Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal Iran Red Crescent Med J http://www.ircmj.com 2074-1804 2074-1812 10.5812/ircmj en jalali 2017 5 30 gregorian 2017 5 30 15 10
en 10.5812/ircmj.10572 Mothers' Response to Psychological Birth Trauma: A Qualitative Study Mothers' Response to Psychological Birth Trauma: A Qualitative Study research-article research-article Background

Psychologically traumatic events can affect anybody, but consequences of psychological birth trauma for the mother are very profound, extensive and unforgettable. Furthermore, the mother’s response not only touches the mother, but also affects the child, the father and the society. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers’ response to psychological birth trauma.

Objectives

Psychological birth trauma is a complex matter as the length of a women`s life and mother`s responds can be present through different psychological and physical ways. In this regard, the mothers suffer from its consequences, but they do not know what is going on? Mothers are getting worse every day by “the silent effects of the psychological phenomena”.

Materials & Methods

This qualitative study was conducted on 23 mothers with psychological birth trauma experience, who were recruited from health centers of the capital and one of the metropolises of Iran. Their interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the content analysis method.

Results

Three themes were extracted from the data: impact on health, changes in mother`s roles, and changes decision making ability. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data (physical and psychological problems, bonding with the child, relationship with husband, social role, cesarean request and psychological inability to have another child).

Conclusions

By considering the mothers` responses to traumatic labor, which endangers the health of the child as well as that of the mother and impairs their familial and social relationships, midwives should notice the consequences of psychological birth trauma in order to plan supportive and timely interventions.

Background

Psychologically traumatic events can affect anybody, but consequences of psychological birth trauma for the mother are very profound, extensive and unforgettable. Furthermore, the mother’s response not only touches the mother, but also affects the child, the father and the society. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers’ response to psychological birth trauma.

Objectives

Psychological birth trauma is a complex matter as the length of a women`s life and mother`s responds can be present through different psychological and physical ways. In this regard, the mothers suffer from its consequences, but they do not know what is going on? Mothers are getting worse every day by “the silent effects of the psychological phenomena”.

Materials & Methods

This qualitative study was conducted on 23 mothers with psychological birth trauma experience, who were recruited from health centers of the capital and one of the metropolises of Iran. Their interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the content analysis method.

Results

Three themes were extracted from the data: impact on health, changes in mother`s roles, and changes decision making ability. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data (physical and psychological problems, bonding with the child, relationship with husband, social role, cesarean request and psychological inability to have another child).

Conclusions

By considering the mothers` responses to traumatic labor, which endangers the health of the child as well as that of the mother and impairs their familial and social relationships, midwives should notice the consequences of psychological birth trauma in order to plan supportive and timely interventions.

Traumatic Labor;Mother’s Response;Qualitative Research Traumatic Labor;Mother’s Response;Qualitative Research http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10572 Ziba Taghizadeh Ziba Taghizadeh School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Faculty Member of Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Faculty Member of Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Alireza Irajpour Alireza Irajpour Nursing and midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Nursing and midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mohammad Arbabi Mohammad Arbabi Psychiatry and psychology research center, Roozbeh hospital Department of Psychiatry,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Psychiatry and psychology research center, Roozbeh hospital Department of Psychiatry,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-21554122, Fax: +98-2155419113 Psychiatry and psychology research center, Roozbeh hospital Department of Psychiatry,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Psychiatry and psychology research center, Roozbeh hospital Department of Psychiatry,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-21554122, Fax: +98-2155419113
en 10.5812/ircmj.11378 Comparative Study of Peroneal Tenosynovitis as the Complication of Intraarticular Calcaneal Fracture in Surgically and Non-Surgically Treated Patients Comparative Study of Peroneal Tenosynovitis as the Complication of Intraarticular Calcaneal Fracture in Surgically and Non-Surgically Treated Patients research-article research-article Conclusions

Although some of the orthopedic surgeons are not interested to manage these fractures surgically and most of them treat these cases conservatively (casting, etc.), in most displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures, surgical treatment is the method of choice. Moreover, in non-surgical treatment the prevalence of these complications among the patients is more and as a result, inevitable social, occupational and familial damages occur.

Results

In non-operated group (56 patients), 22 patients were complicated by peroneal tenosynovitis. In operated group (84 patients), 8 patients had the same complication. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, and the severity of this complication in the mentioned groups had a meaningful difference. The results in operated group were much better than the non-operated one.

Patients and Methods

A total of 140 patients with intra-articular calcaneal fracture were analyzed prospectively. These patients were divided into 2 groups: operated group and non-operated group.

Background

Calcaneus has the most fracture prevalence among tarsal bones. About 3/4 of calcaneal fractures are intra-articular fractures with displacement. The majority of calcaneal fractures occur in 21 - 35 year old young men, and that are mostly active people, these fractures cause complete disability for 15 months. Moreover, inappropriate treatment leads to lots of social and economical damages.

Objectives

In this study we compared the incidence and the severity of peroneal tenosynovitis as a complication of non-operative and operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. In this study, some other complications of this fracture were also analyzed and the prevalence of the complication was higher in non-operated patients.

Conclusions

Although some of the orthopedic surgeons are not interested to manage these fractures surgically and most of them treat these cases conservatively (casting, etc.), in most displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures, surgical treatment is the method of choice. Moreover, in non-surgical treatment the prevalence of these complications among the patients is more and as a result, inevitable social, occupational and familial damages occur.

Results

In non-operated group (56 patients), 22 patients were complicated by peroneal tenosynovitis. In operated group (84 patients), 8 patients had the same complication. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, and the severity of this complication in the mentioned groups had a meaningful difference. The results in operated group were much better than the non-operated one.

Patients and Methods

A total of 140 patients with intra-articular calcaneal fracture were analyzed prospectively. These patients were divided into 2 groups: operated group and non-operated group.

Background

Calcaneus has the most fracture prevalence among tarsal bones. About 3/4 of calcaneal fractures are intra-articular fractures with displacement. The majority of calcaneal fractures occur in 21 - 35 year old young men, and that are mostly active people, these fractures cause complete disability for 15 months. Moreover, inappropriate treatment leads to lots of social and economical damages.

Objectives

In this study we compared the incidence and the severity of peroneal tenosynovitis as a complication of non-operative and operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. In this study, some other complications of this fracture were also analyzed and the prevalence of the complication was higher in non-operated patients.

