study was performed to determine the relationship between viral infection and clinical outcomes of patients.

Objectives

Epidemiological studies on viral diarrhea and collecting data for rotavirus and adenovirus prevalence, as two important viral agents of gastroenteritis, are valuable for planning of a prospective program.

Background

Viral pathogens are the main cause of acute gastroenteritis in developed and developing countries. Rotavirus and adenovirus are the two important agents associated with hospitalization for diarrhea especially in children. Limitation and control of diarrhea as a costly disease must be considered in national health programs.

Rotavirus;Adenovirus;Gastroenteritis;Child Rotavirus;Adenovirus;Gastroenteritis;Child 729 733 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4415 Mohammad Motamedifar Mohammad Motamedifar Shiraz HIV/Aids Research Center (SHARC), Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Shiraz HIV/Aids Research Center (SHARC), Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112280916, Fax: +98-7112280916 Shiraz HIV/Aids Research Center (SHARC), Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Shiraz HIV/Aids Research Center (SHARC), Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7112280916, Fax: +98-7112280916 Elham Amini Elham Amini Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Pedram Talezadeh Shirazi Pedram Talezadeh Shirazi Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Medical Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4173 The Effects of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill Infusion on Depression in Patients Using Citalopram: A comparison Study The Effects of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill Infusion on Depression in Patients Using Citalopram: A comparison Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Considering the results of this study, Lavandula angustifilia infusion has some positive therapeutic effects on depressed patients most importantly decreases mean depression score and might be used alone or as an adjunct to other anti-depressant drugs.

Results

After four weeks of the trial onset, the mean depression score according to the Hamilton Scale for Depression was 17.5 ± 3.5 in the standard treatment group and 15.2 ± 3.6 in the experimental treatment group (P < 0.05). After eight weeks, it was 16.8±4.6 and 14.8±4 respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, the most commonly observed adverse effects were nausea (12.8 %) and confusion (10%). In terms of side effects, there were no significant differences between two groups.

Patients and Methods

Among all patients referred to the Hajar Hospital psychiatric clinic, Shahrekord, Iran, 80 patients who met the criteria of major depression according to the structured interviews and the Hamilton questionnaire for Depression were included in the study. They were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental treatment group and standard treatment group at this study. In standard treatment group, the patients were given Citalopram 20 mg. In experimental treatment group, the patients took 2 cups of the infusion of 5 g dried Lavandula angustifilia in addition to tablet Citalopram 20 mg twice a day. The patients were followed up for four and eight weeks of the study onset using Hamilton Scale questionnaire and treatment side effects form. Data were analyzed using student t-test, pair t-test and chi square.

Background

Many herbs have been used to treat psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression in traditional medicine.

Objectives

This study was carried out to determine the effect of using Lavandula angustifilia infusion on depression in patients taking Citalopram.

Conclusions

Considering the results of this study, Lavandula angustifilia infusion has some positive therapeutic effects on depressed patients most importantly decreases mean depression score and might be used alone or as an adjunct to other anti-depressant drugs.

Results

After four weeks of the trial onset, the mean depression score according to the Hamilton Scale for Depression was 17.5 ± 3.5 in the standard treatment group and 15.2 ± 3.6 in the experimental treatment group (P < 0.05). After eight weeks, it was 16.8±4.6 and 14.8±4 respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, the most commonly observed adverse effects were nausea (12.8 %) and confusion (10%). In terms of side effects, there were no significant differences between two groups.

Patients and Methods

Among all patients referred to the Hajar Hospital psychiatric clinic, Shahrekord, Iran, 80 patients who met the criteria of major depression according to the structured interviews and the Hamilton questionnaire for Depression were included in the study. They were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental treatment group and standard treatment group at this study. In standard treatment group, the patients were given Citalopram 20 mg. In experimental treatment group, the patients took 2 cups of the infusion of 5 g dried Lavandula angustifilia in addition to tablet Citalopram 20 mg twice a day. The patients were followed up for four and eight weeks of the study onset using Hamilton Scale questionnaire and treatment side effects form. Data were analyzed using student t-test, pair t-test and chi square.

Background

Many herbs have been used to treat psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression in traditional medicine.

Objectives

This study was carried out to determine the effect of using Lavandula angustifilia infusion on depression in patients taking Citalopram.

Depression;Lavandula;Citalopram Depression;Lavandula;Citalopram 734 739 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4173 Masoud Nikfarjam Masoud Nikfarjam Department of Psychiatry, Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Neda Parvin Neda Parvin Herbal Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran; Herbal Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran, Tel/Fax: +98-3812220043 Herbal Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran; Herbal Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran, Tel/Fax: +98-3812220043 Naziheh Assarzadegan Naziheh Assarzadegan Iranian Physician, Toronto, Onatario, Canada Iranian Physician, Toronto, Onatario, Canada Shabnam Asghari Shabnam Asghari Department of Family Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Memorial university of Newfoundland, Canada Department of Family Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Memorial university of Newfoundland, Canada
en 10.5812/ircmj.4145 Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) Serotype Frequency in Iranian Patients Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) Serotype Frequency in Iranian Patients research-article research-article Results

The results of this study showed some S. pneumoniae serotypes were found in both sexes and some only in one sex invasive infections. For example, serotypes 10, 14, 18 and 22 were only in female patients with infections.