Calcaneus;Zygapophyseal Joint;Gissane Angle;Boehelr Angle;Tenosynovitis Calcaneus;Zygapophyseal Joint;Gissane Angle;Boehelr Angle;Tenosynovitis http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11378 Mahmoud Bahari Kashani Mahmoud Bahari Kashani Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Amir Reza Kachooei Amir Reza Kachooei Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Hengameh Ebrahimi Hengameh Ebrahimi Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohammad Taghi Peivandi Mohammad Taghi Peivandi Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-5118520028, Fax: +98-5118596606, Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-5118520028, Fax: +98-5118596606, Sara Amelfarzad Sara Amelfarzad Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Nastoor Bekhradianpoor Nastoor Bekhradianpoor Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mehran Azami Mehran Azami Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Amirreza Fatehi Amirreza Fatehi Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Golsa Bahari Kashani Golsa Bahari Kashani York University, School of Kinesiology & Health Sciences, Toronto, Canada York University, School of Kinesiology & Health Sciences, Toronto, Canada
en 10.5812/ircmj.7591 Effect of Breastfeeding on Serum Osteoprotegerin and Soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Ligand in Full Term Neonates Effect of Breastfeeding on Serum Osteoprotegerin and Soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Ligand in Full Term Neonates research-article research-article Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study serum levels of OPG and sRANKL in 45 breastfed infants were compared to those of 44 formula-fed full term infants. The levels of serum OPG, sRANKL, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined by standard techniques using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

Results

The serum levels of OPG were significantly higher (P < 0.001), and the concentrations of TNFα was markedly lower (P = 0.024) in breastfed infants than those of formula-fed infants. No marked differences were observed between the serum levels of sRANKL in the two study groups (P = 0.8).

Objective

Human milk is a complex biologic fluid which contains nutritional and protective factors such as Osteoprotegerin (OPG), at levels 1000-fold higher than normal human serum. Since OPG and Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) system are tightly involved in bone remodeling and immune activity, the study was designated to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL) /OPG ratio in full term neonates in comparison with those of formula feeding full term neonates.

Background

Human breast milk, the sole source of nutrition during the early neonatal period, is rich in nutrients, hormones, growth factors, and immunoactive molecules, which influence the growth, development, and immune status of the newborn infant. It had long been thought that breast milk is an adequate source of anthracitic activity for the newborns and growing child.

Conclusions

High OPG and low TNFα levels in serum of breastfed infants are important factors involved in remodeling of bone, and immune activity may prove superiority of breastfeeding over formula feeding during infancy.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study serum levels of OPG and sRANKL in 45 breastfed infants were compared to those of 44 formula-fed full term infants. The levels of serum OPG, sRANKL, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined by standard techniques using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

Results

The serum levels of OPG were significantly higher (P < 0.001), and the concentrations of TNFα was markedly lower (P = 0.024) in breastfed infants than those of formula-fed infants. No marked differences were observed between the serum levels of sRANKL in the two study groups (P = 0.8).

Objective

Human milk is a complex biologic fluid which contains nutritional and protective factors such as Osteoprotegerin (OPG), at levels 1000-fold higher than normal human serum. Since OPG and Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) system are tightly involved in bone remodeling and immune activity, the study was designated to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL) /OPG ratio in full term neonates in comparison with those of formula feeding full term neonates.

Background

Human breast milk, the sole source of nutrition during the early neonatal period, is rich in nutrients, hormones, growth factors, and immunoactive molecules, which influence the growth, development, and immune status of the newborn infant. It had long been thought that breast milk is an adequate source of anthracitic activity for the newborns and growing child.

Conclusions

High OPG and low TNFα levels in serum of breastfed infants are important factors involved in remodeling of bone, and immune activity may prove superiority of breastfeeding over formula feeding during infancy.

Breast Feeding; Infant Formula; Osteoprotegerin; sRANKL; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNFα) Breast Feeding; Infant Formula; Osteoprotegerin; sRANKL; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNFα) http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7591 Mandana Rafeey Mandana Rafeey Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Amir Ghorbanihaghjo Amir Ghorbanihaghjo Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-411336234, Fax: +98-4113363231 Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-411336234, Fax: +98-4113363231 Fardad Masoumi Fardad Masoumi Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Samira Alizadeh Samira Alizadeh Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Sina Davari Farid Sina Davari Farid Shams General Hospital, Tabriz, IR Iran Shams General Hospital, Tabriz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.7624 Co-administration of Grape Seed Extract and Exercise Training Improves Endothelial Dysfunction of Coronary Vascular Bed of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Co-administration of Grape Seed Extract and Exercise Training Improves Endothelial Dysfunction of Coronary Vascular Bed of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

The data indicated that co-administration of grape seed extract and exercise training had more significant effects than exercise training or grape seed extract alone; this may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications.

Results

The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was reduced significantly in diabetic animals; exercise training or grape seed extract administration partially improves this response. However, exercise training in combination with grape seed extract restores endothelial function completely. The endothelium independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was improved by combination of exercise training and grape seed extract. On the other hand, the basal perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine did not change significantly.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed extract (as antioxidant), with and without exercise training on coronary vascular function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods

Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 200 – 232 grams were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, grape seed extract (200 mg/kg) treated sedentary diabetic and, grape seed extract treated trained diabetic. Diabetes was induced by one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, coronary vascular responses to vasoactive agents were determined.

Background

One of the known complications of diabetes mellitus is vascular dysfunction. Inability of the coronary vascular response to cardiac hyperactivity might cause a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetic subjects. It has been indicated that regular exercise training and antioxidants could prevent diabetic cardiovascular problems enhanced by vascular damage.

Conclusions

The data indicated that co-administration of grape seed extract and exercise training had more significant effects than exercise training or grape seed extract alone; this may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications.

Results

The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was reduced significantly in diabetic animals; exercise training or grape seed extract administration partially improves this response. However, exercise training in combination with grape seed extract restores endothelial function completely. The endothelium independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was improved by combination of exercise training and grape seed extract. On the other hand, the basal perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine did not change significantly.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed extract (as antioxidant), with and without exercise training on coronary vascular function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods

Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 200 – 232 grams were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, grape seed extract (200 mg/kg) treated sedentary diabetic and, grape seed extract treated trained diabetic. Diabetes was induced by one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, coronary vascular responses to vasoactive agents were determined.

Background

One of the known complications of diabetes mellitus is vascular dysfunction. Inability of the coronary vascular response to cardiac hyperactivity might cause a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetic subjects. It has been indicated that regular exercise training and antioxidants could prevent diabetic cardiovascular problems enhanced by vascular damage.

Diabetic Vascular Complication;Grape Seed Extract;Exercise;Coronary Vessels Diabetic Vascular Complication;Grape Seed Extract;Exercise;Coronary Vessels http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7624 Mohammad Badavi Mohammad Badavi Physiology Research Center, Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Physiology Research Center, Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Hassan Ali Abedi Hassan Ali Abedi Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran; Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7913340405, Fax: +98-7914440072 Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran; Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7913340405, Fax: +98-7914440072 Ali Reza Sarkaki Ali Reza Sarkaki Physiology Research Center, Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Physiology Research Center, Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mahin Dianat Mahin Dianat Physiology Research Center, Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Physiology Research Center, Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.7704 Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy in Migraine: Preclinical and Clinical Trials Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy in Migraine: Preclinical and Clinical Trials research-article research-article Conclusions

The evidence that BTX-A decreases NTG-induced CGRP-LI and SP-LI levels in trigeminovascular system suggests that BTX-A attenuates migraine by suppression of neuropeptide release. BTX-A injections for migraine at acupoint-sites and fixed-sites are effective. Acupoint-sites BTX-A administration shows more efficacy for migraine than fixed-sites application.

Results

Local BTX-A injection suppressed NTG-induced CGRP-LI and SP-LI levels in jugular plasma and oblongata. BTX-A injection for both groups with migraine significantly reduced the attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms. The efficacy of BTX-A for migraine in group A (93% improvement) was more significant than that in group F (83% improvement) (P < 0.01).

Materials and Methods

Rats with NTG-induced migraine were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or BTX-A (5 U/kg or 10 U/kg bodyweight). CGRP- and SP-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI and SP-LI) were determined by radioimmunoassay. In clinical trials, sixty patients respectively received BTX-A (2.5 U each site, 25 U per patient) at fixed-sites (group F, n = 30) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercili, temporalis and trapezius or at acupoint-sites (group A, n = 30) including EX-HN3, EX-HN5, GV20, GB8, GB20 and BL10.

Background

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to be effective for the therapy for migraine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of BTX-A on the immunoreactive levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the jugular plasma and medulla oblongata of migraine in rats induced by nitroglycerin (NTG), and then to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-sites and acupoint-sites injection of BTX-A for migraine therapy of patients in a randomly controlled trial extending over four months.

Conclusions

The evidence that BTX-A decreases NTG-induced CGRP-LI and SP-LI levels in trigeminovascular system suggests that BTX-A attenuates migraine by suppression of neuropeptide release. BTX-A injections for migraine at acupoint-sites and fixed-sites are effective. Acupoint-sites BTX-A administration shows more efficacy for migraine than fixed-sites application.

Results

Local BTX-A injection suppressed NTG-induced CGRP-LI and SP-LI levels in jugular plasma and oblongata. BTX-A injection for both groups with migraine significantly reduced the attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms. The efficacy of BTX-A for migraine in group A (93% improvement) was more significant than that in group F (83% improvement) (P < 0.01).

Materials and Methods

Rats with NTG-induced migraine were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or BTX-A (5 U/kg or 10 U/kg bodyweight). CGRP- and SP-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI and SP-LI) were determined by radioimmunoassay. In clinical trials, sixty patients respectively received BTX-A (2.5 U each site, 25 U per patient) at fixed-sites (group F, n = 30) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercili, temporalis and trapezius or at acupoint-sites (group A, n = 30) including EX-HN3, EX-HN5, GV20, GB8, GB20 and BL10.

Background

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to be effective for the therapy for migraine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of BTX-A on the immunoreactive levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the jugular plasma and medulla oblongata of migraine in rats induced by nitroglycerin (NTG), and then to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-sites and acupoint-sites injection of BTX-A for migraine therapy of patients in a randomly controlled trial extending over four months.

Botulinum Toxin Type A;Nitroglycerin;Randomized Controlled Trial Botulinum Toxin Type A;Nitroglycerin;Randomized Controlled Trial http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7704 Yu-Feng Shao Yu-Feng Shao Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China Yi Zhang Yi Zhang Department of Neurology and Pain Treatment, Gansu Provincial People Hospital, Lanzhou, China Department of Neurology and Pain Treatment, Gansu Provincial People Hospital, Lanzhou, China Peng Zhao Peng Zhao Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Gansu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, China Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Gansu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, China Wen-Jun Yan Wen-Jun Yan Department of Neurology and Pain Treatment, Gansu Provincial People Hospital, Lanzhou, China Department of Neurology and Pain Treatment, Gansu Provincial People Hospital, Lanzhou, China Xiang-Pan Kong Xiang-Pan Kong Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China Lin-Lan Fan Lin-Lan Fan Medical Experimental Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China Medical Experimental Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China Yi-Ping Hou Yi-Ping Hou Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Corresponding Author: Yi-Ping Hou, Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. Tel./Fax: +86-9318915886, E-mail: Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Corresponding Author: Yi-Ping Hou, Department of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. Tel./Fax: +86-9318915886, E-mail:
en 10.5812/ircmj.7842 Effects of Opiate Dependence Through Different Administration Routes on Pulmonary Inflammation and its Severity Effects of Opiate Dependence Through Different Administration Routes on Pulmonary Inflammation and its Severity research-article research-article Conclusions

Administration did not influence the appearance or severity of pulmonary inflammation in animal models addicted to opiate.

Materials and Methods

Our experiments were performed on eighteen adult male Syrian golden hamsters which were allocated to one of the three groups (n = 6): control group which did not receive opiate; the first study group were administered oral opiate via stomach tube; and another study group were administered inhaled opiate. After four weeks, all hamsters were anesthetized with diethyl ether and their lung tissues were isolated for pathological assessment.

Results

Severe perivascular inflammation was detected in 33.3% of the samples with oral opiate dependence and 20% of the cases addicted to opiate through inhalation. Also, severe peribronchial inflammation was observed in only 20% of the samples addicted to inhaled opiate and was not found in the other groups. No significant differences were found in the severity of perivascular and peribronchial inflammation across the three groups. Although the mean of total inflammation scale in the subjects with oral opiate dependence (3.00 ± 1.79) was numerically higher than that in the inhaled dependence group (1.40 ± 2.60) and the controls (2.25 ± 1.26), this difference was not statistically significant.

Background

Serious health problems and socioeconomic consequences of the illicit use of opiates have been proved in both developed and developing societies

Objectives

We aimed to evaluate" The effects of opiate addiction through different administration routes on pulmonary inflammation and its severity".

Conclusions

Administration did not influence the appearance or severity of pulmonary inflammation in animal models addicted to opiate.

Materials and Methods

Our experiments were performed on eighteen adult male Syrian golden hamsters which were allocated to one of the three groups (n = 6): control group which did not receive opiate; the first study group were administered oral opiate via stomach tube; and another study group were administered inhaled opiate. After four weeks, all hamsters were anesthetized with diethyl ether and their lung tissues were isolated for pathological assessment.