Conclusions

The analysis of the results had suggested that serotypes 6 from Lung and 19 from Eye are the most abundant bacterial strains isolated from patients. The diseases could be prevented by using the Pneumococcal vaccine.

Patients and Methods

A total of 135 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients infectious suspected of invasive streptococcal disease. They were subjected to PCR and bacteriological methods. Out of which, 134 strains of S. pneumoniae were serotyped and confirmed by PCR method. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency type of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Iranian patients.

Background

Streptococcus pneumoniae as a Gram positive diplococcic is a major worldwide causative agent of morbidity and mortality among young children and the aged. In addition, Streptococcus pneumoniae is a versatile human pathogen causing infectious disease ranging from mild infection (i.e. otitis media) to life therating pneumonia and meningitidis in many countries

Results

The results of this study showed some S. pneumoniae serotypes were found in both sexes and some only in one sex invasive infections. For example, serotypes 10, 14, 18 and 22 were only in female patients with infections.

Conclusions

The analysis of the results had suggested that serotypes 6 from Lung and 19 from Eye are the most abundant bacterial strains isolated from patients. The diseases could be prevented by using the Pneumococcal vaccine.

Patients and Methods

A total of 135 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients infectious suspected of invasive streptococcal disease. They were subjected to PCR and bacteriological methods. Out of which, 134 strains of S. pneumoniae were serotyped and confirmed by PCR method. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency type of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Iranian patients.

Background

Streptococcus pneumoniae as a Gram positive diplococcic is a major worldwide causative agent of morbidity and mortality among young children and the aged. In addition, Streptococcus pneumoniae is a versatile human pathogen causing infectious disease ranging from mild infection (i.e. otitis media) to life therating pneumonia and meningitidis in many countries

Streptococcus pneumonia;Serotyping;Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) Streptococcus pneumonia;Serotyping;Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) 740 742 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4145 Ali Mehrabi Tavana Ali Mehrabi Tavana Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188600062, Fax: +98-2188600062 Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188600062, Fax: +98-2188600062 Ramazan Ali Ataee Ramazan Ali Ataee Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.12728 Relationship Between Ways of Coping and Quality of Life in Married Women: Toward Mental Health Promotion Relationship Between Ways of Coping and Quality of Life in Married Women: Toward Mental Health Promotion research-article research-article Conclusions

It seems that implementation of an appropriate interventional program related to adaptive ways of coping in order to deal with stress is effective in mental health and quality of life promotion.

Results

The most and the least used ways in coping with stress were Planful Problem Solving and Confronting Coping. Considering the quality of life, the most and the least scores were related to social dimension and mental health. Also women who have higher quality of life used more Positive Reappraisal way and less Escape-Avoidance way to deal with stress (P < 0.05).

Patients and Methods

This study was a part of interventional project to mental health promotion in married women that completed through a cross sectional studies using two standard questionnaires: Ways of Coping (WOC) and Quality of Life questionnaire (WHO, QOL-BREF).

Background

Adaptive ways of coping with stress are as a major component of mental health and also this is considered as a key element in quality of life.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and coping mechanisms in married women ages between 18-65 years in order to develop appropriate intervention programs to promote mental health.

Conclusions

It seems that implementation of an appropriate interventional program related to adaptive ways of coping in order to deal with stress is effective in mental health and quality of life promotion.

Results

The most and the least used ways in coping with stress were Planful Problem Solving and Confronting Coping. Considering the quality of life, the most and the least scores were related to social dimension and mental health. Also women who have higher quality of life used more Positive Reappraisal way and less Escape-Avoidance way to deal with stress (P < 0.05).

Patients and Methods

This study was a part of interventional project to mental health promotion in married women that completed through a cross sectional studies using two standard questionnaires: Ways of Coping (WOC) and Quality of Life questionnaire (WHO, QOL-BREF).

Background

Adaptive ways of coping with stress are as a major component of mental health and also this is considered as a key element in quality of life.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and coping mechanisms in married women ages between 18-65 years in order to develop appropriate intervention programs to promote mental health.

Quality of Life, Women;Mental Health Quality of Life, Women;Mental Health 743 748 http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12728 Arash Mirabzadeh Arash Mirabzadeh Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Psychiatry, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Psychiatry, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Monir Baradaran Eftekhari Monir Baradaran Eftekhari Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran; Undersecretary for Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran; Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2164892607, Fax: +98-21 66582540 Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran; Undersecretary for Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran; Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2164892607, Fax: +98-21 66582540 Ameneh Setareh Forouzan Ameneh Setareh Forouzan Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Homeira Sajadi Homeira Sajadi Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Hassan Rafiee Hassan Rafiee Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, IR Iran