Results

Severe perivascular inflammation was detected in 33.3% of the samples with oral opiate dependence and 20% of the cases addicted to opiate through inhalation. Also, severe peribronchial inflammation was observed in only 20% of the samples addicted to inhaled opiate and was not found in the other groups. No significant differences were found in the severity of perivascular and peribronchial inflammation across the three groups. Although the mean of total inflammation scale in the subjects with oral opiate dependence (3.00 ± 1.79) was numerically higher than that in the inhaled dependence group (1.40 ± 2.60) and the controls (2.25 ± 1.26), this difference was not statistically significant.

Background

Serious health problems and socioeconomic consequences of the illicit use of opiates have been proved in both developed and developing societies

Objectives

We aimed to evaluate" The effects of opiate addiction through different administration routes on pulmonary inflammation and its severity".

Opiate Dependence;pulmonary Inflammation;Naloxone Opiate Dependence;pulmonary Inflammation;Naloxone http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7842 Mohammad Masoomi Mohammad Masoomi Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5117332137 Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5117332137 Marzieh Tajoddini Marzieh Tajoddini Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Gholamabbas Mohammadi Gholamabbas Mohammadi Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Reza Malekpoor Reza Malekpoor Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran Cardiology Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.7947 The Effects of Progesterone Therapy on the Gestation Length and Reduction of Neonatal Complications in Patients who had Received Tocolytic Therapy for Acute Phase of Preterm Labor The Effects of Progesterone Therapy on the Gestation Length and Reduction of Neonatal Complications in Patients who had Received Tocolytic Therapy for Acute Phase of Preterm Labor research-article research-article Background

While tocolytic therapy can halt the process of delivery, some patients return before the 37th week of pregnancy with recurrence of preterm labor signs.

Objectives

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of progesterone in the prolonging of gestation and reduction of neonatal complications.

Material and Methods

In a clinical trial in 2010, 110 singleton pregnant women admitted at Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with the diagnosis of preterm labor were divided into three groups: 400 mg/d vaginal progesterone suppositories; 250 mg/w 17-alpha-hydroxyl-progestrone-caproate; and a control group with no additional treatment. After delivery, we assessed the duration between the first phases of labor to the recurrence of preterm labor. The neonatal complications, apgar score, birth weight, need for admission to NICU, and congenital malformations were compared between groups.

Results

The mean gestational age was 34± 3 weeks in the first, 33.5 ± 3 weeks in the second and 32.5 ± 2 weeks in the control group. The duration of first phase of labor was 31 ± 17 days in the first, 36 ± 14 days in the second and 26 ± 22 days in the control group. The difference between study groups and the control group was significant (P < 0.005). The complications were lower in progesterone-receiving group in comparison to the control group.

Discussion

This study reveals that progesterone can significant reduce the rate of recurrent preterm labor and the several possible neonatal complications among women who had treated with tocolytics to suppress the acute phase.

Background

While tocolytic therapy can halt the process of delivery, some patients return before the 37th week of pregnancy with recurrence of preterm labor signs.

Objectives

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of progesterone in the prolonging of gestation and reduction of neonatal complications.

Material and Methods

In a clinical trial in 2010, 110 singleton pregnant women admitted at Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with the diagnosis of preterm labor were divided into three groups: 400 mg/d vaginal progesterone suppositories; 250 mg/w 17-alpha-hydroxyl-progestrone-caproate; and a control group with no additional treatment. After delivery, we assessed the duration between the first phases of labor to the recurrence of preterm labor. The neonatal complications, apgar score, birth weight, need for admission to NICU, and congenital malformations were compared between groups.

Results

The mean gestational age was 34± 3 weeks in the first, 33.5 ± 3 weeks in the second and 32.5 ± 2 weeks in the control group. The duration of first phase of labor was 31 ± 17 days in the first, 36 ± 14 days in the second and 26 ± 22 days in the control group. The difference between study groups and the control group was significant (P < 0.005). The complications were lower in progesterone-receiving group in comparison to the control group.

Discussion

This study reveals that progesterone can significant reduce the rate of recurrent preterm labor and the several possible neonatal complications among women who had treated with tocolytics to suppress the acute phase.

Premature Birth;Progesterone;Gestational Age;Tocolysis;Hydroxyprogesterones;Apgar Score Premature Birth;Progesterone;Gestational Age;Tocolysis;Hydroxyprogesterones;Apgar Score http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7947 Marzie Lotfalizadeh Marzie Lotfalizadeh Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-511-8022608, Fax: +98-511-8525305 Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-511-8022608, Fax: +98-511-8525305 Nayereh Ghomian Nayereh Ghomian Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Amirreza Reihani Amirreza Reihani Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Women Health Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.8011 Epidemiology of Work-Related Injuries Among Construction Workers of Ilam (Western Iran) During 2006 - 2009 Epidemiology of Work-Related Injuries Among Construction Workers of Ilam (Western Iran) During 2006 - 2009 research-article research-article Background

Work-related injuries are the most important cause of work absence, disability, retirement, mutilation, and even mortality. In Iran a great number of work-related injuries are occurred in construction industry. However, less than 12% of total workers are active in the construction sector.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the incidence rate of work-related injuries, the type of injuries, and its other determinants among the construction workers of Ilam (Iran).

Patients and Methods

The participants were the workers and staffs working in the construction activities of Ilam in Western Iran. All the recorded injuries and deaths related to the construction workers of Ilam from 2006-2009 were collected from the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs and then analyzed by the statistical package of SPSS (version 19, for Windows).

Results

During 2006 - 2009 in Ilam, 387workers encountered the building accidents. Their mean age was 34.3 years (SD = 12.4). The average annual incidence of work-related injuries among the workers was 8.2 per 1000 workers. Fracture with 275 cases (71%) was the most common outcome of injuries, and slipping and falling with 77 cases (36%) were the most important events and exposures. The most important factor related to injuries was the lack of surveillance by employers which was also related with the severity of accident-induced injuries (P < 0.004).

Conclusions

Considering the effectiveness of the relevant preventive measures activities such as training the workers as well as using safety tools and more surveillance by employers can decrease the number of work-related injuries among constructive workers.

Background

Work-related injuries are the most important cause of work absence, disability, retirement, mutilation, and even mortality. In Iran a great number of work-related injuries are occurred in construction industry. However, less than 12% of total workers are active in the construction sector.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the incidence rate of work-related injuries, the type of injuries, and its other determinants among the construction workers of Ilam (Iran).

Patients and Methods

The participants were the workers and staffs working in the construction activities of Ilam in Western Iran. All the recorded injuries and deaths related to the construction workers of Ilam from 2006-2009 were collected from the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs and then analyzed by the statistical package of SPSS (version 19, for Windows).

Results

During 2006 - 2009 in Ilam, 387workers encountered the building accidents. Their mean age was 34.3 years (SD = 12.4). The average annual incidence of work-related injuries among the workers was 8.2 per 1000 workers. Fracture with 275 cases (71%) was the most common outcome of injuries, and slipping and falling with 77 cases (36%) were the most important events and exposures. The most important factor related to injuries was the lack of surveillance by employers which was also related with the severity of accident-induced injuries (P < 0.004).

Conclusions

Considering the effectiveness of the relevant preventive measures activities such as training the workers as well as using safety tools and more surveillance by employers can decrease the number of work-related injuries among constructive workers.

Occupational Injury;Incidence;Epidemiology Occupational Injury;Incidence;Epidemiology http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8011 Mehdi Moradinazar Mehdi Moradinazar Imam Khomaini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Imam Khomaini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Nematullah Kurd Nematullah Kurd Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Rozita Farhadi Rozita Farhadi Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Vahid Amee Vahid Amee Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Farid Najafi Farid Najafi Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran; Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9183853465 Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran; Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9183853465
en 10.5812/ircmj.8053 Serotype Distribution and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Streptococcus pneumonia in Iran Serotype Distribution and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of <italic>Streptococcus pneumonia</italic> in Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with multiple resistance needs permanent monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates. We have found that ceftazidime is not a suitable drug for choosing the treatment of pneumococcal infections.

Results

The study showed that three strains (6%) and six strains (12%) indicated intermediate resistance and complete resistance to penicillin, respectively, 58% strains were susceptible to ceftazidime, two ones (4%) indicated resistance to ciprofloxacin, one (2%) indicated intermediate resistance to ceftriaxone , two strains (4%) indicated complete resistance and four (8%) strains indicated resistance to vancomycin.

Material and Methods

A total of fifty Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from Tehran Hospital’s laboratory from 2008 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each strain was determined. to verify the resistant strains and demonstrate the presence of antibiotic resistant genes, the PCR was performed.

Background

The development of antibiotic resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains has caused significant health problems worldwide.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance pattern and serotypes distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical specimens.

Conclusions

The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with multiple resistance needs permanent monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates. We have found that ceftazidime is not a suitable drug for choosing the treatment of pneumococcal infections.

Results

The study showed that three strains (6%) and six strains (12%) indicated intermediate resistance and complete resistance to penicillin, respectively, 58% strains were susceptible to ceftazidime, two ones (4%) indicated resistance to ciprofloxacin, one (2%) indicated intermediate resistance to ceftriaxone , two strains (4%) indicated complete resistance and four (8%) strains indicated resistance to vancomycin.

Material and Methods

A total of fifty Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from Tehran Hospital’s laboratory from 2008 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each strain was determined. to verify the resistant strains and demonstrate the presence of antibiotic resistant genes, the PCR was performed.

Background

The development of antibiotic resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains has caused significant health problems worldwide.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance pattern and serotypes distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical specimens.

Antimicrobial susceptibility;Streptococcus pneumonia;Iran Antimicrobial susceptibility;Streptococcus pneumonia;Iran http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8053 Samira Habibian Samira Habibian Department of Medical Microbiology, Tonokabon Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tonokabon, IR Iran Department of Medical Microbiology, Tonokabon Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tonokabon, IR Iran Ali Mehrabi-Tavana Ali Mehrabi-Tavana Health Management Research Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Management Research Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zyanab Ahmadi Zyanab Ahmadi Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Morteza Izadi Morteza Izadi Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nematolah Jonaidi Nematolah Jonaidi Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Jalalodin Darakhshanpoure Jalalodin Darakhshanpoure Department of Medical Microbiology, Tonokabon Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tonokabon, IR Iran Department of Medical Microbiology, Tonokabon Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tonokabon, IR Iran Mahmode Salesi Mahmode Salesi Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.8221 Identification of Chromosome Abnormalities in Subtelomeric Regions Using Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 Iranian Patients With Idiopathic Mental Retardation Identification of Chromosome Abnormalities in Subtelomeric Regions Using Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 Iranian Patients With Idiopathic Mental Retardation research-article research-article Materials and Methods

A number of 100 patients with IMR, normal karyotypes and negative fragile-X and metabolic tests were screened for subtelomeric abnormalities using MLPA technique.

Results

Nine of 100 patients showed subtelomeric abnormalities with at least one of the two MLPA kits. Deletion in a single region was found in 3 patients, and in two different subtelomeric regions in 1 patient. Duplication was only single and was present in 2 patients. Three patients were found to have both a deletion and duplication.MLPA testing in the parental samples of 7 patients which was accessible showed that 4 patients were de novo, 2 patients had inherited from a clinically normal mother, and one had inherited from a clinically normal father. Screening with the two MLPA kits (SALSA P036 and SALSA P070) proved abnormality in only five of the 9 patients.

Conclusions

So, the prevalence rate of abnormal subtelomeres using MLPA technique in patients with idiopathic MR in our study was 5 - 9%, the higher limit referring to the positive results of one of the two MLPA kits, and the lower limit representing the results of positive double-checking with the two MLPA kits.

Background

Mental retardation/Developmental delay (MR/DD) is present in 1 - 3% of the general population (1, 2). MR is defined as a significant impairment of both cognitive (IQ < 70) and social adaptive functions, with onset before 18 years of age.

Objectives

The purpose was to determine the results of subtelomeric screening by the Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 selected patients with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) in Iran.

Materials and Methods

A number of 100 patients with IMR, normal karyotypes and negative fragile-X and metabolic tests were screened for subtelomeric abnormalities using MLPA technique.

Results

Nine of 100 patients showed subtelomeric abnormalities with at least one of the two MLPA kits. Deletion in a single region was found in 3 patients, and in two different subtelomeric regions in 1 patient. Duplication was only single and was present in 2 patients. Three patients were found to have both a deletion and duplication.MLPA testing in the parental samples of 7 patients which was accessible showed that 4 patients were de novo, 2 patients had inherited from a clinically normal mother, and one had inherited from a clinically normal father. Screening with the two MLPA kits (SALSA P036 and SALSA P070) proved abnormality in only five of the 9 patients.

Conclusions

So, the prevalence rate of abnormal subtelomeres using MLPA technique in patients with idiopathic MR in our study was 5 - 9%, the higher limit referring to the positive results of one of the two MLPA kits, and the lower limit representing the results of positive double-checking with the two MLPA kits.

Background

Mental retardation/Developmental delay (MR/DD) is present in 1 - 3% of the general population (1, 2). MR is defined as a significant impairment of both cognitive (IQ < 70) and social adaptive functions, with onset before 18 years of age.

Objectives

The purpose was to determine the results of subtelomeric screening by the Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 selected patients with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) in Iran.

Ligation;Mental Retardation;Hypersomnolence Idiopathic Ligation;Mental Retardation;Hypersomnolence Idiopathic http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8221 Farkhondeh Behjati Farkhondeh Behjati Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Saghar Ghasemi Firouzabadi Saghar Ghasemi Firouzabadi Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Firoozeh Sajedi Firoozeh Sajedi Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Kimia Kahrizi Kimia Kahrizi Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mostafa Najafi Mostafa Najafi Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behruz Ebrahimizade Ghasemlou Behruz Ebrahimizade Ghasemlou Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Yousef Shafeghati Yousef Shafeghati Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran; Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran; Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemeh Behnia Fatemeh Behnia Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ali Reza Mohammadi Arya Ali Reza Mohammadi Arya University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Karimi Hossein Karimi Zafar Rehabilitation Clinic, Tehran, IR Iran Zafar Rehabilitation Clinic, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemeh Hadipour Fatemeh Hadipour Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Zahra Hadipour Zahra Hadipour Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Peyman Jamali Peyman Jamali Shahroud Welfare Organization, Shahroud, IR Iran Shahroud Welfare Organization, Shahroud, IR Iran Roxana Kariminejad Roxana Kariminejad Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, IR Iran Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Darvish Hossein Darvish Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ideh Bahman Ideh Bahman Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Eiman Bagherizadeh Eiman Bagherizadeh Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Sarem Cell Research Center, Sarem Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Hossein Najmabadi Hossein Najmabadi Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Roshanak Vameghi Roshanak Vameghi Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +9821-22180099 Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +9821-22180099
en 10.5812/ircmj.8303 Epidemiological Investigation of Osteoarthritis in Middle-Aged Mongolian and Senior Residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Epidemiological Investigation of Osteoarthritis in Middle-Aged Mongolian and Senior Residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region research-article research-article Objectives

Thereby the prevalence, distribution characteristics and correlative factors of OA in Mongolian middle-aged and senior residents in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region were investigated in this study.

Materials and Methods

Rural and urban residents in Hohhot, Baotou and Erdos were selected using stratified, multi-stage and cluster random sampling. 2000 residents aging over 45 filled out questionnaires, underwent specialized physical and X-ray examinations. The factors affecting OA were analyzed by the multivariate unconditional logistic regression.

Results

Obtained total of 1877 questionnaires were completed. 93% of the residents were unaware of OA-related issues. The prevalence of radiological OA and clinical OA (neck OA: 36.72%; waist OA: 44.02%; knee OA: 12.43%; hand OA: 6.83%) were 62.17% and 56.15%, respectively. Urban residents were more subjected to cervical spine (χ2 = 8.92, P = 0.005) and less to lumbar spine disease (χ2 = 10.32, P = 0.004) compared to rural ones. The prevalence of OA in knees and hands of females (χ2 = 8.65, P = 0.003) was significantly higher than males (χ2=4.37, P=0.042). The prevalence of OA in postmenopausal females was slightly higher than males (χ2 = 3.86, P = 0.052), with no statically significant difference. The risks of OA obviously increased with age. The residents with hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis were more subjected to OA.

Conclusions

The prevalence of OA in Mongolian middle-aged and senior residents in part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region was similar to the other ethnic groups. The prevalence of OA was affected by age, gender, location, hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The residents need further educations about OA prevention and treatment.

Background

To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of osteoarthritis (OA) in Mongolian middle-aged and senior residents of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, compared with the prevalence of OA in different regions, to understand the OA-associated factors and provide theoretical evidences for intervention and prevention.

Objectives

Thereby the prevalence, distribution characteristics and correlative factors of OA in Mongolian middle-aged and senior residents in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region were investigated in this study.

Materials and Methods

Rural and urban residents in Hohhot, Baotou and Erdos were selected using stratified, multi-stage and cluster random sampling. 2000 residents aging over 45 filled out questionnaires, underwent specialized physical and X-ray examinations. The factors affecting OA were analyzed by the multivariate unconditional logistic regression.

Results

Obtained total of 1877 questionnaires were completed. 93% of the residents were unaware of OA-related issues. The prevalence of radiological OA and clinical OA (neck OA: 36.72%; waist OA: 44.02%; knee OA: 12.43%; hand OA: 6.83%) were 62.17% and 56.15%, respectively. Urban residents were more subjected to cervical spine (χ2 = 8.92, P = 0.005) and less to lumbar spine disease (χ2 = 10.32, P = 0.004) compared to rural ones. The prevalence of OA in knees and hands of females (χ2 = 8.65, P = 0.003) was significantly higher than males (χ2=4.37, P=0.042). The prevalence of OA in postmenopausal females was slightly higher than males (χ2 = 3.86, P = 0.052), with no statically significant difference. The risks of OA obviously increased with age. The residents with hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis were more subjected to OA.

Conclusions

The prevalence of OA in Mongolian middle-aged and senior residents in part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region was similar to the other ethnic groups. The prevalence of OA was affected by age, gender, location, hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The residents need further educations about OA prevention and treatment.

Background

To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of osteoarthritis (OA) in Mongolian middle-aged and senior residents of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, compared with the prevalence of OA in different regions, to understand the OA-associated factors and provide theoretical evidences for intervention and prevention.

Osteoarthritis;Physical Examination;Hypertension Osteoarthritis;Physical Examination;Hypertension http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8303 Yuewen Wang Yuewen Wang Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China Rui Peng Rui Peng Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China Ruilian Ma Ruilian Ma Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China; Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China. Tel/Fax: +86-4716636812 Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China; Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China. Tel/Fax: +86-4716636812
en 10.5812/ircmj.4414 Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers.

Results

The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01).

Patients and Methods

In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses.

Objectives

Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more.

Background

The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province.

Conclusions

In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers.

Results

The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01).

Patients and Methods

In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses.

Objectives

Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more.

Background

The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province.

Contraception;Community Health Center;Pregnancy Unplanned Contraception;Community Health Center;Pregnancy Unplanned http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4414 Sedighe Nouhjah Sedighe Nouhjah Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-6113914501 Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-6113914501 Elham Amiri Elham Amiri Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Azim Khodai Azim Khodai Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Azar Yazdanpanah Azar Yazdanpanah Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.4725 The Impact of Implementing Operational Crisis Management Plan in Educational Hospital The Impact of Implementing Operational Crisis Management Plan in Educational Hospital letter letter Hospitals; Crisis Intervention; Disasters Hospitals; Crisis Intervention; Disasters http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4725 Mohamad Mahbobi Mohamad Mahbobi Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Shahnaze Ojaghi Shahnaze Ojaghi Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Mansur Rezayi Mansur Rezayi Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Elahe Khorasani Elahe Khorasani Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran.; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9135562065 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran.; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9135562065
en 10.5812/ircmj.5225 The Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Hemodialysis Patients The Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Hemodialysis Patients letter letter Kidney Failure, Chronic;Renal Dialysis;Toxoplasma Kidney Failure, Chronic;Renal Dialysis;Toxoplasma http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5225 Masomeh Bayani Masomeh Bayani Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Amrollah Mostafazadeh Amrollah Mostafazadeh Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Farsheed Oliaee Farsheed Oliaee Department of Internal Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Department of Internal Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Narges Kalantari Narges Kalantari Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-1112234274 Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-1112234274
en 10.5812/ircmj.8436 A Theoretical Approach to Electronic Prescription System: Lesson Learned from Literature Review A Theoretical Approach to Electronic Prescription System: Lesson Learned from Literature Review review-article review-article Conclusions

The sophistication of electronic prescription and integration with EHR will become a reality, if all its stakeholders collaborate in developing fast and secure electronic prescription systems. It is plausible that the required infrastructure should be provided for implementation of the national integrated electronic prescription systems in countries without the system. Given the barriers to the implementation and use, policymakers should consider multiple strategies and offer incentives to encourage e-prescription initiatives. This will result in widespread adoption of the system.

Context

The tendency to use advanced technology in healthcare and the governmental policies have put forward electronic prescription. Electronic prescription is considered as the main solution to overcome the major drawbacks of the paper-based medication prescription, such as transcription errors. This study aims to provide practical information concerning electronic prescription system to a variety of stakeholders.

Evidence Acquisition

In this review study, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE databases, Iranian National Library Of Medicine (INLM) portal, Google Scholar, Google and Yahoo were searched for relevant English publications concerning the problems of paper-based prescription, and concept, features, levels, benefits, stakeholders and standards of electronic prescription system.

Results

There are many problems with the paper prescription system which, according to studies have jeopardized patients’ safety and negatively affected the outcomes of medication therapy. All of these problems are remedied through the implementation of e-prescriptions.

Conclusions

The sophistication of electronic prescription and integration with EHR will become a reality, if all its stakeholders collaborate in developing fast and secure electronic prescription systems. It is plausible that the required infrastructure should be provided for implementation of the national integrated electronic prescription systems in countries without the system. Given the barriers to the implementation and use, policymakers should consider multiple strategies and offer incentives to encourage e-prescription initiatives. This will result in widespread adoption of the system.

Context

The tendency to use advanced technology in healthcare and the governmental policies have put forward electronic prescription. Electronic prescription is considered as the main solution to overcome the major drawbacks of the paper-based medication prescription, such as transcription errors. This study aims to provide practical information concerning electronic prescription system to a variety of stakeholders.

Evidence Acquisition

In this review study, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE databases, Iranian National Library Of Medicine (INLM) portal, Google Scholar, Google and Yahoo were searched for relevant English publications concerning the problems of paper-based prescription, and concept, features, levels, benefits, stakeholders and standards of electronic prescription system.

Results

There are many problems with the paper prescription system which, according to studies have jeopardized patients’ safety and negatively affected the outcomes of medication therapy. All of these problems are remedied through the implementation of e-prescriptions.

Electronic Prescribing;Utilization;Standards Electronic Prescribing;Utilization;Standards http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8436 Mahnaz Samadbeik Mahnaz Samadbeik Department of Health Information Management, Institute of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Information Technology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoramabad, IR Iran Department of Health Information Management, Institute of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Information Technology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoramabad, IR Iran Maryam Ahmadi Maryam Ahmadi Department of Health Information Management, Institute of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Information Management, Institute of Health Management and Information Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188793805, Fax: +9821-88883334 Department of Health Information Management, Institute of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Information Management, Institute of Health Management and Information Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188793805, Fax: +9821-88883334 Seyed Masoud Hosseini Asanjan Seyed Masoud Hosseini Asanjan Department of Medical Informatics. Institute of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Informatics. Institute of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ircmj.13805 Comparison of Alpha Blockers in Treatment of Premature Ejaculation: A Pilot Clinical Trial Comparison of Alpha Blockers in Treatment of Premature Ejaculation: A Pilot Clinical Trial research-article research-article Background:

Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder in men and studies reported prevalence up to 30% (1, 2). PE is not a life-threatening medical condition but it influences the quality of life (QoL).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency, and safety of alpha blocker drugs in the treatment of patients with premature ejaculation (PE). Additionally we investigated the quality of life (QoL) in patients with PE who were treated with alpha blocker drugs.

Materials and Methods

This study was a pilot clinical trial. Prospectively documented 108 patients with PE were treated and were followed-up in urology outpatient clinic. All patients were divided into 5 groups according to used alpha blocker agents which were determined by simple randomization. Silodosin 4mg (Group 1, n = 21), tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4mg (Group 2, n = 23), alfuzosin 10mg (Group 3, n = 22), terazosin 5mg (Group 4, n = 21), doksazosin mesylate 4mg (Group5, n = 21), were used for treatment. The demographic parameters of patients, pre and post treatment intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), PE Profile (PEP), and QoL index were recorded and evaluated. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by measuring IELT. Additionally, side effects of drugs were recorded. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Conclusions

Silodosin seems to be able to even more prevent PE. Silodosin may provide development in QoL than other alpha blocker agents. Additionally, lower systemic adverse events and more effectivity are the prominent features of silodosin in PE.This study was a pilot clinical trial. Prospectively documented 108 patients with PE were treated and were followed-up in urology outpatient clinic. All patients were divided into 5 groups according to used alpha blocker agents which were determined by simple randomization. Silodosin 4mg (Group 1, n = 21), tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4mg (Group 2, n = 23), alfuzosin 10mg (Group 3, n = 22), terazosin 5mg (Group 4, n = 21), doksazosin mesylate 4mg (Group5, n = 21), were used for treatment. The demographic parameters of patients, pre and post treatment intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), PE Profile (PEP), and QoL index were recorded and evaluated. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by measuring IELT. Additionally, side effects of drugs were recorded. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

All alpha blocker drugs were statistically effective for preventing PE. Notably, silodosin seemed to be more effective for preventing PE than other alpha blockers (P < 0.05). However all alpha blockers provided development in QoL scores, silodosin was a little better than other drugs in statistical analyses. Furthermore statistical increase in IELT and decrease in PEP were provided more in Group 1 than other groups (P < 0.05).

Background:

Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder in men and studies reported prevalence up to 30% (1, 2). PE is not a life-threatening medical condition but it influences the quality of life (QoL).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency, and safety of alpha blocker drugs in the treatment of patients with premature ejaculation (PE). Additionally we investigated the quality of life (QoL) in patients with PE who were treated with alpha blocker drugs.

Materials and Methods

This study was a pilot clinical trial. Prospectively documented 108 patients with PE were treated and were followed-up in urology outpatient clinic. All patients were divided into 5 groups according to used alpha blocker agents which were determined by simple randomization. Silodosin 4mg (Group 1, n = 21), tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4mg (Group 2, n = 23), alfuzosin 10mg (Group 3, n = 22), terazosin 5mg (Group 4, n = 21), doksazosin mesylate 4mg (Group5, n = 21), were used for treatment. The demographic parameters of patients, pre and post treatment intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), PE Profile (PEP), and QoL index were recorded and evaluated. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by measuring IELT. Additionally, side effects of drugs were recorded. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Conclusions

Silodosin seems to be able to even more prevent PE. Silodosin may provide development in QoL than other alpha blocker agents. Additionally, lower systemic adverse events and more effectivity are the prominent features of silodosin in PE.This study was a pilot clinical trial. Prospectively documented 108 patients with PE were treated and were followed-up in urology outpatient clinic. All patients were divided into 5 groups according to used alpha blocker agents which were determined by simple randomization. Silodosin 4mg (Group 1, n = 21), tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4mg (Group 2, n = 23), alfuzosin 10mg (Group 3, n = 22), terazosin 5mg (Group 4, n = 21), doksazosin mesylate 4mg (Group5, n = 21), were used for treatment. The demographic parameters of patients, pre and post treatment intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), PE Profile (PEP), and QoL index were recorded and evaluated. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by measuring IELT. Additionally, side effects of drugs were recorded. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

All alpha blocker drugs were statistically effective for preventing PE. Notably, silodosin seemed to be more effective for preventing PE than other alpha blockers (P < 0.05). However all alpha blockers provided development in QoL scores, silodosin was a little better than other drugs in statistical analyses. Furthermore statistical increase in IELT and decrease in PEP were provided more in Group 1 than other groups (P < 0.05).

Premature Ejaculation;Quality of Life;Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Premature Ejaculation;Quality of Life;Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13805 Yigit Akin Yigit Akin Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Sanliurfa, Turkey; Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, 63100, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Tel: +90-5065334999, Fax: +90-4462161819 Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Sanliurfa, Turkey; Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, 63100, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Tel: +90-5065334999, Fax: +90-4462161819 Hakan Gulmez Hakan Gulmez Department of Family Medicine, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey Department of Family Medicine, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey Mutlu Ates Mutlu Ates Department of Urology, Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey Department of Urology, Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey Aliseydi Bozkurt Aliseydi Bozkurt Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Sanliurfa, Turkey Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Sanliurfa, Turkey Baris Nuhoglu Baris Nuhoglu Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Sanliurfa, Turkey Harran University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Sanliurfa, Turkey
en 10.5812/ircmj.10536 Evaluation of Orthodontic Treatment Needs Using the Dental Aesthetic Index in Iranian Students Evaluation of Orthodontic Treatment Needs Using the Dental Aesthetic Index in Iranian Students research-article research-article Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the need for orthodontic treatment on the basis of the dental aesthetic index (DAI) in the Iranian students of Ahvaz city.

Material and Methods

This cross sectional study was performed on 900 students aged between 11 - 14 years (450 boys, 450 girls). Schools were selected based on random cluster sampling from different parts of the city. Students\ who had or were having orthodontic treatment including those on interceptive orthodontics, were excluded from the study. Two questionnaires were used; the first one included different DAI criteria, and the second one included two questions about orthodontic treatment need and satisfaction of personal dental appearance. The results were analyzed by Chi-Square and T test.

Conclusion

In comparison to other studies, the students in Iran (Ahvaz) have a better dental appearance and less need for orthodontic treatment. Significantly positive correlations were found between the DAI and satisfaction of dental appearance, orthodontic treatment need and student’s perception.

Results

In 70.9% of the students, DAI score was 13 - 25, 19.2% of the samples had a DAI score of 26 - 30, the DAI score of 7.8% was 31 - 35, and in 2.1% the DAI score was greater than 35. The association between the DAI score and sex was not statistically significant (P = 0.778). In relation to orthodontic treatment need, 44.8% of students answered positively, while in 55.2% the answer was negative. In relation to satisfaction with appearance, 21% of the students were satisfied with their appearance, 59% were relatively satisfied, and 19.9% were not satisfied with their appearance. The association between DAI score and the need for orthodontic treatment and satisfaction of dental appearance was significant (P = 0.000).

Background

In the contemporary orthodontics, the number of people who demand orthodontic treatment to improve their psychosocial issues related to facial esthetic is constantly increasing. Even in treatment plans, appearance and esthetic gain more attention.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the need for orthodontic treatment on the basis of the dental aesthetic index (DAI) in the Iranian students of Ahvaz city.

Material and Methods

This cross sectional study was performed on 900 students aged between 11 - 14 years (450 boys, 450 girls). Schools were selected based on random cluster sampling from different parts of the city. Students\ who had or were having orthodontic treatment including those on interceptive orthodontics, were excluded from the study. Two questionnaires were used; the first one included different DAI criteria, and the second one included two questions about orthodontic treatment need and satisfaction of personal dental appearance. The results were analyzed by Chi-Square and T test.

Conclusion

In comparison to other studies, the students in Iran (Ahvaz) have a better dental appearance and less need for orthodontic treatment. Significantly positive correlations were found between the DAI and satisfaction of dental appearance, orthodontic treatment need and student’s perception.

Results

In 70.9% of the students, DAI score was 13 - 25, 19.2% of the samples had a DAI score of 26 - 30, the DAI score of 7.8% was 31 - 35, and in 2.1% the DAI score was greater than 35. The association between the DAI score and sex was not statistically significant (P = 0.778). In relation to orthodontic treatment need, 44.8% of students answered positively, while in 55.2% the answer was negative. In relation to satisfaction with appearance, 21% of the students were satisfied with their appearance, 59% were relatively satisfied, and 19.9% were not satisfied with their appearance. The association between DAI score and the need for orthodontic treatment and satisfaction of dental appearance was significant (P = 0.000).

Background

In the contemporary orthodontics, the number of people who demand orthodontic treatment to improve their psychosocial issues related to facial esthetic is constantly increasing. Even in treatment plans, appearance and esthetic gain more attention.

Malocclusion;Orthodontic Treatment;Esthetic Dental Malocclusion;Orthodontic Treatment;Esthetic Dental http://www.ircmj.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10536 Mashallah Khanehmasjedi Mashallah Khanehmasjedi Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Department of orthodontics, Dental School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-6113345240, Fax: +98-6113334366 Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Department of orthodontics, Dental School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-6113345240, Fax: +98-6113334366 Leila Bassir Leila Bassir Department of Pedodontics, Dental School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Pedodontics, Dental School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mohammad Hossein Haghighizade Mohammad Hossein Haghighizade Department of Biostatistics, Health school, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Health school, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran